Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 576

Search results for: prospective

576 Self-Efficacy Perceptions and the Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Assessment and Evaluation

Authors: Münevver Başman, Ezel Tavşancıl

Abstract:

Making the right decisions about students depends on teachers’ use of the assessment and evaluation techniques effectively. In order to do that, teachers should have positive attitudes and adequate self-efficacy perception towards assessment and evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between self-efficacy perception and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation and what kind of differences these issues have in terms of a variety of demographic variables. The study group consisted of 277 prospective teachers who have been studying in different departments of Marmara University, Faculty of Education. In this study, ‘Personal Information Form’, ‘A Perceptual Scale for Measurement and Evaluation of Prospective Teachers Self-Efficacy in Education’ and ‘Attitudes toward Educational Measurement Inventory’ are applied. As a result, positive correlation was found between self-efficacy perceptions and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation. Considering different departments, there is a significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them. However, considering variables of attending statistics class and the class types at the graduated high school, there is no significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them.

Keywords: attitude, perception, prospective teacher, self-efficacy

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575 Hydrocarbon New Business Opportunities in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges

Authors: N. G. Obaje, S. I. Ibrahim, N. Dadi-Mamud, M. K. Musa, I. Yusuf

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An integrated study combining geological prospectivity mapping and geophysical aeromagnetic interpretation was carried out to determine hydrocarbon new business opportunities that may exist in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria. Geological mapping was used to delineate the geological boundaries between the formations which is a significant initial criterion in evaluating hydrocarbon prospectivity. Processed and interpreted geophysical aeromagnetic data over the basin juxtaposed against the geological map has led to ranking of the prospectivity as less prospective, prospective and more prospective. The prospective and more prospective areas constitute new hydrocarbon business opportunities in the basin. The more prospective areas are at Pattishabakolo near Bida and at Kandi near Gulu. Prospective areas cover Badegi, Lemu, Duba, Kutigi, Auna, Mashegu and Mokwa. Geochemical data show that hydrocarbon source rocks exist within the Enagi and Patti formations in the northern and southern sections respectively. The geophysical aeromagnetic data indicates depths of more than 2,000m (> 2 Km) within the identified prospective areas. New business opportunities as used here refer to open acreages in Nigeria’s sedimentary basins that have not been licensed out by the government (Department of Petroleum Resources) to any operator but with significant potentials for commercial hydrocarbon accumulation.

Keywords: hydrocarbon, aeromagnetic, business opportunity, Bida Basin

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574 Prospective Teachers’ Comments on Both Students’ Misconceptions and Their

Authors: Mihriban Hacisalihoğlu Karadeniz, Figen Bozkuş, Tuğba Baran, Ümit Akar

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Creating the correct symmetry of conceptual knowledge about students, conceptual information about the symmetry of the instructors is important. However, teachers’, the students should be aware of the existing misconceptions and be able to develop strategies to correct these misconceptions. In this study, the purpose, the prospective teachers’, the students’ explanations for corrections of misconceptions and misconceptions were asked to be introduced. The working group during the 2012-2013 academic year, Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Mathematics Education consists of studying at the twenty-six prospective teachers. The study adopted a qualitative approach. The data prepared by the researchers were obtained with an open-ended test. As a result of analysis of the data, prospective with teaching the concept of symmetry observed in more developed practical solutions. These solutions are focused on the method, students utilization mirrors, paper folding, such as using a square piece of registration of events. Prospective teachers’ who think this way, students observed that overlooked the creation of conceptual knowledge.

Keywords: symmetry concepts, misconceptions, elementary mathematics, prospective teachers-students

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573 Retrieval-Induced Forgetting Effects in Retrospective and Prospective Memory in Normal Aging: An Experimental Study

Authors: Merve Akca

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Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon that selective retrieval of some information impairs memory for related, but not previously retrieved information. Despite age differences in retrieval-induced forgetting regarding retrospective memory being documented, this research aimed to highlight age differences in RIF of the prospective memory tasks for the first time. By using retrieval-practice paradigm, this study comparatively examined RIF effects in retrospective memory and event-based prospective memory in young and old adults. In this experimental study, a mixed factorial design with age group (Young, Old) as a between-subject variable, and memory type (Prospective, Retrospective) and item type (Practiced, Non-practiced) as within-subject variables was employed. Retrieval-induced forgetting was observed in the retrospective but not in the prospective memory task. Therefore, the results indicated that selective retrieval of past events led to suppression of other related past events in both age groups but not the suppression of memory for future intentions.

