Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7305

Search results for: social cohesion

7305 Rasch Analysis in the Development of 'Kohesif-Ques': An Instrument to Measure Social Cohesion

Authors: Paramita Sekar Ayu, Sunjaya Deni Kurniadi, Yamazaki Chiho, Hilfi Lukman, Koyama Hiroshi

Abstract:

Social cohesion, or closeness among members of society, is an important determinant of population health. A cohesive society is a crucial societal condition for a positive life evaluation and subjective wellbeing, and people living in a cohesive society are happier and more satisfied with life and achieve better health status. The objective of this study was to compose and validate a questionnaire for measuring social cohesion with Rasch analysis. We develop a set of 13 questions to measure 4 dimensions of social cohesion. Random samples of 166 Bandung citizens’ were selected to answer the questionnaire. To evaluate the questionnaire’s validity and reliability, Rasch analysis (a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data on questionnaire responses) was carried out using Winsteps version 3.75.0. Rasch analysis was performed on the response given to 13 items included in the questionnaire. The reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.70, model RMSE 0.08, SD 0.54, separation 7.14, and reliability of 0.98. ‘Kohesif-Ques’ is a useful instrument to assess social cohesion.

Keywords: rasch analysis, rasch model, social cohesion, quesionnaire

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7304 Grammatical and Lexical Cohesion in the Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s Speech Text ‘Nihon wa Modottekimashita’

Authors: Nadya Inda Syartanti

Abstract:

This research aims to identify, classify, and analyze descriptively the aspects of grammatical and lexical cohesion in the speech text of Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe entitled Nihon wa Modotte kimashita delivered in Washington DC, the United States on February 23, 2013, as a research data source. The method used is qualitative research, which uses descriptions through words that are applied by analyzing aspects of grammatical and lexical cohesion proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976). The aspects of grammatical cohesion consist of references (personal, demonstrative, interrogative pronouns), substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction. In contrast, lexical cohesion consists of reiteration (repetition, synonym, antonym, hyponym, meronym) and collocation. Data classification is based on the 6 aspects of the cohesion. Through some aspects of cohesion, this research tries to find out the frequency of using grammatical and lexical cohesion in Shinzo Abe's speech text entitled Nihon wa Modotte kimashita. The results of this research are expected to help overcome the difficulty of understanding speech texts in Japanese. Therefore, this research can be a reference for learners, researchers, and anyone who is interested in the field of discourse analysis.

Keywords: cohesion, grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion, speech text, Shinzo Abe

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7303 The Effects of Social Capital and Empowering Leadership on Team Cohesion

Authors: Y. R. Lai, J. C. Jehng, T. T. Chang

Abstract:

Team is a popular job design in the management settings. Because people on a team need to work together to complete a lot of tasks, the interaction between team members strongly influences team effectiveness. The study examines the effect of social capital and empowering leadership on team cohesion. There are three facets of social capital: structural facet, relational facet, and cognitive facet. Empowering leadership includes enhancing the meaningfulness of work, fostering participation in decision making, expressing confidence in high performance, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints. Data were collected from 181 team members of 47 teams in the real estate agency industry. The results show that the relational social capital, enhancing the meaningfulness of work, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints are positively related to two dimensions of team cohesion: sense of belonging and feelings of moral. Additionally, expressing confidence in high performance is negatively related to sense of belonging.

Keywords: social capital, empowering leadership, team cohesion, team effectiveness

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7302 Empirical Investigation for the Correlation between Object-Oriented Class Lack of Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

The design of the internal relationships among object-oriented class members (i.e., attributes and methods) and the external relationships among classes affects the overall quality of the object-oriented software. The degree of relatedness among class members is referred to as class cohesion and the degree to which a class is related to other classes is called class coupling. Well designed classes are expected to exhibit high cohesion and low coupling values. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the relation between class cohesion and coupling. In the empirical study, five lack-of-cohesion metrics and eight coupling metrics are considered. The empirical study results show that class cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation highly depends on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: class cohesion measure, class coupling measure, object-oriented class, software quality

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7301 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

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7300 Theoretical Exploration for the Impact of Accounting for Special Methods in Connectivity-Based Cohesion Measurement

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Class cohesion is a key object-oriented software quality attribute that is used to evaluate the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion measures. However, the effect of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular connectivity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. For each of the three connectivity-based measures, the proposed theoretical study recommended excluding the special methods in cohesion measurement.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods

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7299 A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team

Authors: Alexandra O. Savinkina

Abstract:

We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.

