Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2004

Search results for: relative deprivation

2004 The Effect of Absolute and Relative Deprivation on Homicides in Brazil

Authors: Temidayo James Aransiola, Vania Ceccato, Marcelo Justus

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of absolute deprivation (proxy unemployment) and relative deprivation (proxy income inequality) on homicide levels in Brazil. A database from the Brazilian Information System about Mortality and Census of the year 2000 and 2010 was used to estimate negative binomial models of homicide levels controlling for socioeconomic, demographic and geographic factors. Findings show that unemployment and income inequality affect homicides levels and that the effect of the former is more pronounced compared to the latter. Moreover, the combination of income inequality and unemployment exacerbates the overall effect of deprivation on homicide levels.

Keywords: deprivation, inequality, interaction, unemployment, violence

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2003 Accessibility to Urban Parks for Low-income Residents in Chongqing, China: Perspective from Relative Deprivation

Authors: Junhang Luo

Abstract:

With the transformation of spatial structure and the deepening of urban development, the demand for a better life and the concerns for social resources equities of residents are increasing. As an important social resource, park plays an essential role in building environmentally sustainable cities. Thus, it is important to examine park accessibility for low-income and how it works in relative deprivation, so as to provide all residents with equitable services. Using the network and buffer methods of GIS, this paper analyzes urban park accessibility for low-income residents in Chongqing, China. And then conduct a satisfaction evaluation of park resource accessibility with low-incomes through questionnaire surveys from deprivation dimensions. Results show that the level of park accessibility in Chongqing varies significantly and the degree of relative deprivation is relatively high. Public transportation convenience improves and the number of community park increases contribute positively to improving park accessibility and alleviating the relative deprivation of public resources. Combined with the innovation pattern of social governance in China, it suggests that urban park accessibility needs to be jointly governed and optimized by multiple social resources from the government to the public, and the service efficiency needs the index system and planning standards according to local conditions to improve quality and promote equity. At the same time, building a perfect park system and complete legislation assurance system will also play a positive role in ensuring that all residents can enjoy the urban public space more fairly, especially low-income groups.

Keywords: urban park, accessibility, relative deprivation, GIS network analysis, chongqing

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2002 Maternal Deprivation as Predictor of Academic Performance and Psychosocial Adjustment of Primary School Pupils in Abeokuta Metropolis

Authors: Abayomi Olatoke Adejobi

Abstract:

The study investigated maternal deprivation as predictor of academic performance and psychosocial adjustment of primary school pupils in Abeokuta metropolis. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred public primary school pupils were randomly selected as subjects for the study. The instruments used for data collection were Index of Family Relations (IFR) by Hudson, modified version of Psychosocial Adjustment Scale (PAS) by O’ bailey and Academic records of the pupils from Cumulative Records Folder (CRF). The data collected were statistically treated and the three hypotheses were tested using t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Confident statistical methods at 0.05 alpha level. The results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of children who suffered maternal deprivation and those who did not (t – 5.61; df = 198; P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant relationship between psychosocial adjustment of children and maternal deprivation (r = 0.37, df = 10; P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in academic performance of boys and girls who suffered maternal deprivation (t = 0.32; df = 109; P > 0.05). Based on the results some recommendations were made.

Keywords: maternal deprivation, psychosocial adjustment, academic performance, primary school pupils

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2001 Roots of Terror in Pakistan: Analyzing the Effects of Education and Economic Deprivation on Incidences of Terrorism

Authors: Laraib Niaz

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This paper analyzes the ways in which education and economic deprivation are linked to terrorism in Pakistan using data for terrorist incidents from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). It employs the technique of negative binomial regression for the years between 1990 and 2013, presenting evidence for a positive association between education and terrorism. Conversely, a negative correlation with economic deprivation is signified in the results. The study highlights the element of radicalization as witnessed in the curriculum and textbooks of public schools as a possible reason for extremism, which in turn may lead to terrorism.

