Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22271

Search results for: correlation analysis

22271 Modeling and Statistical Analysis of a Soap Production Mix in Bejoy Manufacturing Industry, Anambra State, Nigeria

Authors: Okolie Chukwulozie Paul, Iwenofu Chinwe Onyedika, Sinebe Jude Ebieladoh, M. C. Nwosu

Abstract:

The research work is based on the statistical analysis of the processing data. The essence is to analyze the data statistically and to generate a design model for the production mix of soap manufacturing products in Bejoy manufacturing company Nkpologwu, Aguata Local Government Area, Anambra state, Nigeria. The statistical analysis shows the statistical analysis and the correlation of the data. T test, Partial correlation and bi-variate correlation were used to understand what the data portrays. The design model developed was used to model the data production yield and the correlation of the variables show that the R2 is 98.7%. However, the results confirm that the data is fit for further analysis and modeling. This was proved by the correlation and the R-squared.

Keywords: General Linear Model, correlation, variables, pearson, significance, T-test, soap, production mix and statistic

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22270 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin

Abstract:

This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, "first-glance" correlation statistics.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation, correlation curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
22269 Effect of Correlation of Random Variables on Structural Reliability Index

Authors: Agnieszka Dudzik

Abstract:

The problem of correlation between random variables in the structural reliability analysis has been extensively discussed in literature on the subject. The cases taken under consideration were usually related to correlation between random variables from one side of ultimate limit state: correlation between particular loads applied on structure or correlation between resistance of particular members of a structure as a system. It has been proved that positive correlation between these random variables reduces the reliability of structure and increases the probability of failure. In the paper, the problem of correlation between random variables from both side of the limit state equation will be taken under consideration. The simplest case where these random variables are of the normal distributions will be concerned. The case when a degree of that correlation is described by the covariance or the coefficient of correlation will be used. Special attention will be paid on questions: how much that correlation changes the reliability level and can it be ignored. In reliability analysis will be used well-known methods for assessment of the failure probability: based on the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and Monte Carlo method adapted to the problem of correlation. The main purpose of this work will be a presentation how correlation of random variables influence on reliability index of steel bar structures. Structural design parameters will be defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter will be correlated. The criterion of structural failure will be expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate and serviceability limit state. In the description of random variables will be used only for the normal distribution. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables will be defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable X will be low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations, it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. In the examples, the NUMPRESS software will be used in the reliability analysis.

Keywords: correlation of random variables, reliability index, sensitivity of reliability index, steel structure

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22268 Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion

Authors: Eunseop Yeom

Abstract:

Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.

Keywords: platelet activation, correlation coefficient, image analysis, shear rate

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22267 On the Analysis of Pseudorandom Partial Quotient Sequences Generated from Continued Fractions

Authors: T. Padma, Jayashree S. Pillai

Abstract:

Random entities are an essential component in any cryptographic application. The suitability of a number theory based novel pseudorandom sequence called Pseudorandom Partial Quotient Sequence (PPQS) generated from the continued fraction expansion of irrational numbers, in cryptographic applications, is analyzed in this paper. An approach to build the algorithm around a hard mathematical problem has been considered. The PQ sequence is tested for randomness and its suitability as a cryptographic key by performing randomness analysis, key sensitivity and key space analysis, precision analysis and evaluating the correlation properties is established.