Keywords: cohesion, football, psychodiagnostic, soccer, sports team, value-orientation unity

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7298 Coherence and Cohesion in IELTS Academic Writing: Helping Students to Improve

Authors: Rory Patrick O'Kane

Abstract:

More universities and third level institutions now require at least an IELTS Band 6 for entry into courses of study for non-native speakers of English. This presentation focuses on IELTS Academic Writing Tasks 1 and 2 and in particular on the marking criterion of Coherence and Cohesion. A requirement for candidates aiming at Band 6 and above is that they produce answers which show a clear, overall progression of information and ideas and which use cohesive devices effectively. With this in mind, the presenter will examine what exactly is meant by coherence and cohesion and various strategies which can be used to assist students in improving their scores in this area. A number of classroom teaching ideas will be introduced, and participants will have the opportunity to compare and discuss sample answers written by candidates for this examination with a specific focus on coherence and cohesion. Intended audience: Teachers of IELTS Academic Writing.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, IELTS, strategies

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7297 EU Integratıon Impact over the Real Convergence

Authors: Badoiu Mihaela Catalina

Abstract:

Main focus of COHESION policy was reducing social and economic disparities between member states and regions, sustainable development and equal opportunities. In this perspective, the present study intend to analyze the evolution of the European architecture and its direct impact over the real convergence in the member states.

Keywords: cooperation, European union, member states, cohesion policy

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7296 Family Cohesion, Interpersonal Difficulties and Mental Health Problems in University Students

Authors: Narmeen Ali, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Cohesion has an exact association with family functioning and enmeshment (togetherness) on one side and disengagement (separateness) on the other. Family cohesion can apprehend as a concerned association that family members have with each other and an affirmation of association inside the family. Family cohesion, assigned as the level of congruity or sympathetic or emotional attachment that relatives have toward each other, and it was seen to be associated with relational well-being and feeling of comfort in the young generation. The cross-sectional research design was used by the researcher to answer the research questions. A stratified sampling technique was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was collected equally from the males and females of different universities and different departments of Lahore, Pakistan. A self-report questionnaire was developed of given literature and which were found to be associated with family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties and mental health problems of university students. The demographic information included age, gender, university’s name, class, family system, parent’s education, parent’s profession, number of siblings and birth order. Correlation shows the negative relation between balanced cohesion and interpersonal difficulties, while interpersonal difficulties have a highly positive relationship with mental health problems. Mental health problems also have a negative correlation with the balanced family cohesion. Gender, family system, depression and anxiety are the significant predictors of interpersonal difficulties scale in university students. And gender showed a significant difference regarding family cohesion and interpersonal difficulty scale, as women reported more interpersonal difficulties than men.

Keywords: family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems, university students

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7295 Descriptive Analysis of the Relationship between State and Civil Society in Hegel's Political Thought

Authors: Garineh Keshishyan Siraki

Abstract:

Civil society is one of the most important concepts of the twentieth century and even so far. Modern and postmodern thinkers have provided different definitions of civil society. Of course, the concept of civil society has undergone many changes over time. The relationship between government and civil society is one of the relationships that attracted the attention of many contemporary thinkers. Hegel, the thinker we discussed in this article also explores the relationship between these concepts and emphasizing the dialectical method, he has drawn three lines between family, state, and civil society. In Hegel's view, the creation of civil society will lead to a reduction of social conflict and increased social cohesion. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. This paper, which uses a descriptive-analytic method to examine Hegel's dialectical theory of civil society, after examining the relationship between the family and the state and finding the concept of civil society as the interface and the interconnected circle of these two, investigates tripartite economic, legal, and pluralistic systems. In this article, after examining the concepts of the market, the right and duty, the individual interests and the development of the exchange economy, Hegel's view is to examine the concept of freedom and its relation with civil society. The results of this survey show that, in Hegel's thought, the separation between the political system and the social system is a natural and necessary thing. In Hegel's view, because of those who are in society, they have selfish features; the community is in tension and contradiction. Therefore, the social realms within which conflicts emerge must be identified and controlled by specific mechanisms. It can also be concluded that the government can act to reduce social conflicts by legislating, using force or forming trade unions. The bottom line is that Hegel wants to reconcile between the individual, the state and civil society and it is not possible to rely on ethics.