Keywords: education, Pakistan, terrorism, poverty

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2000 Molecular Profiling of an Oleaginous Trebouxiophycean Alga Parachlorella kessleri Subjected to Nutrient Deprivation

Authors: Pannaga Pavan Jutur

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Parachlorella kessleri, a marine unicellular green alga belonging to class Trebouxiophyceae, accumulates large amounts of oil, i.e., lipids under nutrient-deprived (-N, -P, and -S) conditions. Understanding their metabolic imprints is important for elucidating the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations in this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Metabolic and lipidomic profiles were obtained respectively using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of P. kessleri under nutrient starvation (-N, -P and -S) conditions. Relative quantities of more than 100 metabolites were systematically compared in all these three starvation conditions. Our results demonstrate that in lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased significantly followed by the decrease in other metabolites involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, etc. In conclusion, the metabolomics and lipidomic profiles have identified a few common metabolites such as citric acid, valine, and trehalose to play a significant role in the overproduction of oil by this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Understanding the entire system through untargeted metabolome profiling will lead to identifying relevant metabolites involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of precursor molecules that may have the potential for biofuel production, aiming towards the vision of tomorrow’s bioenergy needs.

Keywords: algae, biofuels, nutrient stress, omics

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1999 Multidimensional Inequality and Deprivation Among Tribal Communities of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Sanjay Sinha, Mohd Umair Khan

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The level of income inequality in India has been worrisome as the World Inequality Report termed it as a “poor and unequal country, with an affluent elite”. As important as income is to understand inequality and deprivation, it is just one dimension. But the historical roots and current realities of inequality and deprivation in India lies in many of the non-income dimensions such as housing, nutrition, education, agency, sense of inclusion etc. which are often ignored, especially in solution-oriented research. The level of inequality and deprivation among the tribal is one such case. There is a corpus of literature establishing that the tribal communities in India are disadvantageous on various grounds. Given their rural geography, issues of access and quality of basic facilities such as education and healthcare are often unaddressed. COVID-19 has further exacerbated this challenge and climate change will make it even more worrying. With this background, a succinct measurement tool at the village level is necessary to design short to medium-term actions with reference to risk mitigation for tribal communities. This research paper examines the level of inequality and deprivation among the tribal communities in the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh state of India using a Multidimensional Inequality and Deprivation Index based on the Alkire-Foster methodology. The methodology is theoretically grounded in the capability approach propounded by Amartya Sen, emphasizing on achieving the “beings and doings” (functionings) an individual reason to value. In the index, the authors have five domains, including Livelihood, Food Security, Education, Health and Housing and these domains are divided into sixteen indicators. This assessment is followed by domain-wise short-term and long-term solutions.

Keywords: Andhra Pradesh, Alkire-Foster methodology, deprivation, inequality, multidimensionality, poverty, tribal

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1998 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance, Fatigue, and Performance during Simulated Train Driving

Authors: Clara Theresia, Hardianto Iridiastadi

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Drowsiness is one of the main factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents, particularly in the transportation sector. While the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions have been reported, the exact relationships remain a critical issue. This study aimed at quantifying the effects of extreme sleep deprivation on vigilance, fatigue, and performance during simulated train driving. A total of 12 participants were asked to drive a train simulator continuously for 4 hours, either in a sleep deprived condition (2-hr of sleep) or normal (8-hr of sleep) condition. Dependent variables obtained during the task included Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) parameters, degree of fatigue (assessed via Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) and sleepiness (reported using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale/KSS), and driving performance (the number of speed limit violations). Findings from this study demonstrated substantial decrements in vigilance in the sleep-deprived condition. This condition also resulted in 75% increase in speed violation and a two-fold increase in the degree of fatigue and sleepiness. Extreme sleep deprivation was clearly associated with substantially poorer response. The exact effects, however, were dependent upon the types of responses.

Keywords: cognitive function, psychomotor vigilance task, sleep deprivation, train simulator

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1997 Dissatisfaction as a Cause of Social Uprisings: An Empirical Analysis Utilizing the Social Uprisings Composite Indicator

Authors: Sondos Shaheen

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This paper employs a newly constructed composite indicator of social uprisings (SUCI) to analyze the causes of their occurrence. This empirical study is based on an unbalanced panel of 45 countries over the period of 1982–2007. The paper’s contribution to the literature is distinguishing between the causes of violent and nonviolent uprisings. The analysis shows that that certain variables have a significant impact on both violent and nonviolent uprisings in terms of relative SUCI values, for example, ethnic fractionalization and mountainous terrain. Nevertheless, differences between the causes of violent and nonviolent uprisings can be found. For example, life dissatisfaction is related to nonviolent social uprisings, but when life dissatisfaction is accompanied by democratic dissatisfaction, violent social uprisings are more likely.