Keywords: pseudorandom sequences, key sensitivity, correlation, security analysis, randomness analysis, sensitivity analysis

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22266 Rumination in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Mara J. Richman, Zsolt Unoka, Robert Dudas, Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract:

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by deficits in emotion regulation and effective liability. Of this domain, ruminative behaviors have been considered a core feature of emotion dysregulation difficulties. Taking this into consideration, a meta-analysis was performed to assess how BPD symptoms correlate with rumination, while also considering clinical moderator variables such as comorbidity, GAF score, and type of BPD symptom and demographic moderator variables such as age, gender, and education level. Analysis of correlation across rumination domains for the entire sample revealed a medium overall correlation. When assessing types of rumination, the largest correlation was among pain rumination followed by anger, depressive, and anxious rumination. Furthermore, affective instability had the strongest correlation with increased rumination, followed by unstable relationships, identity disturbance, and self-harm/ impulsivity, respectively. Demographic variables showed no significance. Clinical implications are considered and further therapeutic interventions are discussed in the context of rumination.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, meta-analysis, rumination, symptoms

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22265 Finite Difference Based Probabilistic Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of Correlation Length on Long-Term Settlement of Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

Probabilistic analysis has become one of the most popular methods to quantify and manage geotechnical risks due to the spatial variability of soil input parameters. The correlation length is one of the key factors of quantifying spatial variability of soil parameters which is defined as a distance within which the random variables are correlated strongly. This paper aims to assess the impact of correlation length on the long-term settlement of soft soils improved with preloading. The concept of 'worst-case' spatial correlation length was evaluated by determining the probability of failure of a real case study of Vasby test fill. For this purpose, a finite difference code was developed based on axisymmetric consolidation equations incorporating the non-linear elastic visco-plastic model and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion method. The results show that correlation length has a significant impact on the post-construction settlement of soft soils in a way that by increasing correlation length, probability of failure increases and the approach to asymptote.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, probability of failure, soft soil settlement, 'worst case' spatial correlation length

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22264 Correlation of the Biometric Parameters of Eggs

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Lariouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation ship between different pheasant external egg quality traits. A total of 938 eggs were collected. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), volume (cm3), shape index egg, surface area and water loss were measured. The overall mean values obtained for the different variables are respectively 29.2 ± 2,24, 43.01 ± 1,84, 34.05 ± 1,44, 25.63 ± 2.88 cm3, 79.00 ± 3%, 68% and 13%. Concerning studied regressions, it was considered only the most important regressions. Those that show significant links between the different parameters studied. The ANOVA procedure was applied to estimate correlations for the examined traits. The weights of the eggs being observed before incubation and before hatching are linearly correlated with a positive correlation coefficient of order 0.75. Egg length and the weight before incubation had a good and positive correlation with a coefficient r = 0.6. However, density had high and negative correlations with egg height r = -0.78. Shape index had a good linear and negative r= - 0.71 correlation with water loss.

Keywords: correlation, egg, morphometry of eggs, analysis of variance

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22263 A Correlation Analysis of an Effective Music Education with Students’ Mathematical Performance

Authors: Yoon Suh Song

Abstract:

Though music education can broaden one’s capacity for mathematical performance, many countries lag behind in music education. Little empirical evidence is found to identify the connection between math and music. Therefore, this research was set out to explore what music-related variables are associated with mathematical performance. The result of our analysis is as follows: A Pearson's Correlation analysis revealed that PISA math score is strongly correlated with students' Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This lays the foundation for further research as to what factors in students’ IQ lead to a better performance in math.

Keywords: music education, mathematical performance, education, IQ

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22262 Correlation between Electromyographic and Textural Parameters for Different Textured Indian Foods Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: S. Rustagi, N. S. Sodhi, B. Dhillon, T. Kaur

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to check whether there is any relationship between electromyographic (EMG) and textural parameters during food texture evaluation. In this study, a total of eighteen mastication variables were measured for entire mastication, per chew mastication and three different stages of mastication (viz. early, middle and late) by EMG for five different foods using eight human subjects. Cluster analysis was used to reduce the number of mastication variables from 18 to 5, so that principal component analysis (PCA) could be applied on them. The PCA further resulted in two meaningful principal components. The principal component scores for each food were measured and correlated with five textural parameters (viz. hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness). Correlation coefficients were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.10) for cohesiveness and adhesiveness while if we reduce the significance level (p < 0.20) then chewiness also showed correlation with mastication parameters.

