Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5376

Search results for: prosocial behavior

5376 Prosocial Behavior and Satisfaction with School Life in Elementary Children: From the Perspective of Classroom Environment

Authors: Takuma Yamamoto

Abstract:

Present study investigated the relationship between elementary school children’s prosocial behavior in classroom and satisfaction with school life (approval and victimization from other children) with considering from the perspective of classroom social goal structures (prosocial and compliance goal structures). Participants were 755 elementary school children (393 boys, 362 girls, mean range= 10-12, 5th grader and 6th grader) who were living in Chugoku District, Japan. They filled up questionnaire which was consisted of Murakami, Nishimura and Sakurai’s (2016) prosocial behavior toward friend scale, Kawamura and Tagami’s (1997) satisfaction in classroom scale and Ohtani, Okada, Nakaya and Ito’s (2016) classroom social goal structures scale. Regression lines that satisfaction in classroom is dependent variable and prosocial behavior is independent variable for each class were drawn. There were two types of classroom which children’s prosocial behavior correlated with satisfaction positively and did not. Then one-way MANOVA was conducted to further describe two types of classroom which prosocial behavior increased satisfaction in classroom (type 1) and prosocial behavior decreased satisfaction (type 2). MANOVA for Prosocial goal structure was significant, type 1 > type 2. There were two key findings from this study. First, MANOVA for prosocial goal structure was significant. Second, high score of prosocial goal structure was not necessary condition for the classroom type which children’s prosocial behavior correlated with satisfaction. The implications from these key findings were: (1) in the low prosocial goal structure classroom, children will not behave prosocially because of their negative expectation for the effect of prosocial behavior, (2) this study can be a contribution for classroom management that teachers need to consider about the negative possibilities of prosocial behavior when they try to increase the amount of children’s positive behavior.

Keywords: elementary school children, classroom social goal structure, satisfaction with school life, prosocial behavior

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5375 The Effect of Mood and Normative Conformity on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Antoine Miguel Borromeo, Kristian Anthony Menez, Moira Louise Ordonez, David Carl Rabaya

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This study aimed to test if induced mood and normative conformity have any effect specifically on prosocial behavior, which was operationalized as the willingness to donate to a non-government organization. The effect of current attitude towards the object of the prosocial behavior was also considered with a covariate test. Undergraduates taking an introductory course on psychology (N = 132) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were asked how much money they were willing to donate after being presented a video about coral reef destruction and a website that advocates towards saving the coral reefs. A 3 (Induced mood: Positive vs Fear and Sadness vs Anger, Contempt, and Disgust) x 2 (Normative conformity: Presence vs Absence) between-subjects analysis of covariance was used for experimentation. Prosocial behavior was measured by presenting a circumstance wherein participants were given money and asked if they were willing to donate an amount to the non-government organization. An analysis of covariance revealed that the mood induced has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(2,125) = 0.654, p > 0.05. The analysis also showed how normative conformity has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(1,125) = 0.238, p > 0.05, as well as their interaction F(2, 125) = 1.580, p > 0.05. However, the covariate, current attitude towards corals was revealed to be significant, F(1,125) = 8.778, p < 0.05. From this, we speculate that inherent attitudes of people have a greater effect on prosocial behavior than temporary factors such as mood and conformity.

Keywords: attitude, induced mood, normative conformity, prosocial behavior

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5374 Effect of Organizational Competitive Climate on Organizational Prosocial Behavior: Workplace Envy as a Mediator

Authors: Armaghan Eslami, Nasrin Arshadi

Abstract:

Scarce resources are the inseparable part of organization life. This fact that only small number of the employees can have these resources such as promotion, raise, and recognition can cause competition among employees, which create competitive climate. As well as any other competition, small number wins the reward, and a great number loses, one of the possible emotional reactions to this loss is negative emotions like malicious envy. In this case, the envious person may try to harm the envied person by reducing the prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is a behavior that aimed to benefit others. The main propose of this action is to maintain and increase well-being and well-fare of others. Therefore, one of the easiest ways for harming envied one is to suppress prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior has positive and important implication for organizational efficiency. Our results supported our model and suggested that competitive climate has a significant effect on increasing workplace envy and on the other hand envy has significant negative impact on prosocial behavior. Our result also indicated that envy is the mediator in the relation between competitive climate and prosocial behavior. Organizational competitive climate can cause employees respond envy with negative emotion and hostile and damaging behavior toward envied person. Competition can lead employees to look out for proof of their self-worthiness; and, furthermore, they measure their self-worth, value and respect by the superiority that they gain in competitions. As a result, loss in competitions can harm employee’s self-definition and they try to protect themselves by devaluating envied other and being ‘less friendly’ to them. Some employees may find it inappropriate to engage in the harming behavior, but they may believe there is nothing against withholding the prosocial behavior.