Keywords: social uprisings, relative deprivation, dissatisfaction, mobilization, anti-government movements, causes

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1996 Effects of Low Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Deprivation on Driver Physical Fatigue

Authors: Chen-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin

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Background: Driving drowsiness related to insufficient or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of vehicular accidents. Sleep deprivation is the primary reason related to low sleep efficiency. Nevertheless, the mechanism of sleep deprivation induces driving fatigue to remain unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to associate the relationship between insufficient sleep efficiency and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. Sleep efficiency was quantified as the polysomnography (PSG), and the sleep stages were sentenced by the reregistered Technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlation between sleep efficiency, sleep stages ratio, and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. The ratio of stage three sleep (N3) (0.032 ± 0.056) in fatigue group were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.01). The significantly higher value of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) was observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between deep sleep reduce and driving drowsiness. To avoid drowsy driving, the sleep deprivation, and the snoring events during the sleeping time should be monitored and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep deprivation, stage three sleep, snoring index

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1995 A Comparative Human Rights Analysis of Deprivation of Citizenship as a Counterterrorism Instrument: An Evaluation of Belgium

Authors: Louise Reyntjens

Abstract:

In response to Islamic-inspired terrorism and the growing trend of foreign fighters, European governments are increasingly relying on the deprivation of citizenship as a security tool. This development fits within a broader securitization of immigration, where the terrorist threat is perceived as emanating from abroad. As a result, immigration law became more and more ‘securitized’. The European migration crisis has reinforced this trend. This research evaluates the deprivation of citizenship from a human rights perspective. For this, the author selected four European countries for a comparative study: Belgium, France, the United Kingdom and Sweden. All these countries face similar social and security issues, vitalizing (the debate on) deprivation of citizenship as a counterterrorism tool. Yet, they adopt a very different approach on this: The United Kingdom positions itself on the repressive side of the spectrum. Sweden on the other hand, also ‘securitized’ its immigration policy after the recent terrorist hit in Stockholm but remains on the tolerant side of the spectrum. Belgium and France are situated in between. This contribution evaluates the deprivation of citizenship in Belgium. Belgian law has provided the possibility to strip someone of their Belgian citizenship since 1919. However, the provision long remained a dead letter. The 2015 Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris sparked a series of legislative changes, elevating the deprivation measure to a key security tool in Belgian law. Yet, the measure raises profound human rights issues. Firstly, it infringes the right to private and family life. As provided by Article 8 (2) European Court of Human Right (ECHR), this right can be limited if necessary for national security and public safety. Serious questions can however be raised about the necessity for the national security of depriving an individual of its citizenship. Behavior giving rise to this measure will generally be governed by criminal law. From a security perspective, criminal detention will thus already provide in removing the individual from society. Moreover, simply stripping an individual of its citizenship and deporting them constitutes a failure of criminal law’s responsibility to prosecute criminal behavior. Deprivation of citizenship is also discriminatory, because it differentiates, without a legitimate reason, between those liable to deprivation and those who are not. It thereby installs a secondary class of citizens, violating the European Court of Human Right’s principle that no distinction can be tolerated between children on the basis of the status of their parents. If followed by expulsion, deprivation also seriously jeopardizes the right to life and prohibition of torture. This contribution explores the human rights consequences of citizenship deprivation as a security tool in Belgium. It also offers a critical view on its efficacy for protecting national security.

Keywords: Belgium, counterterrorism strategies, deprivation of citizenship, human rights, immigration law

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1994 Child Homicide Victimization and Community Context: A Research Note

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

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Among serious crimes, child homicide is a rather rare event. However, the killing of children stirs up a special type of emotion in society that pales other criminal acts. This study examines the relevancy of three possible community-level explanations for child homicide: social deprivation, female empowerment, and social isolation. The social deprivation hypothesis posits that child homicide results from lack of resources in communities. The female empowerment hypothesis argues that a higher female status translates into a higher level of capability to prevent child homicide. Finally, the social isolation hypothesis regards child homicide as a result of lack of social connectivity. Child homicide data, aggregated by US postal ZIP codes in California from 1990 to 1999, were analyzed with a negative binomial regression. The results of the negative binomial analysis demonstrate that social deprivation is the most salient and consistent predictor among all other factors in explaining child homicide victimization at the ZIP-code level. Both social isolation and female labor force participation are weak predictors of child homicide victimization across communities. Further, results from the negative binomial regression show that it is the communities with a higher, not lower, degree of female labor force participation that are associated with a higher count of child homicide. It is possible that poor communities with a higher level of female employment have a lesser capacity to provide the necessary care and protection for the children. Policies aiming at reducing social deprivation and strengthening female empowerment possess the potential to reduce child homicide in the community.

