Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

Search results for: Poland

218 An Assessment of Poland's Current Macroeconomic Conditions to Determine Whether It Is in a Middle Income Trap

Authors: Bozena Leven

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The middle-income trap (MIT) describes a situation faced by countries at a relatively mature stage of development that often poses an obstacle to sustainable long-term growth. MIT is characterized by declining factor productivity from the exhaustion of labor intensive, import and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) based strategies when middle-income status is achieved. In this paper, we focus on MIT and Poland. In the past two decades, Poland experienced steady growth based largely on imported technologies and low-cost labor. Recently, that economic growth has slowed, prompting economists to ask whether Poland is experiencing MIT. To answer this question, we analyze changes in investment in Poland; specifically- its growth and composition – as well as savings, FDI, educational attainments of the labor force, development of new technologies and products, the role of imports, diversification of exports, and product complexity. We also examine the development of modern infrastructure, institutions (including legal environment) and demographic changes in Poland that support growth. Our findings indicate that certain factors consistent with MIT are gaining importance in Poland, and represent a challenge to that country’s future growth rate.

Keywords: engines of growth, factor productivity, middle income trap, sustainable development

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217 Polish Catholic Discourse on Gender Equality in the Face of Social and Cultural Changes in Poland

Authors: Anna Jagielska

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Five years ago, the word ‘gender’ was discussed in Poland exclusively in academic contexts. One year later, it was chosen as the word of the year and omnipresent in the Polish media. The rapid career of this word is due to the involvement of the Polish church hierarchy who strategically brought this term into relation with abortion, pornography and paedophilia. ‘Gender’ is more than a political slogan. It is a symbol of social anxiety and moral panic in Poland which need to be historically considered. The aim of this paper is to present selected rhetorical strategies used by the Polish Catholic clergy who strive to have an impact on the current gender discourse in Poland. In particular, the gender debate, culminated in the pastoral letter of the Bishops' Conference of Poland, will be discussed. The church’s protest against the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence will be analyzed and the recent heated debates in Poland on contraception, abortion, in vitro fertilization, and sex education will be mentioned. To provide explanations on the specificity of Polish gender debates the role of the Catholic Church in the fall of communism in Poland as well as the charismatisation of Polish society by Pope John Paul II will be explained. The social constructions of communism and feminism which are manifested in both written and symbolic contracts on gender equality between the Church and the State will be demonstrated. At the end of the paper, theories about the changing role of religion in society will be applied.

Keywords: gender, Poland, religion, catholicism, feminism

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
216 Black Protests in Poland: Analysis of Women's Movement in Poland, 2016-2018

Authors: Aneta Ostaszewska

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The purpose of this research is to reflect on 'black protests' of women in Poland. 'Black protests' have been organized nationwide since October 2016 as a sign of opposition and resistance to anti-women government’s policy and its attempts to exacerbate abortion law. Women protest not only in the biggest cities (Warsaw, Cracow or Wroclaw) but in over 140 towns and villages all over Poland. The research represents qualitative methodological approach – an active research method. It has involved the observation, description, and analysis of 'black protests' carried out mainly in Warsaw (the capital of Poland). The focus has been on behavior and attitudes of protesting women: protesters’ slogans, statements, and views, the ways of dressing up, ways of participating and involvement in protests. Research also involves the analysis of social media discourse: the analysis of content published by women on social media. Black protests are an example of a grassroots social initiative of women in Poland. What unites women is opposition to government policy. The primary space of communication has become the Internet – especially social media (Facebook). A new social movement 'Dziewuchy dziewuchom' (Girls for girls) has been born as well as organization of 'Ogolnopolski Strajk Kobiet' (Nationwide women's strike) as a result of 'black protest'. These protests and marches became a way of emphasizing women’s subjectivity as well as political and civic activity.