Keywords: prospective memory, retrieval-induced forgetting, retrieval inhibition, retrospective memory

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572 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge on the Definition of Limit and Derivative

Authors: Reyhan Tekin Sitrava

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Teachers should have robust and comprehensive content knowledge for effective mathematics teaching. It was explained that content knowledge includes knowing the facts, truths, and concepts; explaining the reasons behind these facts, truths and concepts, and making relationship between the concepts and other disciplines. By virtue of its importance, it will be significant to explore teachers and prospective teachers’ content knowledge related to variety of topics in mathematics. From this point of view, the purpose of this study was to investigate prospective mathematics teachers’ content knowledge. Particularly, it was aimed to reveal the prospective teachers’ knowledge regarding the definition of limit and derivate. To achieve the purpose and to get in-depth understanding, a qualitative case study method was used. The data was collected from 34 prospective mathematics teachers through a questionnaire containing 2 questions. The first question required the prospective teachers to define the limit and the second one required to define the derivative. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Based on the analysis of the data, although half of the prospective teachers (50%) could write the definition of the limit, nine prospective teachers (26.5%) could not define limit. However, eight prospective teachers’ definition was regarded as partially correct. On the other hand, twenty-seven prospective teachers (79.5%) could define derivative, but seven of them (20.5%) defined it partially. According to the findings, most of the prospective teachers have robust content knowledge on limit and derivative. This result is important because definitions have a virtual role in learning and teaching of mathematics. More specifically, definition is starting point to understand the meaning of a concept. From this point of view, prospective teachers should know the definitions of the concepts to be able to teach them correctly to the students. In addition, they should have knowledge about the relationship between limit and derivative so that they can explain these concepts conceptually. Otherwise, students may memorize the rules of calculating the derivative and the limit. In conclusion, the present study showed that most of the prospective mathematics teachers had enough knowledge about the definition of derivative and limit. However, the rest of them should learn their definition conceptually. The examples of correct, partially correct, and incorrect definition of both concepts will be presented and discussed based on participants’ statements. This study has some implications for instructors. Instructors should be careful about whether students learn the definition of these concepts or not. In order to this, the instructors may give prospective teachers opportunities to discuss the definition of these concepts and the relationship between the concepts.

Keywords: content knowledge, derivative, limit, prospective mathematics teachers

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571 The Impact of a Cognitive Acceleration Program on Prospective Teachers' Reasoning Skills

Authors: Bernardita Tornero

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Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education (CAME) programmes have been used successfully for promoting the development of thinking skills in school students for the last 30 years. Given that the approach has had a tremendous impact on the thinking capabilities of participating students, this study explored the experience of using the programme with prospective primary teachers in Chile. Therefore, this study not only looked at the experience of prospective primary teachers during the CAME course as learners, but also examined how they perceived the approach from their perspective as future teachers, as well as how they could transfer the teaching strategies they observed to their future classrooms. Given the complexity of the phenomenon under study, this research used a mixed methods approach. For this reason, the impact that the CAME course had on prospective teachers’ thinking skills was not only approached by using a test that assessed the participants’ improvements in these skills, but their learning and teaching experiences were also recorded through qualitative research tools (learning journals, interviews and field notes). The main findings indicate that, at the end of the CAME course, prospective teachers not only demonstrated higher thinking levels, but also showed positive attitudinal changes towards teaching and learning in general, and towards mathematics in particular. The participants also had increased confidence in their ability to teach mathematics and to promote thinking skills in their students. In terms of the CAME methodology, prospective teachers not only found it novel and motivating, but also commented that dealing with the thinking skills topic during a university course was both unusual and very important for their professional development. This study also showed that, at the end of the CAME course, prospective teachers felt they had developed strategies that could be used in their classrooms in the future. In this context, the relevance of the study is not only that it described the impact and the positive results of the first experience of using a CAME approach with prospective teachers, but also that some of the conclusions have significant implications for the teaching of thinking skills and the training of primary school teachers.

Keywords: cognitive acceleration, formal reasoning, prospective teachers, initial teacher training

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570 Effect of Reflective Practices on the Performance of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Madiha Zahid, Afifa Khanam

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The present study aims to investigate the effect of reflective teaching practices on prospective teachers’ performance. Reflective teaching practice helps teachers to plan, implement and improve their performance by rethinking about their strengths and weaknesses. An action research was conducted by the researcher. All prospective teachers of sixth semester in a women university’s teacher education program were the population of the study. From 40 students, 20 students were taken as experimental group, and the rest of 20 students were taken as control group. During the action research a cyclic process of producing a module, training teachers for the reflective practices and then observing them during their class for reflective practice was done by the researchers. The research used a set of rubrics and checklists for assessing prospective teachers’ performance during their class. Finally, the module was modified with the help of findings. It was found that the training has improved the performance of teachers as they revised and modified their teaching strategies through reflective practice. However, they were not able to train their students for reflective practice as per expectation. The study has implications for teacher training programs to include reflective practice modules as part of their course work for making them better teachers.