Keywords: child homicide, deprivation, empowerment, isolation

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1993 Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Athletic Performance in Nigeria Colleges of Education Games

Authors: Rasheed Owolabi Oloyede, Joseph Olusegun Adelusi, Seun Oluwadare

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Sleep has been found to have many recuperative and restorative beneficial effects on athletic recovery. When a person is deprived of sleep this can have many effects on their immune and endocrine systems. Both of these systems are extremely important for the recovery process of any athlete and when we deprive ourselves of sleep, we are depriving ourselves of recovery. This study examined how sleep deprivation can hinder sport performance among selected athletes representing Adeyemi College of Education at Nigeria Colleges of Education Games (NICEGA) competitions at Minna. A total of 32 athletes were sampled for the study. They were exposed to two different activities. Each activity was performed before and after sleep deprivation, the activities were 100m dash, shuttle relay. The athletes were randomly assigned to two groups that are experimental and control groups. Pretest were conducted on both groups before apply treatment to the other group. A day before the activities to be performed the control group was denied of sleep between 10p.m to 5a.m for a period of 6 weeks. The analysis of the data showed that athletes performance in the two selected activities performed on equal basis before the sleep deprivation. After sleep deprivation the performance of experimental group was a little better than the control group that were denied of sleep. It was concluded that sleep allows the body to spend less energy resources on body processes needed while awake, it was concluded that sleep deprivation enables the body system work effectively. The body can expend needed energy, balance and adequate reaction time if it is allowed to have enough rest. Lack of adequate sleep results to dullness of the brain, nervousness and anxiety which all have negative effect on performance of activities by athletes. Based on the findings, it was recommended that extend nightly sleep for several week to reduce your sleep debt before competition. Maintain a low sleep debt by obtaining a sufficient amount of nightly sleep (seven to eight hours for adults, nine or more hours for teens and young adults). Keep a regular sleep-wake schedule, going to bed and waking up at the same times every day.

Keywords: activities, deprivation, performance, sleep

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1992 Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Prefrontal Cognitive Functions in Adolescents

Authors: Nurcihan Kiris

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Restricted sleep is common in young adults and adolescents. The results of a few objective studies of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance were not clarified. In particular, the effect of sleep deprivation on the cognitive functions associated with frontal lobe such as attention, executive functions, working memory is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation experimentally in adolescents on the cognitive tasks of frontal lobe including working memory, strategic thinking, simple attention, continuous attention, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. Subjects of the study were recruited from voluntary students of Cukurova University. Eighteen adolescents underwent four consecutive nights of monitored sleep restriction (6–6.5 hr/night) and four nights of sleep extension (10–10.5 hr/night), in counterbalanced order, and separated by a washout period. Following each sleep period, cognitive performance was assessed, at a fixed morning time, using a computerized neuropsychological battery based on frontal lobe functions task, a timed test providing both accuracy and reaction time outcome measures. Only the spatial working memory performance of cognitive tasks was found to be statistically lower in a restricted sleep condition than the extended sleep condition. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the performance of cognitive tasks evaluating simple attention, constant attention, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. It is thought that especially the spatial working memory and strategic thinking skills of adolescents may be susceptible to sleep deprivation. On the other hand, adolescents are predicted to be optimally successful in ideal sleep conditions, especially in the circumstances requiring for the short term storage of visual information, processing of stored information, and strategic thinking. The findings of this study may also be associated with possible negative functional effects on the processing of academic social and emotional inputs in adolescents for partial sleep deprivation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Cukurova University Scientific Research Projects Unit.

Keywords: attention, cognitive functions, sleep deprivation, working memory

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1991 Educational Deprivation and Their Determinants in India: Evidence from National Sample Survey

Authors: Mukesh Ranjan

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Applying probit model on the micro data of NSS 71st round on education for understanding the access to education post the passage of Right to Education act,2009 in India. The empirical analysis shows that at all India level the mean age of enrollment in school is 5.5 years and drop-out age is around 14 years (or studied up to class 7) and around 60 percent females never get enrolled in any school in their lifetime. Nearly 20 percent children in Bihar never seen school and surprisingly, the relatively developed states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu have more than one-third of the children and half of the children in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa as educationally wasted. The relative contribution in educational wastage is maximum by Bengal (10 %) while UP contributed a maximum of 30 % in educational non-enrollment in the country. Educational wastage is more likely to increase with age. Marriage is a resistive factor in getting education. Muslims are educationally more deprived than Hindus. Larger family and rich household are less likely to be educationally deprived. Major reasons for drop-out until 9 years were lack of interest in education and financial constraint; between 10-12 years, lack of interest and unable to cope up with studies and post 12 years financial constraint, marriage and other household reasons.