Keywords: women, black protests, communitas, experience, Poland, abortion law

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
215 Penalization of Transnational Crimes in the Domestic Legal Order: The Case of Poland

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

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The degree of international interdependence has grown significantly. Poland is a party to nearly 1000 binding multilateral treaties, including international legal instruments devoted to criminal matters and obliging the state to penalize certain crimes. The paper presents results of a theoretical research conducted as a part of doctoral research. The main hypothesis assumed that there was a separate category of crimes to penalization of which Poland was obliged under international legal instruments; that a catalogue of such crimes and a catalogue of international legal instruments providing for Poland’s international obligations had never been compiled in the domestic doctrine, thus there was no mechanism for monitoring implementation of such obligations. In the course of the research, a definition of transnational crimes was discussed and confronted with notions of international crimes, treaty crimes, as well as cross-border crimes. A list of transnational crimes penalized in the Polish Penal Code as well as in non-code criminal law regulations was compiled; international legal instruments, obliging Poland to criminalize and penalize specific conduct, were enumerated and catalogued. It enabled the determination whether Poland’s international obligations were implemented in domestic legislation, as well as the formulation of de lege lata and de lege ferenda postulates. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method and desk research.

Keywords: international criminal law, transnational crimes, transnational criminal law, treaty crimes

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214 Long-Term Modal Changes in International Traffic - Example of the Polish Eastern Border

Authors: Tomasz Komornicki

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The possibilities of cross-border traffic depend on the degree of permeability of a given border as well as the state of the existing transport infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to identify the impact of economic transformation, EU accession, and infrastructure development on modal shifts in border traffic through the Polish eastern boundary. In the 1980s railway was still the main mode of cross-border transport in Poland. At the beginning of the 1990s, the role of the road and rail transborder passenger traffic was similar, but since 1993, the role of rail was decreasing. The general decline in rail infrastructure in Poland continued uninterruptedly until accession to the European Union. The slow opposite trend can be observed later as a result of the inflow of European funds. In the countries neighbouring Poland from the east, these processes took place with some delay, and the loss of railway position was not so drastic. Therefore, cross-border railway connections have been maintained for quite a long time since the break-up of the USSR. However, finally, cross-border rail transport proved to be completely inflexible in relation to both economic, geopolitical, and transport transformations. It has been shown that the current modal split of the passenger border traffic was shaped by the following factors: a) closure of many transborder railway lines, especially local ones; b) the signing of an agreement on minor border traffic with Ukraine; c) rapidly growing number of citizens of Ukraine working in Poland (unofficial transportation of workers by car directly to their workplaces in Poland); d) the emergence of low-cost air connections between Ukraine and Poland and the growing role of air transport in the Russia-Poland relationship. The summary points to the possibility of a renewed increase in the importance of rail transport on the eastern border of the European Union.

Keywords: modal change, border, rail transport, Poland

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213 Immigrants in the Polish Labour Market

Authors: Jagoda Przybysz

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The main objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive description of the immigrants in Poland, especially situation at the labour market. The paper will provide descriptive information on the composition of immigrants in Poland, and how this has changed over time, their socio-economic characteristics, their industry allocation and their labour market outcomes. Then we will investigate various labour market performance indicators (labour force participation, employment, wages and self-employment) for immigrants of different origins based on reached statistics. Individual interviews with immigrants will indicate areas of problems of living in Poland, mostly on labour market. The article shows that immigrants from some ethnic minority groups are more active in selected sectors of labour market. The empirical basis for the work related to the situation on the labor market of foreigners who came to the Poland and live in Lodz. The studies assumed that foreigners work in Poland and operate in different ways being integrated / excluded in varying degrees. Theoretical framework for analysis are: concepts of inclusion and exclusion, the concept of a dual labour market and the concept of social anchors. Completed in the 2014-2016, a pilot study (The forms of individual interviews) with 32 foreigners arrived in the last decade to Lodz. Preliminary studies have enabled the formulation of research issues and have set the future direction of research revealing to the personal experiences of respondents, a group of factors hindering integration and exclusion areas.