Keywords: electromyography, mastication, sensory, texture

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22261 Statistical Relation Between Vegetation Cover and Land Surface Temperature in Phnom Penh City

Authors: Gulam Mohiuddin, Jan-Peter Mund

Abstract:

This study assessed the correlation between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Phnom Penh City (Cambodia) within 2016-2020. Understanding the LST and NDVI can be helpful to understand the Urban Heat Island (UHI) scenario, and it can contribute to planning urban greening and combating the effects of UHI. The relation between NDVI and LST is a well-studied topic, and some studies focused on statistical analysis. Even though previous studies found a negative correlation between NDVI and LST, they could not agree on the magnitude of this relationship. The existing relevant studies produced a wide range of correlation coefficients (ranged from -0.18 to -0.78) depending on the sampling and analysis techniques. This study has implemented an approach that provides an alternative to the sampling-based statistical analysis and hence, a fresh look at the subject matter. The study used Landsat-8 images as the data for analysis. They have 100m spatial resolution (per pixel) in the thermal band. The current study is unique as it used an approach for the statistical analysis that considers every pixel from the study area instead of taking a few sample points or analyzing descriptive statistics. Also, this is the first study on this study area (Phnom Penh) examining the correlation between NDVI and LST with a spatially explicit approach. The study found a strong negative correlation between NDVI and LST (coefficient range -0.56 to -0.59), and this relationship is linear. This study showed a way to avoid the probable error from the sample-based approach in examining two spatial variables. The method is reproducible for a similar type of analysis on the correlation between spatial phenomena. The findings of this study will be used further to understand the causation behind land surface temperature change in that area triangulating LST, NDVI, and land-use changes.

Keywords: land surface temperature, NDVI, remote sensing, methodological development

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22260 Analysis of Attention to the Confucius Institute from Domestic and Foreign Mainstream Media

Authors: Wei Yang, Xiaohui Cui, Weiping Zhu, Liqun Liu

Abstract:

The rapid development of the Confucius Institute is attracting more and more attention from mainstream media around the world. Mainstream media plays a large role in public information dissemination and public opinion. This study presents efforts to analyze the correlation and functional relationship between domestic and foreign mainstream media by analyzing the amount of reports on the Confucius Institute. Three kinds of correlation calculation methods, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC), and the Kendall rank correlation coefficient (KCC), were applied to analyze the correlations among mainstream media from three regions: mainland of China; Hong Kong and Macao (the two special administration regions of China denoted as SARs); and overseas countries excluding China, such as the United States, England, and Canada. Further, the paper measures the functional relationships among the regions using a regression model. The experimental analyses found high correlations among mainstream media from the different regions. Additionally, we found that there is a linear relationship between the mainstream media of overseas countries and those of the SARs by analyzing the amount of reports on the Confucius Institute based on a data set obtained by crawling the websites of 106 mainstream media during the years 2004 to 2014.

Keywords: mainstream media, Confucius institute, correlation analysis, regression model

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
22259 An Analysis of the Relation between Need for Psychological Help and Psychological Symptoms

Authors: İsmail Ay

Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to determine the relations between need for psychological help and psychological symptoms. The sample of the study consists of 530 university students getting educated in University of Atatürk in 2015-2016 academic years. Need for Psychological Help Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory were used to collect data in the study. In data analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation model with latent variables were used. Normality and homogeneity analyses were used to analyze the basic conditions of parametric tests. The findings obtained from the study show that as the psychological symptoms increase, need for psychological help also increases. The findings obtained through the study were approached according to the literature.