Keywords: probit model, educational wastage, educational non-enrollment, educational deprivation

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1990 Disagreement among the United Nations Human Rights Bodies over the Legality of Deprivation of Liberty on the Grounds of Mental Disability

Authors: Ravan Samadov

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Mentally disabled people are the most discriminated against among other disabled people and face much stronger negative attitudes across many cultures. The most complex and severe form of exclusion of these people is deprivation of liberty on the grounds of their disability. This problem was for many years overlooked to a great extent by the core human rights instruments. However, the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), adopted in 2006, is considered a potential tool to successfully fill the gap. It is especially vital for the developing countries with the vast majority of disabled people of the world and the CRPD is presumed to be able to trigger drastic positive changes. Article 14 of the mentioned human rights treaty has brought into the international forum a new notion, as prohibits deprivation of liberty on the grounds of disability. It is to be understood as an absolute prohibition of deprivation of liberty on the grounds of disability, including mental disability, which manifests in the form of non-consensual psychiatric hospitalisation. The interpretation by the CRPD Committee indicates that this prohibition well embraces all types of non-consensual psychiatric hospitalisation – whether it is based on illness, impairment or disability. This prohibition also extends to such justifications as ‘dangerousness’, ‘need for treatment’ and ‘diminished capacity’. Moreover, providing due substantive and/or procedural safeguards does not render any legitimacy to application of deprivation of liberty on the grounds of mental disability. Logically, this new prohibition form was to be duly considered by different UN human rights bodies, and was subsequently to bring changes to their practices. However, the analyses of post-CRPD work of those bodies allows for asserting the contrary, as they have continued displaying the position which recognises deprivation of liberty on the grounds of disability to be legitimate. While such a position could be justified in the pre-CRPD time as stemming from the silence of human rights documents about it, the continuation of this course after the CRPD entered into force may call the integrity and coherence of the UN human rights treaty system into question. The non-coherent approaches of different UN bodies to this novelty give grounds for misinterpretation thereof, and hinder its due implementation by the States Parties. The paper will discuss the nature of the mentioned new prohibition and the controversial approaches to that notion by different UN human rights bodies.

Keywords: CRPD, deprivation of liberty, mental disability, non-consensual psychiatric hospitalisation, UN bodies

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1989 Smart Oxygen Deprivation Mask: An Improved Design with Biometric Feedback

Authors: Kevin V. Bui, Richard A. Claytor, Elizabeth M. Priolo, Weihui Li

Abstract:

Oxygen deprivation masks operate through the use of restricting valves as a means to reduce respiratory flow where flow is inversely proportional to the resistance applied. This produces the same effect as higher altitudes where lower pressure leads to reduced respiratory flow. Both increased resistance with restricting valves and reduce the pressure of higher altitudes make breathing difficultier and force breathing muscles (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) working harder. The process exercises these muscles, improves their strength and results in overall better breathing efficiency. Currently, these oxygen deprivation masks are purely mechanical devices without any electronic sensor to monitor the breathing condition, thus not be able to provide feedback on the breathing effort nor to evaluate the lung function. That is part of the reason that these masks are mainly used for high-level athletes to mimic training in higher altitude conditions, not suitable for patients or customers. The design aims to improve the current method of oxygen deprivation mask to include a larger scope of patients and customers while providing quantitative biometric data that the current design lacks. This will be accomplished by integrating sensors into the mask’s breathing valves along with data acquisition and Bluetooth modules for signal processing and transmission. Early stages of the sensor mask will measure breathing rate as a function of changing the air pressure in the mask, with later iterations providing feedback on flow rate. Data regarding breathing rate will be prudent in determining whether training or therapy is improving breathing function and quantify this improvement.

Keywords: oxygen deprivation mask, lung function, spirometer, Bluetooth

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1988 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park

Abstract:

This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented Kalman filter

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1987 Multidimensional Study on the Deprivations Faced by Women in India

Authors: Ramya Rachel S.