Keywords: foreigners, immigrants, labour market, migration, Poland

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212 The Impact of the Interest Rates on Investments in the Context of Financial Crisis

Authors: Joanna Stawska

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The main objective of this article is to examine the impact of interest rates on investments in Poland in the context of financial crisis. The paper also investigates the dependence of bank loans to enterprises on interbank market rates. The article studies the impact of interbank market rate on the level of investments in Poland. Besides, this article focuses on the research of the correlation between the level of corporate loans and the amount of investments in Poland in order to determine the indirect impact of central bank interest rates through the transmission mechanism of monetary policy on the real economy. To achieve the objective we have used econometric and statistical research methods like: econometric model and Pearson correlation coefficient. This analysis suggests that the central bank reference rate inversely proportionally affects the level of investments in Poland and this dependence is moderate. This is also important issue because it is related to preparing of Poland to accession to euro area. The research is important from both theoretical and empirical points of view. The formulated conclusions and recommendations determine the practical significance of the paper which may be used in the decision making process of monetary and economic authorities of the country.

Keywords: central bank, financial crisis, interest rate, investments

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
211 Conditions of Human Resource Development in Small Enterprises: The Results of Comparative Studies Conducted in Poland and Finland

Authors: Ewa Rak

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This paper utilises literature studies and author’s research conducted in small enterprises using survey. The purpose of the study is to identify conditions of employee development in small enterprises. More specifically, it will be barriers to employee development, needs for development expressed by interested employees themselves and the attitude of the company to employee development. Moreover, the enterprises participation in funding and initiating development activities will be presented. Paper presents the results of comparative studies conducted with employees of small enterprises in Poland and Finland in 2015-2016.

Keywords: employee development, Finland, human resources development, Poland, small enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
210 Looking At Labor Trafficking In Poland

Authors: Ashlyn Smith, Chloe Zampelli, Vincent Manna, Vernon Murray

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According to Polaris (a UN affiliate), there are currently 44 million human trafficking victims globally. Using a sample of 137 labor trafficking victims in Poland, we found that all were Ukrainian citizens. We categorized victims according to the “Victim Intervention Marketing” (Murray) social marketing framework. The largest victim type consisted of “Willing Assimilators” (57%). This means they entered their particular trafficking situations without coercion and were left at will. Such victims are typically driven by financial desperation. Twenty percent (20%) of Willing Assimilators were men, and 80% were women. Victims who were not Willing Assimilators were forced as either “Enlightened Apostates” (37%) or “Tricked and Trapped” (7%). All of the forced victims were women. Crosstabs with Chi-square test (Pearson Chi-Square test significance = .002) results indicated that the male victims were all between 30 and 38 years old, while female victim ages ranged from 24 to 47. Accordingly, labor trafficking victim interventions in Poland should be age-sensitive and focus on three areas: 1) economic development for the Willing Assimilators, 2) training to identify fraudulent job postings, etc. for the Tricked and Trapped segment, and 3) training to equip potential victims to distrust certain close “loved ones” for the Enlightened Apostates.

Keywords: Poland, labor trafficking, social marketing, victim intervention marketing

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209 Technology Angels and Entrepreneurs: Insights from a Study in Poland

Authors: Rafal Morawczynski

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The paper presents results of a study of technology angels in Poland, who are important for the development of the high technology industries. For entrepreneurs, they offer not only capital but also expertise, engagement, and networking. A technology angel is a relatively new type of investor who invests in high-tech start-ups and supports their founders (entrepreneurs) in the development process of a new venture. Conclusions are drawn from a comparison between 8 technology angels and 7 'classical' business angels. Results present features and behaviors of technology angels that distinguish them from traditional (typical, classic) business angels. As this type of investor actively cooperates with entrepreneurs, the study focuses mainly on their perception of venture founders and several aspects of this cooperation: perception of entrepreneurs’ characteristics by angels, correction of expectations toward corporate governance, and 'value adding' activities.