Keywords: competitive climate, mediator, prosocial behavior, workplace envy

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5373 The Effect of Cognitively-Induced Self-Construal and Direct Behavioral Mimicry on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Czar Matthew Gerard Dayday, Danielle Marie Estrera, Philippe Jefferson Galban, Gabrielle Marie Heredia

Abstract:

The study aimed to examine the effects of self-construal and direct mimicry on prosocial behavior. The study made use of a 2 (Self-construal: independent or interdependent) x 2 (Mimicry: mimicry or non-mimicry) between subjects factorial design where effects of self-construal was cognitively-induced through a story with varying pronouns (We, Us, Ourselves vs. Me, I, Myself), and prosocial behavior was measured with the amount of money donated to a fabricated advocacy. The research was conducted with a convenience sampling comprised of 88 undergraduate students (58 Females, 33 Males) aged 16 to 26 years olds from the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Results from the experiment show that both factors do not have significant main effects on prosocial behavior. Additionally, their interaction also does not have a significant effect to prosocial behavior with No Mimicry x Independent ranking highest in amount of money donated and Mimicry x Interdependent ranking lowest. These results can be attributed to multiple factors, which include the collectivist orientation and sense of kapwa of Filipinos, a role reversal in the methodology and the lack of Chameleon Effect, and a weak priming of self-construal with respect to self-relatedness.

Keywords: behavior, mimicry, prosocial, self-construal

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5372 The Effects of Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors on Task Cohesion and Burnout: The Role of Affect and Motivational Climate

Authors: Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu

Abstract:

Prosocial and antisocial behavior occurs in sport. Prosocial behavior is voluntary behavior intended to help or benefit another individual, while antisocial behavior is behavior intended to harm or disadvantage another individual. Previous sport morality research has investigated primarily antecedents of prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, the potential consequences of these behaviors remain unexplored. The aims of this study were to examine whether: (a) perceived prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior predicts task cohesion and burnout; (b) affect mediate these relationships; and (c) motivational climate moderates any of these effects. Participants were male (n = 96) and female (n = 176) teams sport players (Mage = 21.86, SD = 4.36), who completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. Mediation analysis (Hayes, 2013) indicated that prosocial teammate behavior positively predicted task cohesion and negatively predicted burnout; these effects were mediated by positive affect. Also, mastery climate moderated the positive effect of prosocial teammate behavior on task cohesion: The effect of antisocial teammate behavior on task cohesion was stronger for players who perceived a higher mastery climate created by their coaches. Performance climate moderated the negative effect of prosocial teammate behavior on burnout: This effect was only significant for players who perceived moderate or low levels of performance team climate. Antisocial teammate behavior negatively predicted task cohesion and positively predicted burnout, and these effects were mediated by negative affect. Also, performance climate moderated the positive effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout, such that the effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout was stronger for players who perceived a lower performance climate. The research findings shed some light on the potential role of prosocial and antisocial teammate behaviors as well as coach-created motivational climate on influencing players’ affect, task cohesion, and burnout. Coaches should focus on creating a mastery motivational climate and rewarding prosocial behavior while at the same time trying to deter antisocial behavior among teammates in order to enhance positive affect, task cohesion, and prevent experience of negative affect and burnout.

Keywords: mediation, moderation, morality, teams sport

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5371 Is School Misbehavior a Decision: Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior

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5370 Devising a Paradigm for the Assessment of Guilt across Species

Authors: Trisha S. Malhotra

Abstract:

While there exist frameworks to study the induction, manifestation, duration and general nature of emotions like shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride in humans, the same cannot be said for other species. This is because such 'complex' emotions have situational inductions and manifestations that supposedly vary due to differences between and within different species' ethology. This paper looks at the socio-adaptive functions of guilt to posit why this emotion might be observed across varying species. Primarily, the experimental paradigm of guilt-assessment in domesticated dogs is critiqued for lack of ethological consideration in its measurement and analysis. It is argued that a paradigm for guilt-assessment should measure the species-specific prosocial approach behavior instead of the immediate feedback of the 'guilty'. Finally, it is asserted that the origin of guilt is subjective and if it must be studied across a plethora of species, its definition must be tailored to fit accordingly.