Keywords: psychological symptoms, need for psychological help, structural equation model, correlation

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22258 The Correlation between Body Composition and Spinal Alignment in Healthy Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Ismail Saracoglu, Emrah Afsar, Eda O. Okur, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Although it is thought that abdominal adiposity is one of the risk factor for postural deviation, such as increased lumbar lordosis, the body mass index is not sufficient to indicate effects of abdominal adiposity on spinal alignment and postural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation with detailed body composition and spine alignment in healthy young adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with sixty seven healthy volunteers (37 men and 30 women) whose ages ranged between 19 and 27 years. All participants’ sagittal spinal curvatures of lumbar and thoracic region were measured via Spinal mouse® (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland). Also, body composition analysis (whole body fat ratio, whole body muscle ratio, abdominal fat ratio, and trunk muscle ratio) estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance was evaluated via Tanita Bc 418 Ma Segmental Body Composition Analyser (Tanita, Japan). Pearson’s correlation was used to analysis among the variables. The mean lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angles were 21.02°±9.39, 41.50°±7.97, respectively. Statistically analysis showed a significant positive correlation between whole body fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.28, p=0.02). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between abdominal fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.27, p=0.03). The thoracic kyphosis angle showed also positive correlation with whole body fat ratio (r=0.33, p=0.00) and abdominal fat ratio (r=0.40, p=0.01). The whole body muscle ratio showed negative correlation between lumbar lordosis (r=-0.28, p=0.02) and thoracic kyphosis angles (r=-0.33, p=0.00), although there was no statistically correlation between trunk muscle ratio, lumbar and thoracic curvatures (p>0.05). The study demonstrated that an increase of fat ratio and decrease of muscle ratio in abdominal region or whole body shifts the spinal alignment which may adversely affect the spinal loading. Therefore, whole body composition should be taken into account in spine rehabilitation.

Keywords: body composition, lumbar lordosis, spinal alignment, thoracic kyphosis

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22257 HPTLC Metabolite Fingerprinting of Artocarpus champeden Stembark from Several Different Locations in Indonesia and Correlation with Antimalarial Activity

Authors: Imam Taufik, Hilkatul Ilmi, Puryani, Mochammad Yuwono, Aty Widyawaruyanti

Abstract:

Artocarpus champeden Spreng stembark (Moraceae) in Indonesia well known as ‘cempedak’ had been traditionally used for malarial remedies. The difference of growth locations could cause the difference of metabolite profiling. As a consequence, there were difference antimalarial activities in spite of the same plants. The aim of this research was to obtain the profile of metabolites that contained in A. champeden stembark from different locations in Indonesia for authentication and quality control purpose of this extract. The profiling had been performed by HPTLC-Densitometry technique and antimalarial activity had been also determined by HRP2-ELISA technique. The correlation between metabolite fingerprinting and antimalarial activity had been analyzed by Principle Component Analysis, Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and Partial Least Square. As a result, there is correlation between the difference metabolite fingerprinting and antimalarial activity from several different growth locations.

Keywords: antimalarial, artocarpus champeden spreng, metabolite fingerprinting, multivariate analysis

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22256 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: body composition, body mass index, physical activity, university student

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22255 Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability

Authors: S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Chen

Abstract:

Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.

Keywords: failure probability, FRP, reliability, statistical correlation

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22254 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: balance, body composition, body mass, young adults

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22253 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani

Abstract:

Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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22252 Zero Cross-Correlation Codes Based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design: Performance Analysis and Applications

Authors: Garadi Ahmed, Boubakar S. Bouazza

Abstract:

The Zero Cross-Correlation (C, w) code is a family of binary sequences of length C and constant Hamming-weight, the cross correlation between any two sequences equal zero. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of ZCC code based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system using direct detection. The BER obtained is better than 10-9 for five simultaneous users.