Keywords: business angels, entrepreneurs, Poland, start-up, technology entrepreneurship, venture capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
208 Occupational Safety Need Analysis for Turkey and Europe

Authors: Ismail Muratoglu, Ahmet Meyveci, Abdurrahman Tuncer, Erkan Demirci

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This study is dedicated to the analysis of the problems of occupational safety in Turkey, Italy and Poland. The need analysis was applied to three different countries which are Turkey; 4, Poland; 1, Italy; 1 state. The number of the subjects is 891 in Turkey. The number of the subjects is 26 in Italy and the number of the subjects is 19 in Poland. The total number of samples of study is 936. Four different forms (Job Security Experts Form, Student Form, Teacher Form and Company Form) were applied. Results of experts of job security forms are rate of 7.1%. Then, the students’ forms are rate of 34.3%, teacher or instructor forms are rate of 9.9%. The last corporation forms are rate of 48.7%.

Keywords: Europe, need analysis, occupational safety, Turkey, vocational education

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207 Theory and Reality on Working Life of People with Disability: The Case in Poland

Authors: Dorota Kobus-Ostrowska

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Work for everyone, especially for person with disability is a condition in independence; it secures basic needs and develops manual and intellectual capabilities. The work is a source of income, and it builds and strengthens of self-esteem and competence. The purpose of this article is to identify work as an important factor in everyone’s life, despite Polish disabled persons rarely having the chance to undertake a job. In order to achieve this purpose, two methods were used: comparative and qualitative. The theoretical part of this article is based on studies of a wide range of Polish and foreign literature devoted to the issue of the occupational development of people with disabilities. The article was also enriched with the institutional and legal analysis types of support for people with disabilities in Poland. Currently, a Polish person with disability who wants to enter or return to the labor market is under a special protection. Those entities employing workers with disabilities may obtain a subsidy for the salary of a person with disabilities. Unfortunately, people with disability in Poland rarely participate in the workforce. The factors that contribute to this include the difficulty in obtaining work, the uncertainty of keeping it, and the low salary offered. Despite that domestic and foreign literature highlight the important role of disabled people as a workforce, very few people with disability in Poland are economically active.

Keywords: disabled person, employer, rehabilitation, work

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206 Ethical Aspects of the Anti-Doping System Management in Poland and in Global Framework

Authors: Malgorzata Kurleto

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This study is trying to analyse the organization of the anti-doping system globally (particularly in Poland). The analysis is going to show the concept of doping, indicating the types of doping, and list of banned substances and methods. The paper discusses ethical aspects of the global anti-doping system. The analysis is focusing on organization of global Anti-Doping Agency. The paper will try to describe the basic assumptions of regulations adopted by WADA, called "standards” as well organization and functioning of the Polish Anti-Doping Agency (including the legal basis: POLADA). The base for this discuss will be the Polish 2018 annual report, which shows the most important assumptions, implementation and the number of anti-doping proceedings conducted in Poland. The aim of this paper is to show ethical arguments on anti-doping management strategies.

Keywords: anti-doping, ethical dilemmas, sports doping, WADA, POLADA

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205 Non-Destructing Testing of Sandstones from Unconventional Reservoir in Poland with Use of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Technique and X-Ray Computed Microtomography

Authors: Michał Maksimczuk, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Tomasz Wejrzanowski

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This study concerns high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) and ultrasonic pulse analysis of Cambrian sandstones from a borehole located in the Baltic Sea Coast of northern Poland. µCT and ultrasonic technique are non-destructive methods commonly used to determine the internal structure of reservoir rock sample. The spatial resolution of the µCT images obtained was 27 µm, which enabled the author to create accurate 3-D visualizations of structure geometry and to calculate the ratio of pores volume to the total sample volume. A copper X-ray source filter was used to reduce image artifacts. Furthermore, samples Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio were obtained with use of ultrasonic pulse technique. µCT and ultrasonic pulse technique provide complex information which can be used for explorations and characterization of reservoir rocks.