Keywords: civil society, cohesion system, economic system, family, the legal system, state

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7294 Sport Facilities and Social Change: European Funds as an Opportunity for Urban Regeneration

Authors: Lorenzo Maiorino, Fabio Fortuna, Giovanni Panebianco, Marco Sanzari, Gabriella Arcese, Valerio Maria Paolozzi

Abstract:

It is well known that sport is a factor of social cohesion and the breaking down of barriers between people. From this point of view, the aim is to demonstrate how, through the (re)generation of sustainable structures, it is possible to give life to a new social, cultural, and economic pathway, where possible, in peripheral areas with problems of abandonment and degradation. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to study realities such as European programs and funds and to highlight the ways in which planning can be used to respond to critical issues such as urban decay, abandonment, and the mitigation of social differences. For this reason, the analysis will be carried out through the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) package, the Next Generation EU, the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the Cohesion Fund, the European Social Fund, and other managed funds. The procedure will rely on sources and data of unquestionable origin, and the relation to the object of study in question will be highlighted. The project lends itself to be ambitious and exploring a further aspect of the sports theme, which, as we know, is one of the foundations for a healthy society.

Keywords: sport, social inclusion, urban regeneration, sports facilities, European funds

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7293 Theoretical Reflections on Metaphor and Cohesion and the Coherence of Face-To-Face Interactions

Authors: Afef Badri

Abstract:

The role of metaphor in creating the coherence and the cohesion of discourse in online interactive talk has almost received no attention. This paper intends to provide some theoretical reflections on metaphorical coherence as a jointly constructed process that evolves in online, face-to-face interactions. It suggests that the presence of a global conceptual structure in a conversation makes it conceptually cohesive. Yet, coherence remains a process largely determined by other variables (shared goals, communicative intentions, and framework of understanding). Metaphorical coherence created by these variables can be useful in detecting bias in media reporting.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, face-to-face interactions, metaphor

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7292 Islamic Social Security: A Discourse

Authors: Safiyya A. Abba, Shehu U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper deals with Islamic social security: a discourse explores the meaning and nature of Islamic social security system. The paper reviews the social security framework and operations during the early period. The paper further identifies the instruments of Islamic social security discusses its principles and objectives. The paper discovers that Islamic social security is a personification of a comprehensive welfare approach in view of its varied instruments that are deeply rooted in the Islamic law, unique principles and realistic and achievable objectives. Furthermore, the Islamic social security system has far reaching socioeconomic implications; social justice, cohesion, equity, a catalyst for poverty eradication, income redistribution, economic growth and development.

Keywords: Islamic social security, basic needs, zakat, socioeconomic justice, equity

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7291 Creating Bridges: The Importance of Intergenerational Experiences in the Educational Context

Authors: A. Eiguren-Munitis, N. Berasategi, J. M. Correa

Abstract:

Changes in family structures, immigration, economic crisis, among others, hinder the connection between different generations. This situation gives rise to a greater lack of social protection of the groups in vulnerable situations, such as the elderly and children. There is a growing need to search for shared spaces where different generations manage to break negative stereotypes and interact with each other. The school environment provides a favourable context in which the approach of different generations can be worked on. The intergenerational experiences that take place within the school context help to introduce the educational ideology for a lifetime. This induces bilateral learning, which encourages citizen participation. For this reason, the general objective of this research is to deepen the impact that intergenerational experiences have on participating students. The research is carried out based on mixed methods. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation included pre-test and post-test questionnaires (n=148) and group interviews (n=43). The results indicate that the intergenerational experiences influence different levels, on the one hand, help to promote school motivation and on the other hand, help to reduce negative stereotypes towards older people thus contributing to greater social cohesion.