Keywords: reflective practices, prospective teacher, effect, performance

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569 Analyzing the Oil and Gas Exploration Opportunities in Poland: Five Prospective Areas Selected and Dedicated to the Tender

Authors: Krystian Wójcik, Sara Wróblewska, Marcin Łojek, Katarzyna Sobień

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Polish Geological Survey selected five of the most prospective areas for oil and gas exploration in Poland. They are dedicated to the 6th international tender round for hydrocarbon concessions, planned in 2022. The main exploration target of these areas is related to conventional and unconventional accumulations of gas and oil in the Carpathian basement, Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (Block 413 – 414), as well as in the Carboniferous, Rotliegend, Main Dolomite (Block 208, Cybinka – Torzym, Zielona Góra West), and in the Mesozoic of the Polish Lowlands (Koło).

Keywords: concession policy, international tender, oil and gas exploration horizons, prospective areas

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568 Exploring the Effect of Using Lesh Model in Enhancing Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Number Sense

Authors: Areej Isam Barham

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Developing students’ number sense is an essential element in the learning of mathematics. Number sense is one of the foundational ideas in mathematics where students need to understand numbers, representing them in different ways, and realize the relationships among numbers. Number sense also reflects students’ understanding of the meaning of operations, how they related to one another, how to compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Developing students’ number sense in the mathematics classroom requires good preparation for mathematics teachers, those who will direct their students towards the real understanding of numbers and its implementation in the learning of mathematics. This study describes the development of elementary prospective mathematics teachers’ number sense through a mathematics teaching methods course at Qatar University. The study examined the effect of using the Lesh model in enhancing mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense. Thirty-nine elementary prospective mathematics teachers involved in the current study. The study followed an experimental research approach, and quantitative research methods were used to answer the research questions. Pre-post number sense test was constructed and implemented before and after teaching by using the Lesh model. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive data analysis and t-test were used to examine the impact of using the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense. Finding of the study indicated poor number sense and limited numeracy skills before implementing the use of the Lesh model, which highly demonstrate the importance of the study. The results of the study also revealed a positive impact on the use of the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense with statistically significant differences. The discussion of the study addresses different features and issues related to the participants’ number sense. In light of the study, the research presents recommendations and suggestions for the future development of mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense.

Keywords: number sense, Lesh model, prospective mathematics teachers, development of number sense

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567 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

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The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

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566 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika

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The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

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565 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick

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In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: cement replacement, concrete, environmental friendly, rice husk ash

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564 Exposure to Violence and Its Association with Mental Health in Swedish Prospective Exchange Students and Campus Students

Authors: Emil Danehorn, Ulla Peterson, Marie Oscarsson, Goldina Smirthwaite, Katarina Swahnberg

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Swedish students who choose to study abroad are common, but there has been limited research on exchange students. There are indications that some Swedish exchange students have been exposed to violence, but it is not known if they, already before their semester abroad, are more exposed to violence than students who remain on campus. Our aim was to investigate potential differences in exposure to physical, sexual, and emotional violence between prospective exchange students and campus students and between male and female students in general, as well as to determine any associations between mental health and exposure to violence among students in the total sample. Method: Comparative cross-sectional design using an online survey containing the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire 12. A total of 565 participants took part in the study. Results: Prospective exchange students were less exposed to emotional violence compared to campus students. About one-half of all the participating female students had been exposed to sexual violence and about one-third of all the male students had been exposed to physical violence. The results also indicated that exposure to more than one form of violence was associated with poor mental health for students as a group. Conclusion: Prospective exchange students as a group do not report more exposure to physical and sexual violence than campus students but do report less exposure to emotional violence. However, the overall frequency of exposure to violence among the students was high. This highlights the need for proactive efforts for everyone, not least for exchange students who will be staying in a new environment unknown to them.