Keywords: guilt, assessment, dogs, prosocial approach behavior, empathy, species, ethology

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5369 The Mechanism Underlying Empathy-Related Helping Behavior: An Investigation of Empathy-Attitude- Action Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Liao, Angela K. Tzeng

Abstract:

Empathy has been an important issue in psychology, education, as well as cognitive neuroscience. Empathy has two major components: cognitive and emotional. Cognitive component refers to the ability to understand others’ perspectives, thoughts, and actions, whereas emotional component refers to understand how others feel. Empathy can be induced, attitude can then be changed, and with enough attitude change, helping behavior can occur. This finding leads us to two questions: is attitude change really necessary for prosocial behavior? And, what roles cognitive and affective empathy play? For the second question, participants with different psychopathic personality (PP) traits are critical because high PP people were found to suffer only affective empathy deficit. Their cognitive empathy shows no significant difference from the control group. 132 college students voluntarily participated in the current three-stage study. Stage 1 was to collect basic information including Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), Attitude Scale, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and demographic data. Stage two was for empathy induction with three controversial scenarios, namely domestic violence, depression with a suicide attempt, and an ex-offender. Participants read all three stories and then rewrite the stories by one of two perspectives (empathetic vs. objective). They would then complete the VAS and Attitude Scale one more time for their post-attitude and emotional status. Three IVs were introduced for data analysis: PP (High vs. Low), Responsibility (whether or not the character is responsible for what happened), and Perspective-taking (Empathic vs. Objective). Stage 3 was for the action. Participants were instructed to freely use the 17 tokens they received as donations. They were debriefed and interviewed at the end of the experiment. The major findings were people with higher empathy tend to take more action in helping. Attitude change is not necessary for prosocial behavior. The controversy of the scenarios and how familiar participants are towards target groups play very important roles. Finally, people with high PP tend to show more public prosocial behavior due to their affective empathy deficit. Pre-existing value and belief as well as recent dramatic social events seem to have a big impact and possibly reduce the effect of the independent variables (IV) in our paradigm.

Keywords: empathy, cognitive, emotional, psychopathy

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5368 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki

Abstract:

Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: child development, interpersonal coordination, prosociality, synchrony, wavelet transform

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5367 The Role of Physical Education and Fitness for Active Ageing

Authors: A. Lakshya

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to interpret physical education for children from 5 to 18 years. Schools have the ability to promote positive mental health by developing physical education, which helps to build individual growth, goal setting, decision making, helps in muscular development, self-discipline, stresses relief, leadership qualities that can arise with new skills, prosocial behavior and problem-solving skills. But mostly the children at these early ages ought to hold the disorders as heart attack, diabetes and obesity disorders may increase in large number. The data of P.E has got a very least place, where children are with feeble minds and they acquired a state of inactiveness. Globally, 81% of adolescents aged 11-18 years were insufficiently physically active in the year 2016. Adolescent girls were less active than boys, with the percentage of 85% vs. 78% as well. A recent study of California schools found that students are sedentary most of the time during PE classes, with just four minutes of every half-hour spent in vigorous physical activity. Additionally, active PE time decreases with larger class sizes. Students in classes with more than forty-five students are half as active as students in smaller class sizes. The children in adolescence age they acquire more creative ideas hence they create new hairstyles, cooking styles and dressing styles. Instead, all the children are engaging themselves to TV (television) and video games. The development of physical quality not only improves students ’ physical fitness but is also conducive to the psychological development of the students. Physical education teaching should pay more attention to the training of physical quality in the future.

Keywords: physical education, prosocial behavior, leadership, goal setting

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5366 A Validation of the German Version of the Basic Empathy Scale in a Community Sample

Authors: Andra Biesok, Katja Witte

Abstract:

Empathy is the capacity to understand and share another's emotional state and context and is the evolutionary mechanism behind altruism, prosocial behavior, human civilization, and subsequently, resistance to violence. High levels of empathy are associated with prosocial behavior, lack of empathy is associated with antisocial behavior, including aggression, delinquency, and criminal offense recidivism. The present study aims to validate the German version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), which measures both cognitive and affective empathy and has been validated in multiple languages but not in a German community sample. The study sample contains N = 321 healthy individuals (Mage = 18.93, SDage = 4.23) who completed the German version of the BES, consisting of 20 items. The German version of the BES consists of 20 items. Responses are given on a 5-point rating scale. Psychometric validation consisted of several steps. First, factorial validity was examined. Therefore, separate models for both factors (affective & cognitive) were computed. Then the models were fitted, based on the modification indices. In a last step, the separate models were integrated into an overall model. The two-factorial structure was confirmed with necessary adjustments. The final model showed a good fit to the data: RMSEA = .063; SRMR = .070; CFI = .902. The two subscales correlated significantly (r = .45, p < .01). Second, construct validity was examined. In terms of convergent validity, we found significant correlations between the two subscales of the BES and another empathy measure, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRIS). Regarding discriminant validity, correlations between the BES subscales and the Big Five dimensions could be revealed. In a final step, we examined concurrent validity and investigated whether sex differences (on average higher mean values of empathy for women) could be replicated for our sample. We found higher mean values for women on both, cognitive (Mwomen = 4.48, SDwomen = 0.64 vs. Mmen = 3.90, SDmen = 0.54) and affective (Mwomen = 5.02, SDwomen = 0.71 vs. Mmen = 4.64, SDmen = 0.69) empathy. We estimated internal consistency with McDonald’s omega. Omega ranged from ω = .72 (affective) to ω = .87 (cognitive).

Keywords: basic empathy scale, empathy, Germany, validation study

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5365 The Effect of Prior Characteristic on Perceived Prosocial Content in Media

Authors: Pawit Monkolprasit, Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

It was important to understand the impact of media in young adolescents. The animated film, Khun Tong Dang the Inspirations (2015), was purposefully created for teaching young children to have a positive personal trait. The current study used this film as the case study. The objective is to understand the relationship between the good characteristic of movie audiences and their perception of the good characteristic of a movie character. One-hundred students from various age ranges responded to quantitative questionnaires. The questions included their age, gender, perception about their own personal traits, perception about their experiences with others, and perception about the bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character. It was found that a good personal trait has a strong relationship with the perception of bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character.

Keywords: impact of media, children, personal trait, prosocial content

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5364 Interoception and Its Role in Connecting Empathy, Bodily Perception and Conceptual Representations: A Cross-Cultural Online Study

Authors: Fabio Marson, Revital Naor-Ziv, Patrizio Paoletti, Joseph Glicksohn, Filippo Carducci, Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan

Abstract:

According to embodied cognition theories, higher-order cognitive functions and complex behaviors seems to be affected by bodily states. For example, the polyvagal theory suggests that the human autonomic nervous system evolved to support social interactions. Accordingly, integration and perception of information related to the physiological state arising from the peripherical nervous system (i.e., interoception) play a role in the regulation of social interaction by modulating emotional responses and prosocial behaviors. Moreover, recent studies showed that interoception is involved in the representations of conceptual knowledge, suggesting that the bodily information carried by the interoceptive system provides a perceptual basis for the embodiment of abstract concepts, especially those related to social and emotional domains. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies explored the relationship between interoception, prosocial behaviors, and conceptual representations. Considering the privileged position of interoception in mediating higher-order cognition and social interaction, we designed a cross-cultural study to explore the relationship between interoception, the sensitivity of bodily functions, and empathy. We recruited Italian, English, and Hebrew participants, and we asked them to fill in a questionnaire about empathy (Empathy Quotient), a questionnaire about bodily perception (Body Perception Questionnaire), and to rate different concrete and abstract concepts for the extent such concepts can be experienced through vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and interoception. We observed that in all languages, interoception ratings for abstract concepts were greater than for concrete concepts. Importantly, interoception ratings for abstract concepts were positively correlated with empathy and sensitivity of bodily functions. Our results suggest that participants with higher empathy and sensitivity of bodily functions show also a greater embodiment of abstract concepts in interoception, providing further evidence for the importance of the interoceptive system in regulating prosocial behaviors and integrating conceptual representations.