Keywords: elastic parameters, linear absorption coefficient, northern Poland, tight gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
204 Factors That Stimulate Employee Development in Polish Small Enterprises

Authors: Ewa Rak

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This paper is part of a broader research project on employee development in small enterprises, financed by Polish National Science Centre. The project results will serve as basis for a doctoral dissertation. The paper utilises literature studies and qualitative research conducted in small enterprises operating in the Lower Silesia region of Poland. This paper aims to identify some of the factors that stimulate employee development in small companies operating in Poland. The great variety of business pursuits and applications represented by this sector makes it hard to determine a universal configuration of factors to offer best possible conditions for employee development. Research results suggest that each of the examined companies had one or two of such factors in focus, and serving as the basis for the entire pro-development system. These include: employment security (both for employee and entrepreneur) and extensive knowledge and experience of entrepreneurs, but only if it is combined with a willingness and ability to share it.

Keywords: employee development, factors that stimulate employee development, human resources development, Poland, small enterprises, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
203 The Results of the Research and Documentation of Early Middle Ages Sites in the North-West Poland

Authors: Wojciech Kulesza

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The north-western part of the Poland, specifically West Pomerania and Lubuskie provinces, from several years are the subject of research of the Department of Archaeology of Early Middle Ages of Institute of Archaeology of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. This area has a dense network of rivers and numerous lakes, where many of them are connected to the southern part of the Baltic Sea. During the many years of research in this area, archaeologists discovered the remains of the early Middle Ages settlement located on several islands and in most cases were encountered relics of early Middle Ages bridges linking those islands with the mainland. During the excavation, work was carried out both under water and on land for the accurate identification of islands and adjacent to them underwater areas. The result of this work is a graphic documentation, made in a three-dimensional technique, not only for the underwater trenches but also relics of bridges and objects discovered during exploration, which as the main theme will be presented in the full presentation.

Keywords: Poland, underwater archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, early middle ages

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202 Managing of Work Risk in Small and Medium-Size Companies

Authors: Janusz K. Grabara, Bartłomiej Okwiet, Sebastian Kot

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The purpose of the article is presentation and analysis of the aspect of job security in small and medium-size enterprises in Poland with reference to other EU countries. We show the theoretical aspects of the risk with reference to managing small and medium enterprises, next risk management in small and medium enterprises in Poland, which were subjected to a detailed analysis. We show in detail the risk associated with the operation of the mentioned above companies, as well as analyses its levels on various stages and for different kinds of conducted activity.

Keywords: job safety, SME, work risk, risk management

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201 Self-Perceived Employability of Students of International Relations of University of Warmia and Mazury in Poland

Authors: Marzena Świgoń

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Nowadays, graduates should be prepared for serious challenges in the internal and external labor market. The notion that a degree is a “passport to employment” has been relegated to the past. In the last few years a phenomenon in the form of the increasing unemployment of highly educated young people in EU countries, including Poland has been observed. Empirical studies were conducted among Polish students in the scope of the so-called self-perceived employability review. In this study, a special scale was used which consisted of 19 statements regarding five components: student’s perception of university; field of study; self-belief; state of the external labor market; and, personal knowledge management. The respondent group consisted of final-year master’s students of International Relations at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. The findings of the empirical studies were compiled using statistical methods: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In general, in light of the conducted studies, the self-perceived employability of the Polish students was not high. Limitations of the studies were discussed, as well as the implications for future research in the scope of the students’ employability.

Keywords: self-perceived employability, students of international relations, university students, students employability

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200 Retail of Organic Food in Poland

Authors: Joanna Smoluk-Sikorska, Władysława Łuczka

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Organic farming is an important element of sustainable agriculture. It has been developing very dynamically in Poland, especially since Poland’s accession to the EU. Nevertheless, properly functioning organic market is a necessary condition justifying development of organic agriculture. Despite significant improvement, this market in Poland is still in the initial stage of growth. An important element of the market is distribution, especially retail, which offers specified product range to consumers. Therefore, there is a need to investigate retail outlets offering organic food in order to improve functioning of this part of the market. The inquiry research conducted in three types of outlets offering organic food, between 2011 and 2012 in the 8 largest Polish cities, shows that the majority of outlets offer cereals, processed fruit and vegetables as well as spices and the least shops – meat and sausages. The distributors mostly indicate unsatisfactory product range of suppliers as the reason for this situation. The main providers of the outlets are wholesalers, particularly in case of processed products, and in fresh products – organic farms. A very important distribution obstacle is dispersion of producers, which generates high transportation costs and what follows that, high price of organics. In the investigated shops, the most often used price calculation method is a cost method. The majority of the groceries and specialist shops apply margins between 21 and 40%. The margin in specialist outlets is the highest, in regard to the qualified service and advice. In turn, most retail networks declare the margin between 0 and 20%, which is consistent with low-price strategy applied in these shops. Some lacks in the product range of organics and in particular high prices cause that the demand volume is rather low. Therefore there is a need to support certain market actions, e.g. on-farm processing or promotion.