Keywords: sexual violence, physical violence, emotional violence, exchange students, mental health

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563 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

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Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: learning, practising, assessment, preservice teacher education program, theory and practice, theory and practice

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562 HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men Measured by Pooling Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Its Comparison with HIV Incidence Estimated by BED-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Observed in a Prospective Cohort

Authors: Mei Han, Jinkou Zhao, Yuan Yao, Liangui Feng, Xianbin Ding, Guohui Wu, Chao Zhou, Lin Ouyang, Rongrong Lu, Bo Zhang

Abstract:

To compare the HIV incidence estimated using BED capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (BED-CEIA) and observed in a cohort against the HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) measured by pooling polymerase chain reaction (pooling-PCR). A total of 617 MSM subjects were included in a respondent driven sampling survey in Chongqing in 2008. Among the 129 that were tested HIV antibody positive, 102 were defined with long-term infection, 27 were assessed for recent HIV infection (RHI) using BED-CEIA. The remaining 488 HIV negative subjects were enrolled to the prospective cohort and followed-up every 6 months to monitor HIV seroconversion. All of the 488 HIV negative specimens were assessed for acute HIV infection (AHI) using pooling-PCR. Among the 488 negative subjects in the open cohort, 214 (43.9%) were followed-up for six months, with 107 person-years of observation and 14 subjects seroconverted. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI=9.1-15.7). Among the 488 HIV negative specimens, 5 were identified with acute HIV infection using pooling-PCR at an annual rate of 14.02% (95% CI=1.73-26.30). The estimated HIV-1 incidence was 12.02% (95% CI=7.49-16.56) based on BED-CEIA. The HIV incidence estimated with three different approaches was different among subgroups. In the highly HIV prevalent MSM, it costs US$ 1724 to detect one AHI case, while detection of one case of RHI with BED assay costs only US$ 42. Three approaches generated comparable and high HIV incidences, pooling PCR and prospective cohort are more close to the true level of incidence, while BED-CEIA seemed to be the most convenient and economical approach for at-risk population’s HIV incidence evaluation at the beginning of HIV pandemic. HIV-1 incidences were alarmingly high among MSM population in Chongqing, particularly within the subgroup under 25 years of age and those migrants aged between 25 to 34 years.

Keywords: BED-CEIA, HIV, incidence, pooled PCR, prospective cohort

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561 Prospective Study on the Efficacy of Bio Absorbable Screws in Treatment of Osteochondral Fractures

Authors: S. Anwar Sathik, K. Manoj Deepak, K. Venkatachalam

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Our study is a prospective study on the use of bio absorbable pins for the treatment of osteochondral fractures after patellar dislocation.22 patients who presented with osteochondral fractures were treated in our institution. They were followed for a minimum of 12 months by regular radiological evaluation. Of the 22 patients, 2 had fragments that detached from the fracture site which was treated arthroscopically. All the patients underwent open reduction and fixation of the pins using bio absorbable crews. They were immobilized in the cast for a minimum of 6 weeks after which mobilization was started according to our protocol. Fracture consolidation was found to occur in 20 of the 22 patients. Thus, Bio absorbable screws can be used as a reliable method of fixation of the osteochondral fragments.

Keywords: osteochondral fracture, bio absorbable pins, patella dislocation, physiotherapy

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560 A Textual Analysis of Prospective Teachers’ Social Justice Identity Development and LGBTQ Advocacy

Authors: Mi Ok Kang

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This study examined the influences of including LGBTQ-related content in a multicultural teacher education course on the development of prospective teachers’ social justice identities. Appling a content analysis to 53 reflection texts written by participating prospective teachers in response to the relevant course content, this study deduced the stages of social justice identity development (naïve, acceptance, resistance, redefinition, and internalization) that participants reached during the course. The analysis demonstrated that the participants reached various stages in the social identity development model and none of the participants remained at the naïve stage during/after class. The majority (53%) of the participants reached the internalization stage during the coursework and became conscious about the heterosexual privileges they have had and aware of possible impacts of such privilege on their future LGBTQ students. Also the participants had begun to develop pedagogic action plans and devised applicable teaching strategies for their future students based on the new understanding of heteronormativity. We expect this study will benefit teacher educators and educational administrators who want to address LGBTQ-related issues in their multicultural education programs and/or revisit the goals, directions, and implications of their approach.

Keywords: LGBTQ, heteronormativity, social justice identity, teacher education, multicultural education, content analysis

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559 The Strategic Formulation of Competitive Advantage on Private Higher Education Institution Using Participatory Prospective Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Sulfarano Barusman

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Research for the strategic formulation of competitive advantage development on Indonesian Private Higher Education Institutions (IPHEI) is mostly done using positivistic paradigm by means of analytical thinking. This study emphasized of the participatory paradigm by using synthesis as a way of thinking in order to achieve its goal. The purposes of this study are to: 1) build future scenario of the external environmental dynamics that will be encountered by IPHEI, 2) formulate a strategy that can be implemented by IPHEI through developing the organization's competitive advantage in the future. The used research methodology is Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA). The results showed that the future scenario of external environmental conditions that will be encountered by IPHEI in the future can be described in three conditions, namely: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic scenarios. The strategic formulation from the research results is based on four internal factors as its foundation (the effectiveness of leadership, the availability of funds and financing, the effectiveness of human resource management strategy, and the relevance of curriculum). A set of resulted strategic formulation is knowledge of the experts that needed to be followed up wisely so that their use can be optimized for the development of IPHE organizational competitive advantage in the future.