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For women in a developing country like India, poverty is an ever-clinging problem which has rooted itself without any trace of absolute abolition. Poverty is a deprivation of many imminent needs and must be measured accordingly. Therefore, it is important to study the dimensions of education, health, and standard of living to understand the true nature of the impoverished. The study focused on studying the deprivation on these aspects using the Alkire-Foster methodology to estimate the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The study has utilized the individual data of women aged 15 to 49 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the year 2015-16. Findings reveal that women in India still face extreme levels of deprivation in various dimensions. More than one-third of the total women aged 15 to 24 in India were multidimensionally poor. Dimensional breakdown of the levels of multidimensional poverty indicates that the dimension of Education is the highest contributor to poverty. Decomposition of the multidimensional poverty among various demographic sub-groups, reveals that the multidimensional poverty level increases with age. Results point out that deprivations were higher among widowed and married women, and among women who lived alone. There was also a huge rural-urban divide with respect to poverty. The basic needs of these women must be targeted and met so that they are withdrawn from all forms of poverty.

Keywords: deprivations, multidimensional poverty, sub-group decomposition, women

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1986 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

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Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

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1985 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang

Abstract:

Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

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1984 The Impact of Syntactic Priming on Language Learners’ Perception of Relative Clauses

Authors: Kaine Gulozer

Abstract:

Listening comprehension in a foreign language context has been a constant challenge for Turkish speakers of English. Syntactic priming (SP) of relative clauses might affect the perception of subsequent sentences of identical structure and this could have an impact on the listening comprehension of second or foreign language learners. There has been little attempt to investigate the syntactic priming of English subject relative clauses and object relative clauses in relation to perception for the learners of English in Turkish context. This study investigates SP effects on low-proficiency EFL learners’ production of English relative clauses. Both qualitative and quantitative method along with a pre-test and post-test tasks were adopted, recruiting 62 EFL learners to receive a six-week listening instruction on relative clauses. Testing instruments for language production included the two tasks: (1) the visual- cued presentation and recall and (2) the auditory-cued presentation and recall. Students’ listening comprehension in task 1 and 2 were recorded and transcribed. Fifteen of the participants were also interviewed. The results of the dependent samples t-test analyses revealed that SP had a significant effect on the overall perception of relative clauses.

Keywords: listening comprehension, relative clauses, structural priming, syntactic persistance, syntactic priming

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1983 Flow Links Curiosity and Creativity: The Mediating Role of Flow

Authors: Nicola S. Schutte, John M. Malouff

Abstract:

Introduction: Curiosity is a positive emotion and motivational state that consists of the desire to know. Curiosity consists of several related dimensions, including a desire for exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance. Creativity involves generating novel and valuable ideas or products. How curiosity may prompt greater creativity remains to be investigated. The phenomena of flow may link curiosity and creativity. Flow is characterized by intense concentration and absorption and gives rise to optimal performance. Objective of Study: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the phenomenon of flow may link curiosity with creativity. Methods and Design: Fifty-seven individuals from Australia (45 women and 12 men, mean age of 35.33, SD=9.4) participated. Participants were asked to design a program encouraging residents in a local community to conserve water and to record the elements of their program in writing. Participants were then asked to rate their experience as they developed and wrote about their program. Participants rated their experience on the Dimensional Curiosity Measure sub-scales assessing the exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance facets of curiosity, and the Flow Short Scale. Reliability of the measures as assessed by Cronbach's alpha was as follows: Exploration Curiosity =.92, Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity =.66, Stress Tolerance Curiosity =.93, and Flow=.96. Two raters independently coded each participant’s water conservation program description on creativity. The mixed-model intraclass correlation coefficient for the two sets of ratings was .73. The mean of the two ratings produced the final creativity score for each participant. Results: During the experience of designing the program, all three types of curiosity were significantly associated with the flow. Pearson r correlations were as follows: Exploration Curiosity and flow, r =.68 (higher Exploration Curiosity was associated with more flow); Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity and flow, r =.39 (higher Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity was associated with more flow); and Stress Tolerance Curiosity and flow, r = .44 (more stress tolerance in relation to novelty and exploration was associated with more flow). Greater experience of flow was significantly associated with greater creativity in designing the water conservation program, r =.39. The associations between dimensions of curiosity and creativity did not reach significance. Even though the direct relationships between dimensions of curiosity and creativity were not significant, indirect relationships through the mediating effect of the experience of flow between dimensions of curiosity and creativity were significant. Mediation analysis using PROCESS showed that flow linked Exploration Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.23, 95%CI [.02,.25] for the indirect effect; Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.14, 95%CI [.04,.29] for the indirect effect; and Stress Tolerance Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.13, 95%CI [.02,.27] for the indirect effect. Conclusions: When engaging in an activity, higher levels of curiosity are associated with greater flow. More flow is associated with higher levels of creativity. Programs intended to increase flow or creativity might build on these findings and also explore causal relationships.