Keywords: spectral amplitude coding-optical code-division-multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA), phase induced intensity noise (PIIN), balanced incomplete block design (BIBD), zero cross-correlation (ZCC)

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22251 The Business of American Football: The Kicker Position and Performance to Salary Correlation

Authors: James R. Ogden, Denise T. Ogden

Abstract:

The National Football League (USA) is the largest sporting business in the United States. In order to generate revenue, it is important that NFL teams win. Coaches, owners and general managers of the NFL teams want to create powerful teams with reliable players and they are willing to spend large amounts of money in order to do so. This research looks at one of the National Football League’s key players, the kicker. It would be intuitively obvious to suggest that those kickers who perform the best get paid the most. In this paper the researchers performed a correlation and regression analysis to determine if there is a correlation between an NFL kicker’s field goal percentage and salary. The research proposition was that higher performing kickers receive higher salaries. The data suggest that there is no correlation between salary and on-field performance.

Keywords: business management, sports marketing, tourism, American football

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22250 Household Size and Poverty Rate: Evidence from Nepal

Authors: Basan Shrestha

Abstract:

The relationship between the household size and the poverty is not well understood. Malthus followers advocate that the increasing population add pressure to the dwindling resource base due to increasing demand that would lead to poverty. Others claim that bigger households are richer due to availability of household labour for income generation activities. Facts from Nepal were analyzed to examine the relationship between the household size and poverty rate. The analysis of data from 3,968 Village Development Committee (VDC)/ municipality (MP) located in 75 districts of all five development regions revealed that the average household size had moderate positive correlation with the poverty rate (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.44). In a regression analysis, the household size determined 20% of the variation in the poverty rate. Higher positive correlation was observed in eastern Nepal (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.66). The regression analysis showed that the household size determined 43% of the variation in the poverty rate in east. The relation was poor in far-west. It could be because higher incidence of poverty was there irrespective of household size. Overall, the facts revealed that the bigger households were relatively poorer. With the increasing level of awareness and interventions for family planning, it is anticipated that the household size will decrease leading to the decreased poverty rate. In addition, the government needs to devise a mechanism to create employment opportunities for the household labour force to reduce poverty.

Keywords: household size, poverty rate, nepal, regional development

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22249 Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Genotypes, in modern method of Agriculture, using correlation and path coefficient Analyses

Authors: T. S. Bubuche, L. Abubakar, N.D. Ibrahim, A. A. Aliero, H. M. Sama, B. S. Haliru

Abstract:

A two-year study was conducted at the Fadama farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Correlations and path coefficients analysis were used to determine the interrelationship and importance of various characters as components of yield in sugarcane during 20011-012 and 2012-013 growing seasons. Fourteen sugarcane hybrids and a local check were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Significant and positive correlation were recorded between total cane weight/ha and single stalk weight, between single stalk weight and final brix and between stalk girth and stalk length while final brix and number of milliable cane/ha recorded no significant correlation. Traits that had high direct contribution to the final yield were number of stalk/stool, number of milliable cane/ha, single stalk weight and brix content while high indirect positive contributions were observed in growth habit, number of internode per stalk and stalk length..

Keywords: correlation, path analysis, sugarcane, yield components

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22248 Spatial and Geostatistical Analysis of Surficial Soils of the Contiguous United States

Authors: Rachel Hetherington, Chad Deering, Ann Maclean, Snehamoy Chatterjee

Abstract:

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a soil survey and subsequent mineralogical and geochemical analyses of over 4800 samples taken across the contiguous United States between the years 2007 and 2013. At each location, samples were taken from the top 5 cm, the A-horizon, and the C-horizon. Many studies have looked at the correlation between the mineralogical and geochemical content of soils and influencing factors such as parent lithology, climate, soil type, and age, but it seems little has been done in relation to quantifying and assessing the correlation between elements in the soil on a national scale. GIS was used for the mapping and multivariate interpolation of over 40 major and trace elements for surficial soils (0-5 cm depth). Qualitative analysis of the spatial distribution across the U.S. shows distinct patterns amongst elements both within the same periodic groups and within different periodic groups, and therefore with different behavioural characteristics. Results show the emergence of 4 main patterns of high concentration areas: vertically along the west coast, a C-shape formed through the states around Utah and northern Arizona, a V-shape through the Midwest and connecting to the Appalachians, and along the Appalachians. The Band Collection Statistics tool in GIS was used to quantitatively analyse the geochemical raster datasets and calculate a correlation matrix. Patterns emerged, which were not identified in qualitative analysis, many of which are also amongst elements with very different characteristics. Preliminary results show 41 element pairings with a strong positive correlation ( ≥ 0.75). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses on this scale could increase knowledge on the relationships between element distribution and behaviour in surficial soils of the U.S.