Keywords: competitive advantage, participatory prospective analysis, PPA, private higher education institutions, PHEI, strategic formulation

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558 An Attempt of Cost Analysis of Heart Failure Patients at Cardiology Department at Kasr Al Aini Hospitals: A Micro-Costing Study from Social Perspective

Authors: Eman Elsebaie, A. Sedrak, R. Ziada

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Introduction: In the recent decades, heart failure (HF) has become one of the most prevalent cardio-vascular disease (CVDs), especially in the elderly and the main cause of hospitalization in Egypt cardiology departments. By 2030, the prevalence of HF is expected to increase by 25%. Total direct costs will increase to $818 billion, and the total indirect cost in terms of lost productivity is close to $275 billion. The current study was conducted to estimate the economic costs of services delivered for heart failure patients at the cardiology department in Cairo University Hospitals (CUHs). Aim: To gain an understanding of the cost of heart failure disease and its main drivers aiming to minimize associated health care costs. Subjects and Methods: Economic cost analysis study was conducted for a prospective group of all cases of HF admitted to the cardiology department in CUHs from end of March till end of April 2016 and another retrospective randomized sample from patients with HF, during the first 3 months of 2016 to measure estimated average cost per patient per day. Results: The mean age of the prospective group was 48.6 ± 17.16 years versus 52.3 ± 11.5 years for the retrospective group. The median (IQR) of Length of stay was 15 (15) days in the prospective group versus 9 (16) days in the retrospective group. The average HF inpatient cost/day in the cardiology department during April 2016 was 362.32 (255.5) L.E. versus 391.2(255.9) L.E. during January and February 2016. Conclusion: Up to 70% of expenditure in the management of HF is related to hospital admission. The average cost of such an admission was 5540.03 (IQR=7507.8) L.E. and 4687.4 (IQR=7818.8) L.E. with the average cost per day estimated at 362.32 (IQR=255.5) L.E. and 386.2(IQR=255.9) L.E. in prospective and retrospective groups respectively.

Keywords: health care cost, heart failure, hospitalization, inpatient

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557 Bifidobacterium lactis Fermented Milk Was Not Effective to Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

Authors: R. C. Barbuti, M. N. Oliveira, N. P. Perina, C. Haro, P. Bosch, C. S. Bogsan, J. N. Eisig, T. Navarro-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Background: The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still a matter of discussion, full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. Probiotics are believed to have a role in eradicating and possibly preventing H. pylori infection as an adjunctive treatment. The present clinical study was undertaken to see the efficacy of a specially designed fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis B420 on the eradication of H. pylori infection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in humans. Method: Four test products were specially designed fermented milks, counts of viable cells in all products were 1010 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Bifidobacterium lactis-Bifidobacterium species 420, and 1011 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Streptococcus thermophiles were administered to subjects infected with H. pylori with a previous diagnosis of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans. Results: After FM supplementation, not all subjects showed a reduction in H. pylori colonization. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium lactis B420, administered twice a day for 90 days did not show an increase in H. pylori eradication effectiveness in Brazilian patients with functional dyspepsia.

Keywords: antibacterial therapy, Bifidobacteria fermented milk, Helicobacter pylori, probiotics

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556 Challenges of Teaching English Language in Polytechnics

Authors: Jyoti Sanjay Pathrikar

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The 21st century is marked by increased industrialization and a great spurt of technical institutes in almost all parts of the country. In this changing scenario, teaching English language to the students of polytechnic institutes, situated in the small towns of the country is a great challenge as well as responsibility. The learners have very strong vernacular roots and their adaptation to the English language is really slow, as a result teaching English language to them is a herculean task. The students of polytechnics get admission despite of low grades, the base of English has to be prepared at the plus two level, the influence of the local language looms large and the reluctance to learn the English language is obvious. However, the needs of the industries have to be kept in mind and the prospective engineers have to be taught the language. There is an urgent need to devise new ways of teaching the language keeping in mind the requirements of the industry, the capability of the students and maintaining the sanctity of the language. A way has to be carved out.