Keywords: conceptual representations, embodiment, empathy, empathy quotient, interoception, prosocial behaviors

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5363 Pathway Linking Early Use of Electronic Device and Psychosocial Wellbeing in Early Childhood

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T.S. Tung, Winnie W. Y. Tso, King-Wa Fu, Nirmala Rao, Patrick Ip

Abstract:

Electronic devices have become an essential part of our lives. Various reports have highlighted the alarming usage of electronic devices at early ages and its long-term developmental consequences. More sedentary screen time was associated with increased adiposity, worse cognitive and motor development, and psychosocial health. Apart from the problems caused by children’s own screen time, parents today are often paying less attention to their children due to hand-held device. Some anecdotes suggest that distracted parenting has negative impact on parent-child relationship. This study examined whether distracted parenting detrimentally affected parent-child activities which may, in turn, impair children’s psychosocial health. In 2018/19, we recruited a cohort of preschoolers from 32 local kindergartens in Tin Shui Wai and Sham Shui Po for a 5-year programme aiming to build stronger foundations for children from disadvantaged backgrounds through an integrated support model involving medical, education and social service sectors. A comprehensive set of questionnaires were used to survey parents on their frequency of being distracted while parenting and their frequency of learning and recreational activities with children. Furthermore, they were asked to report children’s screen time amount and their psychosocial problems. Mediation analyses were performed to test the direct and indirect effects of electronic device-distracted parenting on children’s psychosocial problems. This study recruited 873 children (448 females and 425 males, average age: 3.42±0.35). Longer screen time was associated with more psychosocial difficulties (Adjusted B=0.37, 95%CI: 0.12 to 0.62, p=0.004). Children’s screen time positively correlated with electronic device-distracted parenting (r=0.369, p < 01). We also found that electronic device-distracted parenting was associated with more hyperactive/inattentive problems (Adjusted B=0.66, p < 0.01), fewer prosocial behavior (Adjusted B=-0.74, p < 0.01), and more emotional symptoms (Adjusted B=0.61, p < 0.001) in children. Further analyses showed that electronic device-distracted parenting exerted influences both directly and indirectly through parent-child interactions but to different extent depending upon the outcome under investigation (38.8% for hyperactivity/inattention, 31.3% for prosocial behavior, and 15.6% for emotional symptoms). We found that parents’ use of devices and children’s own screen time both have negative effects on children’s psychosocial health. It is important for parents to set “device-free times” each day so as to ensure enough relaxed downtime for connecting with children and responding to their needs.

Keywords: early childhood, electronic device, psychosocial wellbeing, parenting

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5362 Compassion Fade: Effects of Mass Perception and Intertemporal Choice on Non-Volunteering Behavior

Authors: Mariel L. Alonzo, Patricia Mae T. Chi, Juliana Patrice P. Mayormita, Sanjana A. Sorio

Abstract:

Compassion fade proposes an inverse relationship between the magnitude of stimuli to elicited compassion. This phenomenon is viewed within a framework that integrates a 3-Act Compassion structure with Latané and Darley’s Unresponsive Bystander Model and Prospect Theory of Decision-making under risk. Students (N=211) from Ateneo de Davao were sampled to examine the effects of mass perception (increasing number of needy persons) and intertemporal choice (soon versus later) on volunteering behavior. Collegiate classes in their natural setting were randomly assigned to five different treatment groups and were presented with audiovisual presentations featuring an increasing number of needy persons. The students were deceived to believe that two hypothetical feeding programs for Marawi refugees, taking place in 1 month and 6 months, were in need of volunteers for its preparatory phase. Results show a statistically significant (p=0.000; p=0.013) non-linear trend consistently for both feeding programs. There was a decrease in volunteered time means as identifiable victims increased from 0-47 and an increase as it progressed towards 267 non-identifiable victims. Highest interest was expressed for the 0 needy people shown and least for 47. The 0 hours volunteered was consistently the mode and median in all treatments. There was no statistically significant temporal discounting effect.

Keywords: compassion, group perception, identifiable victim, intertemporal choice, prosocial behavior, unresponsive bystander

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5361 Influence of Unconditional Endowments and Sharing Opportunity in the Performance of Effort Tasks: A Lab-In-The-Field Experiment on UBI with Unemployed

Authors: Blanca Tena Estrada, Nhat Luong

Abstract:

The universal basic income (UBI) is a widely discussed and researched, although not yet established, redistribution system. Its introduction has been proposed by the UN to tackle the economic instability that threatens human rights nowadays. Multiple empirical studies have analyzed how it would impact labor supply, however, some questions are still left unanswered. Field experiments are constrained in the duration and the population targeted. Lab experiments have only been performed with university students, whereas it is economically unstable who would benefit the most from it. For the unemployed, the UBI would translate into a guaranteed income floor, which from an economic theory perspective would result in a gain in bargaining power as well as a disincentive to work. Additionally, the UBI’s prosocial facet through the increase of taxes could also influence the motivation to work. To assess these aspects, a lab-in-the-field experiment was conducted with unemployed visitors of a State Employment Service office in Spain. Participants were either provided with an initial unconditional endowment, framed under the logic of the cooperation condition of UBI (UBI) or as a participation fee (FEE), or without any initial endowment (NONUBI). Subsequently, they faced a set of four real effort tasks from which they could earn money. The starting default task was randomized and the participants could change the performed task up to three times and/or skip all tasks and conclude the experiment at any time. While no difference was found between the group receiving an unconditional endowment (FEE) and the group who did not (NON UBI), the FEE and the UBI treatment groups statistically differed in the earnings. A likely reason could be a crowd out effect stimulated by the pressure to reciprocate without believing in other participants’ deservingness of the UBI. In addition, the results confirm a gender divergence in the frequency of changing tasks. The results uncover some new research desiderata concerning the UBI.

Keywords: lab-in-the-field experiment, labor supply, prosocial behavior, real-effort experiment, universal basic income

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5360 Externalizing Behavior Problems Influencing Social Behavior in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

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This study focuses on early adolescent externalizing behavioral problems which specifically concentrate on rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the externalizing behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 1975 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a hierarchical modeling method was used to explore the causal relations among background variables, breaking behavior variables and aggressive behavior variables.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, breaking behavior, early adolescence, externalizing problem

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5359 The Effect of Sensory Integration in Reduction of Stereotype Behaviour in Autistic Children

Authors: Mohammad Khamoushi, Reza Mirmahdi

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The aim of this research was the effect of sensory integration in reduction of stereotype behaviors in autistic children. The statistical population included 55 children with the age range 2/8 – 14 in Esfahan Ordibehesht autistic center. Purposive sampling was used for selecting the sample group and 20 children with random assignment were designated in two group; experimental and control . Research project was quasi-experimental two-group with pretest and posttest. Data collection tools included repetitive behavior scale-revised with six sub-scales: stereotype behavior, self-injurious behavior, compulsive behavior, ritualistic behavior, sameness behavior, restricted behavior. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing hypotheses. Result show that sensory integration procedure was effective in reduction of stereotype behavior, compulsive behavior and self-injurious behavior in autistic children. According to the findings, it is suggested that effect sensory integration procedure in stereotype behavior of autism children should be studied and used for treatment of other disabilities of this children.

Keywords: autism, sensory integration procedure, stereotype behavior, compulsive behavior

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5358 The Suffering Other and the Deserving Self; When Humanitarianism Intersects with Individualism and Neo-Liberalism

Authors: Irene Bruna Seu

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This paper draws on a three-year research project investigating everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in the humanitarian context. The analysis focuses on the principle of deservingness by which members of the public decide who and under which conditions to help and illustrates how the speakers engage in ideological dilemmas. The paper focuses on the theme ‘Something for nothing’ to examine how the position of ‘deserving’ and the speaker’s rights and duties in relation to victims of humanitarian crises are negotiated. Discursive analyses of this dilemmatic storyline of deservingness illuminate the cultural and ideological resources buttressing this construction. They also illustrate how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The presentation will focus on the role of Individualism underpinned by Neo-liberalism ideology. The data propose that neo-liberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics play an important role in decisions regarding humanitarian helping. The paper argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmatic nature of moral reasoning in the humanitarian context, and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the socio-cultural and ideological landscape in which the helpers operate.

Keywords: humanitarianism, individualism, ideological dilemmas, discourse, neo-liberalism, prosocial behaviour

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5357 The Trauma Suffered by Left behind Children and Its Impact on Their Emotional Development: A Pilot Study with Brazilian Immigrants in the United States

Authors: Liliane Clark

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Immigrating to a different country may imply having to handle many difficult exertions. There is a particular issue that has to be endured by some immigrants: the children they had to leave behind. It is a phenomenon that occurs with certain frequency. Surprisingly, despite the fact that immigration in the United States is such a large proceeding, there is not much research about the topic in America exploring the trauma of the abandonment caused by this separation and its consequences on the mental health of those children. The term “left behind children” is usually applied to children who were left behind by their parents in their original nation under the care of a noteworthy relative, frequently the grandparents, when they moved to another country. This preliminary research, which is a partial study projected for a doctoral thesis, investigated whether the trauma of abandonment experienced by ten left behind children had affected their emotional development. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a brief interview were utilized to assess the information. The SDQ explored scales such as emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial behavior. In this pilot study, the results indicated that all these issues had some sort of significant correlation between them. During the interviews, the participants or their parents identified a range of symptoms: anxiety disorder, eating disorders, panic attacks, psychotic-like experiences, drug use and depression. Hence, it seems that there is a connection between the trauma of abandonment suffered due to the separation and the children’s consequent symptomatic behavior. Further studies are indeed necessary to validate the initial results of this investigation.