Keywords: organic food, retail, product range, supply sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
199 Possibilities to Evaluate the Climatic and Meteorological Potential for Viticulture in Poland: The Case Study of the Jagiellonian University Vineyard

Authors: Oskar Sekowski

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Current global warming causes changes in the traditional zones of viticulture worldwide. During 20th century, the average global air temperature increased by 0.89˚C. The models of climate change indicate that viticulture, currently concentrating in narrow geographic niches, may move towards the poles, to higher geographic latitudes. Global warming may cause changes in traditional viticulture regions. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the climatic conditions and climate change in areas that are not traditionally associated with viticulture, e.g., Poland. The primary objective of this paper is to prepare methodology to evaluate the climatic and meteorological potential for viticulture in Poland based on a case study. Moreover, the additional aim is to evaluate the climatic potential of a mesoregion where a university vineyard is located. The daily data of temperature, precipitation, insolation, and wind speed (1988-2018) from the meteorological station located in Łazy, southern Poland, was used to evaluate 15 climatological parameters and indices connected with viticulture. The next steps of the methodology are based on Geographic Information System methods. The topographical factors such as a slope gradient and slope exposure were created using Digital Elevation Models. The spatial distribution of climatological elements was interpolated by ordinary kriging. The values of each factor and indices were also ranked and classified. The viticultural potential was determined by integrating two suitability maps, i.e., the topographical and climatic ones, and by calculating the average for each pixel. Data analysis shows significant changes in heat accumulation indices that are driven by increases in maximum temperature, mostly increasing number of days with Tmax > 30˚C. The climatic conditions of this mesoregion are sufficient for vitis vinifera viticulture. The values of indicators and insolation are similar to those in the known wine regions located on similar geographical latitudes in Europe. The smallest threat to viticulture in study area is the occurrence of hail and the highest occurrence of frost in the winter. This research provides the basis for evaluating general suitability and climatologic potential for viticulture in Poland. To characterize the climatic potential for viticulture, it is necessary to assess the suitability of all climatological and topographical factors that can influence viticulture. The methodology used in this case study shows places where there is a possibility to create vineyards. It may also be helpful for wine-makers to select grape varieties.

Keywords: climatologic potential, climatic classification, Poland, viticulture

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198 Attractiveness of Cafeteria Systems as Viewed by Generation Z

Authors: Joanna Nieżurawska, Hanna Karaszewska, Anna Dziadkiewicz

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Contemporary conditions force companies to constantly implement changes and improvements, which is connected with plasticization of their activity in all spheres. Cafeteria systems are a good example of flexible remuneration systems. Cafeteria systems are well-known and often used in the United States, Great Britain and in Western Europe. In Poland, they are hardly ever used and greater flexibility in remuneration packages refers mainly to senior managers and executives. The main aim of this article is to research the attractiveness of the cafeteria system as viewed by generation Z. The additional aim of the article is to prioritize using the importance index of particular types of cafeteria systems from the generation Z’s perspective, as well as to identify the factors which determine the development of cafeteria systems in Poland. The research was conducted in June 2015 among 185 young employees (generation Z). The paper presents some of the results.