Keywords: correlation matrix, geochemical analyses, spatial distribution of elements, surficial soils

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22247 Effects of Video Games and Online Chat on Mathematics Performance in High School: An Approach of Multivariate Data Analysis

Authors: Lina Wu, Wenyi Lu, Ye Li

Abstract:

Regarding heavy video game players for boys and super online chat lovers for girls as a symbolic phrase in the current adolescent culture, this project of data analysis verifies the displacement effect on deteriorating mathematics performance. To evaluate correlation or regression coefficients between a factor of playing video games or chatting online and mathematics performance compared with other factors, we use multivariate analysis technique and take gender difference into account. We find the most important reason for the negative sign of the displacement effect on mathematics performance due to students’ poor academic background. Statistical analysis methods in this project could be applied to study internet users’ academic performance from the high school education to the college education.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, displacement effect, multivariate analysis technique, regression coefficients

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22246 Correlation of the Rate of Imperfect Competition and Profit in Banking Markets

Authors: Jan Cernohorsky

Abstract:

This article aims to assess the evolution of imperfect competition in selected banking markets, in particular in the banking markets of Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Another objective is to assess the evolution of the relationship of imperfect competition and profit development in the banking markets. The article first provides an overview of literature on the topic. It then measures the degree of imperfect competition in individual markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The commonly used indicator of total assets was chosen as an indicator. Based on this measurement, the individual banking sectors are categorized into theoretical definitions of the various types of imperfect competition - namely all surveyed banking sectors falling within the theoretical definition of monopolistic competition. Subsequently, using correlation analysis, i.e., the Pearson correlation coefficient, or the Spearman correlation coefficient, the connection between the evolution of imperfect competition and the development of the gross profit on selected banking markets was surveyed. It was found that with the exception of the banking market in Slovenia, where there is a positive correlation; there is no correlation between the evolution of imperfect competition and profit development in the selected markets. This means a recommendation for the regulators that it is not appropriate to rationalize a higher degree of regulation in granting banking licenses on the size of the profits attained in the banking market, as the relationship between the degree of concentration in the banking market and the amount of profit according to our measurements does not exist.

Keywords: bank, banking system, imperfect competition, profitability

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22245 Some Accuracy Related Aspects in Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Sub-Grid Modeling of Gas-Solid Riser Flows

Authors: Joseph Mouallem, Seyed Reza Amini Niaki, Norman Chavez-Cussy, Christian Costa Milioli, Fernando Eduardo Milioli

Abstract:

Sub-grid closures for filtered two-fluid models (fTFM) useful in large scale simulations (LSS) of riser flows can be derived from highly resolved simulations (HRS) with microscopic two-fluid modeling (mTFM). Accurate sub-grid closures require accurate mTFM formulations as well as accurate correlation of relevant filtered parameters to suitable independent variables. This article deals with both of those issues. The accuracy of mTFM is touched by assessing the impact of gas sub-grid turbulence over HRS filtered predictions. A gas turbulence alike effect is artificially inserted by means of a stochastic forcing procedure implemented in the physical space over the momentum conservation equation of the gas phase. The correlation issue is touched by introducing a three-filtered variable correlation analysis (three-marker analysis) performed under a variety of different macro-scale conditions typical or risers. While the more elaborated correlation procedure clearly improved accuracy, accounting for gas sub-grid turbulence had no significant impact over predictions.