Keywords: creativity, curiosity, flow, motivation

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1982 Political Determinants of Sovereign Spread: The Great East-West Divide

Authors: Maruska Vizek, Josip Glaurdic, Marina Tkalec, Goran Vuksic

Abstract:

We empirically explore whether and how taxation affects bilateral real exchange rates in the euro area – relative unit labor costs and relative consumer price indices. We find that employers’ social security contributions and the value added tax changes have the expected effects put forward in the fiscal devaluation literature and simulations. Increases in employers’ contributions appreciate the relative unit labor costs in the short- and the long-run, while value added tax hike appreciates the relative consumer prices. Somewhat surprisingly, for personal income tax increases, we find a short-run depreciating impact on the relative unit labor costs, while increases in employees’ contributions depreciate both measures of real exchange rates in the short-run.

Keywords: sovereign bonds, European Union, developing countries, political determinants

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1981 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves

Authors: M. Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Z. Al-Zaqah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.

Keywords: random waves, regular waves, relative water depth, relative wave height, single breakwater, twin breakwater, wave steepness

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1980 Estimation of Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressures in Shale Using Simulation Method

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. Nasr

Abstract:

Relative permeabilities are practical factors that are used to correct the single phase Darcy’s law for application to multiphase flow. For effective characterisation of large-scale multiphase flow in hydrocarbon recovery, relative permeability and capillary pressures are used. These parameters are acquired via special core flooding experiments. Special core analysis (SCAL) module of reservoir simulation is applied by engineers for the evaluation of these parameters. But, core flooding experiments in shale core sample are expensive and time consuming before various flow assumptions are achieved for instance Darcy’s law. This makes it imperative for the application of coreflooding simulations in which various analysis of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures of multiphase flow can be carried out efficiently and effectively at a relative pace. This paper presents a Sendra software simulation of core flooding to achieve to relative permeabilities and capillary pressures using different correlations. The approach used in this study was three steps. The first step, the basic petrophysical parameters of Marcellus shale sample such as porosity was determined using laboratory techniques. Secondly, core flooding was simulated for particular scenario of injection using different correlations. And thirdly the best fit correlations for the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure was obtained. This research approach saves cost and time and very reliable in the computation of relative permeability and capillary pressures at steady or unsteady state, drainage or imbibition processes in oil and gas industry when compared to other methods.

Keywords: relative permeabilty, porosity, 1-D black oil simulator, capillary pressures

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1979 Political and Economic Transition of People with Disabilities Related to Globalization

Authors: Jihye Jeon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the political and economic issues that people with disabilities face related to globalization; how people with disabilities have been adapting globalization and surviving under worldwide competition system. It explains that economic globalization exacerbates inequality and deprivation of people with disabilities. The rising tide of neo-liberal welfare policies emphasized efficiency, downsized social expenditure for people with disabilities, excluded people with disabilities against labor market, and shifted them from welfare system to nothing. However, there have been people with disabilities' political responses to globalization, which are characterized by a global network of people with disabilities as well as participation to global governance. Their resistance can be seen as an attempt to tackle the problems that economic globalization has produced. It is necessary paradigm shift of disability policy from dependency represented by disability benefits to independency represented by labor market policies for people with disabilities.

Keywords: economic globalization, people with disability, deprivation, welfare cut, disability right movement, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1978 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analysed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
1977 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1976 Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere

Authors: Qian Li, Shouxiang Lu

Abstract:

With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Keywords: corrosion, fire smoke, relative humidity, Sn-0.7Cu solder

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1975 The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation

Authors: Bing-Fang Lee, Srinivasan Periasamy, Ming-Yie Liu

Abstract:

Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.

Keywords: acute liver injury, melatonin, shift work, sleep deprivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 118