Keywords: intergenerational learning, school, stereotypes, social cohesion

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7290 Family Dynamics on Attitude Towards Peace: The Mediating Role of Emotional Regulation Strategies

Authors: Nicole Kaye A. Callanta, Shalimar B. Baruang, Anne Edelienne P. Tadena, Imelu G. Mordeno, Odessa May D. Escalona

Abstract:

Untold numbers of children and adolescents around the world are exposed increasingly to the war on a daily basis. These experiences shape how they will view themselves, others, and the world. A wealth of studies have shown the role of family dynamics in the development of children’s attitudes, particularly their social behaviors. This specific study, however, contends that family dynamics influence peace and conflict resolution attitude and further asserts that it is brought about by the degree of emotional regulation strategies they use. Utilising purposive sampling, adolescent participant-respondents were from different schools in Southern Philipines, specifically of the cities of Marawi and Iligan, where exposure to warring clans, internal struggle between the Philippine Military and insurgencies, and the recent Marawi Seige caused by Al-Qaeda and ISIS-spawned terrorism. Results showed emotional regulation strategies mediate the relationship between family dynamics, particularly on family cohesion, and attitude towards peace. Thus implying the association between family cohesion and attitude towards peace strengthens with the use of emotional regulation strategies.

Keywords: attitude towards peace, emotional regulation strategies, family cohesion, family dynamics

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7289 Moderating Role of Positive External Factors in Relationship of Abusive Supervision and Knowledge Sharing

Authors: I.Hussain, A. Gulzar

Abstract:

Knowledge sharing is very important in organizations for their future progress and survival. This study investigates the impact of destructive leadership (abusive supervision) on knowledge sharing in employees. Further, the authors want to investigate a context variable (group cohesion) and explore its cross level influence on the relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Conservation of resource theory (COR) claims loss of psychological capital (an internal positive resource) in employees due to abusive supervision and hence decrease occurs in knowledge sharing. This study tests psychological capital as mediator and group cohesion as moderator in relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Data was collected from 239 respondents from more than 40 different organizations and 50 different groups from all over Pakistan. Results show that abusive supervision has negative effect on knowledge sharing through reduction in psychological capital of employees, and increased group cohesion in employees reduces this negative effect improving psychological capital in employees.

Keywords: abusive supervision, knowledge sharing, psychological capital, group cohesion, conservation of resources

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7288 A Quantitative Assessment of the Social Marginalization in Romania

Authors: Andra Costache, Rădiţa Alexe

Abstract:

The analysis of the spatial disparities of social marginalization is a requirement in the present-day socio-economic and political context of Romania, an East-European state, member of the European Union since 2007, at present faced with the imperatives of the growth of its territorial cohesion. The main objective of this article is to develop a methodology for the assessment of social marginalization, in order to understand the intensity of the marginalization phenomenon at different spatial scales. The article proposes a social marginalization index (SMI), calculated through the integration of ten indicators relevant for the two components of social marginalization: the material component and the symbolical component. The results highlighted a strong connection between the total degree of social marginalization and the dependence on social benefits, unemployment rate, non-inclusion in the compulsory education, criminality rate, and the type of pension insurance.

Keywords: Romania, social marginalization index, territorial disparities, EU

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7287 Science of Social Work: Recognizing Its Existence as a Scientific Discipline by a Method Triangulation

Authors: Sandra Mendes

Abstract:

Social Work has encountered over time with multivariate requests in the field of its action, provisioning frameworks of knowledge and praxis. Over the years, we have observed a transformation of society and, consequently, of the public who deals with the social work practitioners. Both, training and profession have had need to adapt and readapt the ways of doing, bailing up theories to action, while action unfolds emancipation of new theories. The theoretical questioning of this subject lies on classical authors from social sciences, and contemporary authors of Social Work. In fact, both enhance, in the design of social work, an integration and social cohesion function, creating a culture of action and theory, attributing to its method a relevant function, which shall be promoter of social changes in various dimensions of both individual and collective life, as well as scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it is assumed that Social Work, through its professionalism and through the academy, is now closer to distinguish itself from other Social Sciences as an autonomous scientific field, being, however, in the center of power struggles. This paper seeks to fill the gap in social work literature about the study of the scientific field of this area of knowledge.