Keywords: fluidization, gas-particle flow, two-fluid model, sub-grid models, filtered closures

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22244 Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth and Correlation Analysis of PM2.5 Based on GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

Authors: Bo Wang

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that can estimate PM2.5 by the images of GF-1 Satellite that called WFOV images (Wide Field of View). AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over land surfaces was retrieved in Shanghai area based on DDV (Dark Dense Vegetation) method. PM2.5 information, gathered from ground monitoring stations hourly, was fitted with AOD using different polynomial coefficients, and then the correlation coefficient between them was calculated. The results showed that, the GF-1 WFOV images can meet the requirement of retrieving AOD, and the correlation coefficient between the retrieved AOD and PM2.5 was high. If more detailed and comprehensive data is provided, the accuracy could be improved and the parameters can be more precise in the future.

Keywords: remote sensing retrieve, PM 2.5, GF-1, aerosol optical depth

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22243 Assessing Significance of Correlation with Binomial Distribution

Authors: Vijay Kumar Singh, Pooja Kushwaha, Prabhat Ranjan, Krishna Kumar Ojha, Jitendra Kumar

Abstract:

Present day high-throughput genomic technologies, NGS/microarrays, are producing large volume of data that require improved analysis methods to make sense of the data. The correlation between genes and samples has been regularly used to gain insight into many biological phenomena including, but not limited to, co-expression/co-regulation, gene regulatory networks, clustering and pattern identification. However, presence of outliers and violation of assumptions underlying Pearson correlation is frequent and may distort the actual correlation between the genes and lead to spurious conclusions. Here, we report a method to measure the strength of association between genes. The method assumes that the expression values of a gene are Bernoulli random variables whose outcome depends on the sample being probed. The method considers the two genes as uncorrelated if the number of sample with same outcome for both the genes (Ns) is equal to certainly expected number (Es). The extent of correlation depends on how far Ns can deviate from the Es. The method does not assume normality for the parent population, fairly unaffected by the presence of outliers, can be applied to qualitative data and it uses the binomial distribution to assess the significance of association. At this stage, we would not claim about the superiority of the method over other existing correlation methods, but our method could be another way of calculating correlation in addition to existing methods. The method uses binomial distribution, which has not been used until yet, to assess the significance of association between two variables. We are evaluating the performance of our method on NGS/microarray data, which is noisy and pierce by the outliers, to see if our method can differentiate between spurious and actual correlation. While working with the method, it has not escaped our notice that the method could also be generalized to measure the association of more than two variables which has been proven difficult with the existing methods.

Keywords: binomial distribution, correlation, microarray, outliers, transcriptome

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22242 Person-Environment Fit (PE Fit): Evidence from Brazil

Authors: Jucelia Appio, Danielle Deimling De Carli, Bruno Henrique Rocha Fernandes, Nelson Natalino Frizon

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if there are positive and significant correlations between the dimensions of Person-Environment Fit (Person-Job, Person-Organization, Person-Group and Person-Supervisor) at the “Best Companies to Work for” in Brazil in 2017. For that, a quantitative approach was used with a descriptive method being defined as a research sample the "150 Best Companies to Work for", according to data base collected in 2017 and provided by Fundação Instituto of Administração (FIA) of the University of São Paulo (USP). About the data analysis procedures, asymmetry and kurtosis, factorial analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) tests, Bartlett sphericity and Cronbach's alpha were used for the 69 research variables, and as a statistical technique for the purpose of analyzing the hypothesis, Pearson's correlation analysis was performed. As a main result, we highlight that there was a positive and significant correlation between the dimensions of Person-Environment Fit, corroborating the H1 hypothesis that there is a positive and significant correlation between Person-Job Fit, Person-Organization Fit, Person-Group Fit and Person-Supervisor Fit.

Keywords: Human Resource Management (HRM), Person-Environment Fit (PE), strategic people management, best companies to work for

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