Keywords: abandonment, parent migration, psychological problems, trauma

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5356 Fashion Consumption for Fashion Innovators: A Study of Fashion Consumption Behavior of Innovators and Non-Innovators

Authors: Vaishali P. Joshi, Pallav Joshi

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The objective of this study is to examine the differences fashion innovators and non-fashion innovators in their fashion consumption behavior in terms of their pre-purchase behavior, purchase behavior and post purchase behavior. The questionnaire was distributed to a female college student for data collection for achieving the objective of the first part of the study. Question-related to fashion innovativeness and fashion consumption behavior was asked. The sample was comprised of 81 college females ages 18 through 30 who were attending Business Management degree. A series of attitude questions was used to categorize respondents on the Innovativeness Scale. 32 respondents with a score of 21 and above were designated as Fashion innovators and the remainder (49) as Non-fashion innovators. Findings showed that there exist significant differences between innovators and non-innovators in their fashion consumption behavior. Data was analyzed through frequency distribution table. Many differences were found in the behavior of innovators and non-innovators in terms of their pre-purchase, actual purchase, and post-purchase behavior.

Keywords: fashion, innovativeness, consumption behavior, purchase

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5355 The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior

Authors: Yu Du, Jian-Guo Wang

Abstract:

Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.

Keywords: green product, attitude-behavior gap, behavior reasoning theory, green consumption, SEM

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5354 Predicting Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis Using Machine Learning and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Eva Tolmeijer, Emmanuelle Peters, Veena Kumari, Liam Mason

Abstract:

Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is effective in many but not all patients, making it important to better understand the factors that determine treatment outcomes. To date, no studies have examined whether neuroimaging can make clinically useful predictions about who will respond to CBTp. To this end, we used machine learning methods that make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level. Prior to receiving CBTp, 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a social-affective processing task during functional MRI. Multivariate pattern analysis assessed whether treatment response could be predicted by brain activation responses to facial affect that was either socially threatening or prosocial. The resulting models did significantly predict symptom improvement, with distinct multivariate signatures predicting psychotic (r=0.54, p=0.01) and affective (r=0.32, p=0.05) symptoms. Psychotic symptom improvement was accurately predicted from relatively focal threat-related activation across hippocampal, occipital, and temporal regions; affective symptom improvement was predicted by a more dispersed profile of responses to prosocial affect. These findings enrich our understanding of the neurobiological underpinning of treatment response. This study provides a foundation that will hopefully lead to greater precision and tailoring of the interventions offered to patients.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, machine learning, psychosis, schizophrenia

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5353 Factors Predicting Preventive Behavior for Osteoporosis in University Students

Authors: Thachamon Sinsoongsud, Noppawan Piaseu

Abstract:

This predictive study was aimed to 1) describe self efficacy for risk reduction and preventive behavior for osteoporosis, and 2) examine factors predicting preventive behavior for osteoporosis in nursing students. Through purposive sampling, the sample included 746 nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire on self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis with stepwise method. Results revealed that majority of the students were female (98.3%) with mean age of 19.86 + 1.26 years. The students had self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis at moderate level. Self efficacy and level of education could together predicted 35.2% variance of preventive behavior for osteoporosis (p< .001). Results suggest approaches for promoting preventive behavior for osteoporosis through enhancing self efficacy among nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand.

Keywords: osteoporosis, self-efficacy, preventive behavior, nursing students

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5352 Internet Use and Academic Procrastination Behavior in High School Students

Authors: Endah Mastuti, Prihastuti Sudaryono

Abstract:

The rapid development of Internet usage and technology influences the academic behavior of students in high schools. One of the consequences is the emergence of academic procrastination behavior. Academic procrastination behavior is students’ procrastinate behavior in completing assignments. This study aimed to see whether there are differences in the duration of using the internet with academic procrastinate behavior among high school students in Surabaya. The number of research subject is 498 high school students. Instruments of the research are academic procrastination scale and duration of the internet usage questionnaire. The results from One Way Anova shows F value 0.241 with a significance level of 0.868 This demonstrates that there is no difference between the duration of the use of the Internet with academic procrastination behavior in high school students.