Keywords: field theory, knowledge, science, social work

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7286 The Effects of Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors on Task Cohesion and Burnout: The Role of Affect and Motivational Climate

Authors: Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu

Abstract:

Prosocial and antisocial behavior occurs in sport. Prosocial behavior is voluntary behavior intended to help or benefit another individual, while antisocial behavior is behavior intended to harm or disadvantage another individual. Previous sport morality research has investigated primarily antecedents of prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, the potential consequences of these behaviors remain unexplored. The aims of this study were to examine whether: (a) perceived prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior predicts task cohesion and burnout; (b) affect mediate these relationships; and (c) motivational climate moderates any of these effects. Participants were male (n = 96) and female (n = 176) teams sport players (Mage = 21.86, SD = 4.36), who completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. Mediation analysis (Hayes, 2013) indicated that prosocial teammate behavior positively predicted task cohesion and negatively predicted burnout; these effects were mediated by positive affect. Also, mastery climate moderated the positive effect of prosocial teammate behavior on task cohesion: The effect of antisocial teammate behavior on task cohesion was stronger for players who perceived a higher mastery climate created by their coaches. Performance climate moderated the negative effect of prosocial teammate behavior on burnout: This effect was only significant for players who perceived moderate or low levels of performance team climate. Antisocial teammate behavior negatively predicted task cohesion and positively predicted burnout, and these effects were mediated by negative affect. Also, performance climate moderated the positive effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout, such that the effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout was stronger for players who perceived a lower performance climate. The research findings shed some light on the potential role of prosocial and antisocial teammate behaviors as well as coach-created motivational climate on influencing players’ affect, task cohesion, and burnout. Coaches should focus on creating a mastery motivational climate and rewarding prosocial behavior while at the same time trying to deter antisocial behavior among teammates in order to enhance positive affect, task cohesion, and prevent experience of negative affect and burnout.

Keywords: mediation, moderation, morality, teams sport

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7285 Reframing Service Oriented Architecture Design Principles in Software Design Quality

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Novianto B. Kurniawan Suhardi

Abstract:

Since its inception, the design activities of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been guided with aspects from the Service Design Principles (SDP), such as cohesion, granularity, loose coupling, discoverability, and autonomy, etc. The goal of this paper is two folds. The first is to examine the position of SDP within the context of software quality, and the second is to reframe the aspects of SDP into a more concise terms and relations. This paper is divided into four parts, in which after the introduction, a review on related software quality is provided to determine the quality context of SDP. The third part reviews the original SDP and offers a relation model among the SDP aspects. The fourth part explores the design quality metrics available for SOA and proposes a relationship representing the design quality. Among the aspects of design principles, the cohesion and coupling aspect is determined to be the two important aspects for achieving reusability of a service.

Keywords: SOA, software quality, service design principle, reusability, cohesion, coupling

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7284 Cultural Regeneration and Social Impacts of Industrial Heritage Transformation: The Case of Westergasfabriek Cultural Park, Netherland

Authors: Hsin Hua He

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to strengthen the social cohesion of the local community by injecting the cultural and creative concept into the industrial heritage transformation. The paradigms of industrial heritage research tend to explore from the perspective of space analysis, which concerned less about the cultural regeneration and the development of local culture. The paradigms of cultural quarter research use to from the perspective of creative economy and urban planning, concerned less about the social impacts and the interaction between residents and industrial sites. This research combines these two research areas of industrial heritage and cultural quarter, and focus on the social and cultural aspects. The transformation from the industrial heritage into a cultural park not only enhances the cultural capital and the quality of residents’ lives, but also preserves the unique local values. Internally it shapes the local identity, while externally establishes the image of the city. This paper uses Westergasfabriek Cultural Park in Amsterdam as the case study, through literature analysis, field work, and depth interview to explore how the cultural regeneration transforms industrial heritage. In terms of the planners’ and residents’ point of view adopt the theory of community participation, social capital, and sense of place to analyze the social impact of the industrial heritage transformation. The research finding is through cultural regeneration policies like holding cultural activities, building up public space, social network and public-private partnership, and adopting adaptive reuse to fulfil the people’s need and desire and reach the social cohesion. Finally, the study will examine the transformation of Taiwan's industrial heritage into cultural and creative quarters. The results are expected to use the operating experience of the Amsterdam cases and provide directions for Taiwan’s industrial heritage management to meet the cultural, social, economic symbiosis.