Keywords: industrialization, herculean, prospective, sanctity, vernacular

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555 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Depression in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Cross-Sectional and Prospective Study

Authors: Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar

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Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been frequently associated with vitamin D deficiency and depression. Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of depression in people without HIV. We assessed the cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and depression in a HIV-positive people. Methods: A survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people aged 20-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal for a cross-sectional association at baseline, and among 184 participants without depressive symptoms at baseline who responded to both baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011) surveys for prospective association. The competitive protein-binding assay was used to measure 25(OH)D levels and the Beck Depression Inventory-Ia method was used to measure depression, with cut off score 20 or higher. Relationships were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment of potential confounders. Results: The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D level of <20ng/mL, 20-30ng/mL, and >30ng/mL were 83.2%, 15.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. Only four participants with 25(OH)D level of >30ng/mL were excluded in the further analysis. The mean 25(OH)D level in men and women were 15.0ng/mL and 14.4ng/mL, respectively. Twenty six percent of participants (men:23%; women:29%) were depressed. Participants with 25(OH)D level of < 20 ng/mL had a 1.4 fold higher odds of depression in a cross-sectional and 1.3 fold higher odds of depression after 18 months of baseline compared to those with 25(OH)D level of 20-30ng/mL (p=0.40 and p=0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Vitamin D may not have significant impact against depression among HIV-positive people with 25(OH)D level below normal ( > 30ng/mL).

Keywords: depression, HIV, Nepal, vitamin D

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554 Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4

Authors: G. Shiha, S. Seif, W. Samir, K. Zalata

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Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4 FibroTest (FT) is non-invasive score of liver fibrosis that combines the quantitative results of 5 serum biochemical markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin) and adjusted with the patient's age and sex in a patented algorithm to generate a measure of fibrosis. FT has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (Halfon et al., Gastroenterol. Clin Biol.( 2008), 32 6suppl 1, 22-39). The validation of fibro test ( FT) in genotype IV is not well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of FibroTest in an independent prospective cohort of hepatitis C patients with genotype 4. Subject was 122 patients with CHC. All liver biopsies were scored using METAVIR system. Our fibrosis score(FT) were measured, and the performance of the cut-off score were done using ROC curve. Among patients with advanced fibrosis, the FT was identically matched with the liver biopsy in 18.6%, overestimated the stage of fibrosis in 44.2% and underestimated the stage of fibrosis in 37.7% of cases. Also in patients with no/mild fibrosis, identical matching was detected in 39.2% of cases with overestimation in 48.1% and underestimation in 12.7%. So, the overall results of the test were identical matching, overestimation and underestimation in 32%, 46.7% and 21.3% respectively. Using ROC curve it was found that (FT) at the cut-off point of 0.555 could discriminate early from advanced stages of fibrosis with an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72, sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 68%, NPV of 66% and accuracy of 67%. As FibroTest Score overestimates the stage of advanced fibrosis, it should not be considered as a reliable surrogate for liver biopsy in hepatitis C infection with genotype 4.

Keywords: fibrotest, chronic Hepatitis C, genotype 4, liver biopsy

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553 Children's Media Skepticism and the Prospective Moral Self: A Pilot Study

Authors: A. Maftei, A. C. Holman

Abstract:

The emergence of self-knowledge and personal representations of self in children has been subject to a variety of studies. The complex process of developing the moral self in childhood is one of the most interesting interplays of biological tendencies and socialization contexts. We were interested in exploring the potential interaction between children’s media skepticism, altruism, self and others' moral representations in a series of tasks related to potential prospective moral licensing mechanisms. In our pilot study, the answers of 67 children aged 8 to 10 years (50 % females) to a series of moral perspectives and altruism tasks were subject to mixed analysis (both qualitative and quantitative). Results suggested no significant association between the moral valence of media information and children’s altruism, self and others’ moral future perspective. Results are discussed within the Construal Level, Assimilation and Contrast theories, and moral licensing mechanisms.