Keywords: academic procrastination, duration of internet usage, students, senior high school

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5351 Factors Related to Employee Adherence to Rules in Kuwait Business Organizations

Authors: Ali Muhammad

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical framework which demonstrates the effect of four personal factors on employees rule following behavior in Kuwaiti business organizations. The model suggested in this study includes organizational citizenship behavior, affective organizational commitment, organizational trust, and procedural justice as possible predictors of rule following behavior. The study also attempts to compare the effects of the suggested factors on employees rule following behavior. The new model will, hopefully, extend previous research by adding new variables to the models used to explain employees rule following behavior. A discussion of issues related to rule-following behavior is presented, as well as recommendations for future research.

Keywords: employee adherence to rules, organizational justice, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior

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5350 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon

Abstract:

The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: consumer, behavior, bakery, standard deviation

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5349 Analysis of Cooperative Learning Behavior Based on the Data of Students' Movement

Authors: Wang Lin, Li Zhiqiang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the cooperative learning behavior pattern based on the data of students' movement. The study firstly reviewed the cooperative learning theory and its research status, and briefly introduced the k-means clustering algorithm. Then, it used clustering algorithm and mathematical statistics theory to analyze the activity rhythm of individual student and groups in different functional areas, according to the movement data provided by 10 first-year graduate students. It also focused on the analysis of students' behavior in the learning area and explored the law of cooperative learning behavior. The research result showed that the cooperative learning behavior analysis method based on movement data proposed in this paper is feasible. From the results of data analysis, the characteristics of behavior of students and their cooperative learning behavior patterns could be found.

Keywords: behavior pattern, cooperative learning, data analyze, k-means clustering algorithm

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5348 A Time Delay Neural Network for Prediction of Human Behavior

Authors: A. Hakimiyan, H. Namazi

Abstract:

Human behavior is defined as a range of behaviors exhibited by humans who are influenced by different internal or external sources. Human behavior is the subject of much research in different areas of psychology and neuroscience. Despite some advances in studies related to forecasting of human behavior, there are not many researches which consider the effect of the time delay between the presence of stimulus and the related human response. Analysis of EEG signal as a fractal time series is one of the major tools for studying the human behavior. In the other words, the human brain activity is reflected in his EEG signal. Artificial Neural Network has been proved useful in forecasting of different systems’ behavior especially in engineering areas. In this research, a time delay neural network is trained and tested in order to forecast the human EEG signal and subsequently human behavior. This neural network, by introducing a time delay, takes care of the lagging time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the rise of the subsequent action potential. The results of this study are useful not only for the fundamental understanding of human behavior forecasting, but shall be very useful in different areas of brain research such as seizure prediction.

Keywords: human behavior, EEG signal, time delay neural network, prediction, lagging time

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5347 Dysfunctional Behavior of External Auditors, The Collision of Time Budget and Time Deadline

Authors: Rabih Nehme, Abdullah Al Mutawa

Abstract:

The general goal behind this research is to gain a better understanding of factors leading to dysfunctional behavior of auditors. Recent accounting scandals -Enron, Waste Management Inc., WorldCom, Xerox Corporation, etc. -provided an ample proof of how the role of auditors has become the basis of controversial debates in many circles and instances in our modern time. The majority of lawsuits and accounting scandals seem to have a central topic in focus, namely the question ''Where were the auditors? The survey we offer up for research is made up of 34 questions that are designed to analyse the perception of auditors and the cause of dysfunctional behavior. The object of this research is comprised of auditors positioned and employed at the Big Four audit firms in Kuwait. Dysfunctional behavior (DB) is measured against two signal proxies of dysfunctional behavior; premature sign-off and under reporting of chargeable time. DB is analysed against time budget pressure and time deadline pressure. The research results' suggest that the general belief among auditors is that the profession of accountancy predetermines their tendency to commit certain patterns of dysfunctional behavior. Having our investigation conducted at the Big Four audit firms, we have come to the conclusion that there is a general difference in behavior patterns among perceptions of dysfunctional behavior and normal skeptic professional behavior.

Keywords: big four, dysfunctional behavior, time budget, time deadline

Procedia PDF Downloads 387