Keywords: cultural regeneration, community participation, social capital, sense of place, industrial heritage transformation

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7283 Code Refactoring Using Slice-Based Cohesion Metrics and AOP

Authors: Jagannath Singh, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

Abstract:

Software refactoring is very essential for maintaining the software quality. It is an usual practice that we first design the software and then go for coding. But after coding is completed, if the requirement changes slightly or our expected output is not achieved, then we change the codes. For each small code change, we cannot change the design. In course of time, due to these small changes made to the code, the software design decays. Software refactoring is used to restructure the code in order to improve the design and quality of the software. In this paper, we propose an approach for performing code refactoring. We use slice-based cohesion metrics to identify the target methods which requires refactoring. After identifying the target methods, we use program slicing to divide the target method into two parts. Finally, we have used the concepts of Aspects to adjust the code structure so that the external behaviour of the original module does not change.

Keywords: software refactoring, program slicing, AOP, cohesion metrics, code restructure, AspectJ

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7282 Study on the Effects of Grassroots Characteristics on Reinforced Soil Performance by Direct Shear Test

Authors: Zhanbo Cheng, Xueyu Geng

Abstract:

Vegetation slope protection technique is economic, aesthetic and practical. Herbs are widely used in practice because of rapid growth, strong erosion resistance, obvious slope protection and simple method, in which the root system of grass plays a very important role. In this paper, through changing the variables value of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the direct shear tests were carried out to discuss the change of shear strength indexes of grassroots reinforced soil under different reinforce situations, and analyse the effects of grassroots characteristics on reinforced soil performance. The laboratory test results show that: (1) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength, and cohesion first increase and then reduce with the increasing of grassroots quantity; (2) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion rise with the increasing of grassroots diameter; (3) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion raise with the increasing of grassroots length in a certain range of grassroots quantity, while the value of shear strength and cohesion first rise and then decline with the increasing of grassroots length when the grassroots quantity reaches a certain value; (4) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, and grassroots length, the value of shear strength and cohesion first climb and then decline with the increasing of grassroots reinforced layers; (5) the change of internal friction angle is small in different parameters of grassroots. The research results are of importance for understanding the mechanism of vegetation protection for slopes and determining the parameters of grass planting.

Keywords: direct shear test, reinforced soil, grassroots characteristics, shear strength indexes

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7281 Mending Broken Fences Policing: Developing the Intelligence-Led/Community-Based Policing Model(IP-CP) and Quality/Quantity/Crime(QQC) Model

Authors: Anil Anand

Abstract:

Despite enormous strides made during the past decade, particularly with the adoption and expansion of community policing, there remains much that police leaders can do to improve police-public relations. The urgency is particularly evident in cities across the United States and Europe where an increasing number of police interactions over the past few years have ignited large, sometimes even national, protests against police policy and strategy, highlighting a gap between what police leaders feel they have archived in terms of public satisfaction, support, and legitimacy and the perception of bias among many marginalized communities. The decision on which one policing strategy is chosen over another, how many resources are allocated, and how strenuously the policy is applied resides primarily with the police and the units and subunits tasked with its enforcement. The scope and opportunity for police officers in impacting social attitudes and social policy are important elements that cannot be overstated. How do police leaders, for instance, decide when to apply one strategy—say community-based policing—over another, like intelligence-led policing? How do police leaders measure performance and success? Should these measures be based on quantitative preferences over qualitative, or should the preference be based on some other criteria? And how do police leaders define, allow, and control discretionary decision-making? Mending Broken Fences Policing provides police and security services leaders with a model based on social cohesion, that incorporates intelligence-led and community policing (IP-CP), supplemented by a quality/quantity/crime (QQC) framework to provide a four-step process for the articulable application of police intervention, performance measurement, and application of discretion.

Keywords: social cohesion, quantitative performance measurement, qualitative performance measurement, sustainable leadership

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7280 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar

Abstract:

Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

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7279 Homophily in Youth Athletics: Sociodemographics, Group Cohesion, and the Psychology of Performance in Sport

Authors: Brandon Ko

Abstract:

Whether it’s a kitchen staff or a law firm, many groups tend to have homogenous characteristics of race, gender, interests, and goals. Social groups are not typically random samples of the population and will usually have common identifiers. According to Blau, age, sex, and education all play salient roles in shaping relationships within members of society. So if there is some degree of homogeneity within groups, the question arises whether this is beneficial or harmful to a group’s effectiveness. There has been much disagreement in the scientific community as to whether the presence of homophily benefits or hinders an athletic team's cohesiveness. For this paper, a comparative study of research of soccer case studies that followed various, youth players was studied against examinations of the effects that such a culture has on athletes. The case studies were used as evidence to determine what kind of homophily existed within the soccer camps. One case study followed several European developmental clubs such as Bayern Munich and Barcelona. Another study followed eight different players, four of each gender, implementing a similar method of interviewing, observing, and questioning. The individual and team goals of each athlete were reviewed to see which teams and players were ego-oriented and which were team-oriented. Additionally, there had been little research done on the relationship between homophily and how it applies to the sport community, suggesting the need to develop this neglected problem in applied psychology. This paper argues that the benefits of an egalitarian culture and stronger relations with people of a similar socio-demographic outweigh the liabilities of cohesion like being stereotyped and a lack of network outside the group as produced by homophily in athletic competition.

Keywords: group cohesion, homophily, sports psychology, youth athletics

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7278 Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil

Authors: Tanios Saliba, Jad Wakim, Elie Awwad

Abstract:

Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.

Keywords: bottom ash, Clayey soil, mechanical properties, tests

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7277 Policy Monitoring and Water Stakeholders Network Analysis in Shemiranat

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

Abstract:

Achieving to integrated Water management fundamentally needs to effective relation, coordination, collaboration and synergy among various actors who have common but different responsibilities. In this sense, the foundation of comprehensive and integrated management is not compatible with centralization and top-down strategies. The aim of this paper is analysis institutional network of water relevant stakeholders and water policy monitoring in Shemiranat. In this study collaboration networks between informal and formal institutions co-management process have been investigated. Stakeholder network analysis as a quantitative method has been implicated in this research. The results of this study indicate that institutional cohesion is medium; sustainability of institutional network is about 40 percent (medium). Additionally the core-periphery index has measured in this study according to reciprocity index. Institutional capacities for integrated natural resource management in regional level are measured in this study. Furthermore, the necessity of centrality reduction and promote stakeholders relations and cohesion are emphasized to establish a collaborative natural resource governance.

Keywords: policy monitoring, water management, social network, stakeholder, shemiranat

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7276 Community Singing, a Pathway to Social Capital: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Assessment of the Benefits of Singing Communities in South Tyrol and South Africa

Authors: Johannes Van Der Sandt

Abstract:

This quantitative study investigates different approaches of community singing, in building social capital in South Tyrol, Italy, and South Africa. The impact of the various approaches of community singing is examined by investigating the main components of social capital, namely, social norms and obligations, social networks and associations and trust, and how these components are manifested in two different societies. The research is based on the premise that community singing is an important agent for the development of social capital. It seeks to establish in what form community singing can best enhance the social capital of communities in South Tyrol that are undergoing significant changes in the ways in which social capital is generally being generated on account of demographic, economic, technological and cultural changes. South Tyrol and South Africa share some similarities in the management of their multi-cultural composition. By comparing the different approaches to community singing in two multi-cultural societies, it is hoped to gain insight, and an understanding of the connections between culture, social cohesion, identity and therefore to be able to add to the understanding of the building of social capital through community singing. Participation in music contributes to the growth of social capital in communities, this is amongst others the finding of an ever increasing amount of research. In sociological discourses on social capital generation, the dimension of community music making is recognized as an important factor. Trust and mutual cooperation are products when people listen to each other, when they work or play together, and when they care about each other. This is how social capital develops as an important shared resource. Scholars of Community Music still do not agree on a short and concise definition for Community Music. For the purpose of this research, the author concurs with the definition of Community Music of the Community Music Activity commission of the International Society of Music Education as having the following characteristics: decentralization, accessibility, equal opportunity, and active participation in music-making. These principles are social and political ones, and there can be no doubt that community music activity is more than a purely musical one. Trust, shared norms and values civic and community involvement, networks, knowledge resources, contact with families and friends, and fellowship are key components in fostering group cohesion and social capital development in a community. The research will show that there is no better place for these factors to flourish than in a community singing group. Through this comparative study, it is the aim to identify, analyze and explain similarities and differences in approaches to community across societies that find themselves in a rapid transition from traditional cultural to global cultural habits characterized by a plurality of orientation points, with the aim to gain a better understanding of the various directions South Tyrolean singing culture can take.

Keywords: community music, multicultural, singing, social capital

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