Keywords: children, altruism, moral licensing, media skepticism, moral valence

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552 Exploration of Hydrocarbon Unconventional Accumulations in the Argillaceous Formation of the Autochthonous Miocene Succession in the Carpathian Foredeep

Authors: Wojciech Górecki, Anna Sowiżdżał, Grzegorz Machowski, Tomasz Maćkowski, Bartosz Papiernik, Michał Stefaniuk

Abstract:

The article shows results of the project which aims at evaluating possibilities of effective development and exploitation of natural gas from argillaceous series of the Autochthonous Miocene in the Carpathian Foredeep. To achieve the objective, the research team develop a world-trend based but unique methodology of processing and interpretation, adjusted to data, local variations and petroleum characteristics of the area. In order to determine the zones in which maximum volumes of hydrocarbons might have been generated and preserved as shale gas reservoirs, as well as to identify the most preferable well sites where largest gas accumulations are anticipated a number of task were accomplished. Evaluation of petrophysical properties and hydrocarbon saturation of the Miocene complex is based on laboratory measurements as well as interpretation of well-logs and archival data. The studies apply mercury porosimetry (MICP), micro CT and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (using the Rock Core Analyzer). For prospective location (e.g. central part of Carpathian Foredeep – Brzesko-Wojnicz area) reprocessing and reinterpretation of detailed seismic survey data with the use of integrated geophysical investigations has been made. Construction of quantitative, structural and parametric models for selected areas of the Carpathian Foredeep is performed on the basis of integrated, detailed 3D computer models. Modeling are carried on with the Schlumberger’s Petrel software. Finally, prospective zones are spatially contoured in a form of regional 3D grid, which will be framework for generation modelling and comprehensive parametric mapping, allowing for spatial identification of the most prospective zones of unconventional gas accumulation in the Carpathian Foredeep. Preliminary results of research works indicate a potentially prospective area for occurrence of unconventional gas accumulations in the Polish part of Carpathian Foredeep.

Keywords: autochthonous Miocene, Carpathian foredeep, Poland, shale gas

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551 Bayesian Prospective Detection of Small Area Health Anomalies Using Kullback Leibler Divergence

Authors: Chawarat Rotejanaprasert, Andrew Lawson

Abstract:

Early detection of unusual health events depends on the ability to detect rapidly any substantial changes in disease, thus facilitating timely public health interventions. To assist public health practitioners to make decisions, statistical methods are adopted to assess unusual events in real time. We introduce a surveillance Kullback-Leibler (SKL) measure for timely detection of disease outbreaks for small area health data. The detection methods are compared with the surveillance conditional predictive ordinate (SCPO) within the framework of Bayesian hierarchical Poisson modeling and applied to a case study of a group of respiratory system diseases observed weekly in South Carolina counties. Properties of the proposed surveillance techniques including timeliness and detection precision are investigated using a simulation study.

Keywords: Bayesian, spatial, temporal, surveillance, prospective

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550 Prospective Visitors' Perception towards Spice Tourism: With Reference to Spice Gardens in Kolonna Divisional Secretariat Division of Ratnapura District in Sri Lanka

Authors: Malkanthi S. H. P., Ishana A. S. F., Sivashankar P.

Abstract:

This research was conducted to study prospective visitors’ expectation and future behavior regarding agro tourism destinations in spice gardens (spice tourism) in Kolonna. A field survey was conducted for the 40 randomly selected local and foreign visitors who have come to visit three famous tourism destinations in Kolonna namely “Maduwanwela Walawwa”, “Wawulpane Limestone cave” and “Panamure Eth gala” during three month of time period from February to April 2014. Descriptive and Chi square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that 98% of visitors were willing to visit the spice tourism destinations. Furthermore, visitors with urban residency, higher education level and employment opportunities revealed an association with having awareness on agro tourism. Moreover, visitors having higher age, higher level of education and higher amount of monthly income revealed an association with the willingness to visit spice tourism destinations. Nevertheless, out of eight demographic factors, three factors; gender, occupation and income had significant effect on willingness to purchase spice products from Kolonna. According to research findings it can be concluded that there are large number of perspective visitors for spice tourism and they are middle aged, educated and having significant monthly income and they are also very much interest to visit spice tourism destinations and buy spice products (high demand). Therefore, it is significantly beneficial to establish spice tourism destinations in spice gardens by successful spice cultivating farmers or owners as an extra income earning activity in Kolonna area.

Keywords: agro tourism, spice gardens, perception, prospective visitors, Sri Lanka

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549 Effect of Perceived Importance of a Task in the Prospective Memory Task

Authors: Kazushige Wada, Mayuko Ueda

Abstract:

In the present study, we reanalyzed lapse errors in the last phase of a job, by re-counting near lapse errors and increasing the number of participants. We also examined the results of this study from the perspective of prospective memory (PM), which concerns future actions. This study was designed to investigate whether perceiving the importance of PM tasks caused lapse errors in the last phase of a job and to determine if such errors could be explained from the perspective of PM processing. Participants (N = 34) conducted a computerized clicking task, in which they clicked on 10 figures that they had learned in advance in 8 blocks of 10 trials. Participants were requested to click the check box in the start display of a block and to click the checking off box in the finishing display. This task was a PM task. As a measure of PM performance, we counted the number of omission errors caused by forgetting to check off in the finishing display, which was defined as a lapse error. The perceived importance was manipulated by different instructions. Half the participants in the highly important task condition were instructed that checking off was very important, because equipment would be overloaded if it were not done. The other half in the not important task condition was instructed only about the location and procedure for checking off. Furthermore, we controlled workload and the emotion of surprise to confirm the effect of demand capacity and attention. To manipulate emotions during the clicking task, we suddenly presented a photo of a traffic accident and the sound of a skidding car followed by an explosion. Workload was manipulated by requesting participants to press the 0 key in response to a beep. Results indicated too few forgetting induced lapse errors to be analyzed. However, there was a weak main effect of the perceived importance of the check task, in which the mouse moved to the “END” button before moving to the check box in the finishing display. Especially, the highly important task group showed more such near lapse errors, than the not important task group. Neither surprise, nor workload affected the occurrence of near lapse errors. These results imply that high perceived importance of PM tasks impair task performance. On the basis of the multiprocess framework of PM theory, we have suggested that PM task performance in this experiment relied not on monitoring PM tasks, but on spontaneous retrieving.

Keywords: prospective memory, perceived importance, lapse errors, multi process framework of prospective memory.

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548 A Prospective Study of Fiftynine Coronectomies Performed over a Seven Year Period

Authors: Craig Miller, Tee Goh, Omar Hussain

Abstract:

Background: Coronectomy is an alternative treatment for the management of mandibular third molars when the roots of the tooth are in close approximation to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The documented risks of coronectomy include infection, pain, and the need for removal of roots. There are currently two documented randomised control trials which suggest a coronectomy can reduce the risk of IAN injury. It is a recommendation to offer this as a treatment when the IAN is at risk of injury. Persistent IAN nerve injury post mandibular third molars varies from 0.0% to 0.9%, in comparison to coronectomy, which is reported as 0.625% of time. The importance of this prospective study is to identify complications after coronectomy has occurred over a 7 year study period. Method: This prospective study included 56 patients who consented for 59 coronectomies (3 patients had bilateral coronectomies) from the year 2016 to 2022 in the South Yorkshire region of England. Patients were invited for 2 years follow up. Any postoperative complications were recorded at each follow up appointment (6 weeks, 12 and 24 months postop). Root migration from ID canal by serial OPG measurement (12 and 24 months post op) were also recorded. Findings: 56 patients consented to 59 coronectomies over a 7 year period, 88% (n= 52/59) were performed by the same surgeon. 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Patients were subsequently followed up for 2 years prior to discharge. 87% (n=48/55) coronectomies had no complications by the six month follow up. There were 13% (n= 7 /55) of the coronectomies had an associated complication which included pain (n=3/55), 1 had an abscess associated with the retained roots which resolved on antibiotics, n= 2 /55 patients had lingual nerve paraesthesia and n= 1 /55 patients had IAN paraesthesia. One of the patients with lingual nerve paraesthesia resolved by 1 year. The patient with persistent discomfort and IAD paresthesia had evidence of root migration superiorly. The root was subsequently removed. The second patient who had the root removed for persistent pain was incidentally diagnosed poorly differentiated SCC on biopsy of the site of the coronectomy which was quiet shocking for both the patient and the surgeon. So out 56 patients only 2 patients subsequently required the removal of the retained roots. Conclusion: A coronectomy can reduce the risk of IAN injury and as such should form part of the consenting process for when a patient potentially requires management of mandibular third molars which are intimately related to the IAN. This prospective study has shown that complication rates, including nerve damage, is much lower than in conventional surgical removal of wisdom teeth. Therefore, coronectomy should stay part of the armamentarium in the management of mandibular third molars. However, a level 1 multicentered trial comprising trained surgeons at various levels of experience is needed to get accurate rates of complications.

Keywords: coronectomy, root migration, prospective study, complications

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547 Socioeconomic Status and Gender Influence on Linguistic Change: A Case Study on Language Competence and Confidence of Multilingual Minority Language Speakers

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Male and female speakers use language differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors. It specifically examines how Kui minority language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender and discusses potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes. Moreover, it discusses whether women in Kui society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It discusses whether societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal current Kui speaking preferences and give predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism because the current Kui speakers will socialize and teach the prospective Kui speakers in the near future. It further confirms that Lao is losing importance in Kui speaker’s (female’s) daily life.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, language change, minority language, multilingualism, sociolinguistics, social Networks

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