Keywords: cafeteria, generation X, generation Y, generation Z, flexible remuneration systems, plasticization of remuneration

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197 Use of Alternative Water Sources Based on a Rainwater in the Multi-Dwelling Urban Building 2030

Authors: Monika Lipska

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Drinking water is water with a very high quality, and as such represents only 2.5% of the total quantity of all water in the world. For many years we have observed continuous increase in its consumption as a result of many factors such as: Growing world population (7 billion in 2011r.), increase of human lives comfort and – above all – the economic growth. Due to the rocketing consumption and growing costs of production of water with such high-quality parameters, we experience accelerating interest in alternative sources of obtaining potable water. One of the ways of saving this valuable material is using rainwater in the Urban Building. With an exponentially growing demand, the acquisition of additional sources of water is necessary to maintain the proper balance of all ecosystems. The first part of the paper describes what rainwater is and what are its potential sources and means of use, while the main part of the article focuses on the description of the methods of obtaining water from rain on the example of new urban building in Poland. It describes the method and installations of rainwater in the new urban building (“MBJ2030”). The paper addresses also the issue of monitoring of the whole recycling systems as well as the particular quality indicators important because of identification of the potential risks to human health. The third part describes the legal arrangements concerning the recycling of rainwater existing in different European Union countries with particular reference to Poland on example the new urban building in Warsaw.

Keywords: rainwater, potable water, non-potable water, Poland

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196 Process of Revitalization of the City Centres in Poland: The Problem of Cooperation between Sectors

Authors: Ewa M. Boryczka

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Contemporary city is a subject to rapid economic and social changes. Therefore it requires an active policy designed to meet the diverse needs of their residents, build competitive position and capacity to compete with other cities. Competitiveness of cities depends largely on their resources, but also to a large extent, on the policies and performance of local authorities. Cooperation with private and social sectors also plays an important role, as it affects the use of resources and builds an advantage over other cities. The subject of this article is city's contemporary problems of development with particular emphasis on central areas. This issue is a starting point for reflection on the process of urban regeneration in medium size cities in Poland, as well as cooperation between various actors and their roles in the revitalization processes of Polish cities' centres.

Keywords: city, cooperation between sectors, crisis of city centres, revitalization

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195 Polish Police in the Fight against Terrorism and Cyberterrorism

Authors: Izabela Nowicka, Jacek Dworzecki

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The paper will be presented to selected legal and organizational solutions for the prevention and combating of terrorism by the police in Poland. Development will include information on the organization and functioning of the police anti-terrorist sub-units, whose officers are on the front line of the fight against terrorism. They will be presented to the conditions and cases of use of firearms by police officers in the course of special operations aimed against organizations and terrorist groups, and the perpetrators of criminal acts of terrorism as well as the legal foundation for the Polish police to take immediate counterterrorism operations. Article will be prepared in the context of an international research project entitled. Understand the Dimensions of Organised Crime and Terrorist Networks for Developing Effective and Efficient Security Solutions for First-line-practitioners and Professionals [Project: H2020-FCT-2015, No: 700688].

Keywords: the fight against terrorism, police, Poland, takedown

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194 Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Apples Grown in Different Geographical Regions

Authors: Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Monika Tallat-Kelpsaite, Darius Kviklys, Jonas Viskelis, Pranas Viskelis, Norbertas Uselis, Juozas Lanauskas, Valdimaras Janulis

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Apples are an important source of various biologically active compounds used for human health. Phenolic compounds detected in apples are natural antioxidants and have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and cardiovascular protective activity. The quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in apples may be affected by various factors. It is important to investigate it in order to provide the consumer with high-quality well-known composition apples and products made out of it. The objective of this study was to evaluate phenolic compounds quantitative composition in apple fruits grown in a different geographical region. In this study, biological replicates of apple cv. 'Ligol', grown in Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, and Estonia, were investigated. Three biological replicates were analyzed; one of each contained 10 apples. Samples of lyophilized apple fruits were extracted with 70% ethanol (v/v) for 20 min at 40∘C temperature using the ultrasonic bath. The ethanol extracts of apple fruits were analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The study found that the geographical location of apple-trees had an impact on the composition of phenolic compounds in apples. The number of quercetin glycosides varied from 314.78±9.47 µg/g (Poland) to 648.17±5.61 µg/g (Estonia). The same trend was also observed with flavan-3-ols (from 829.56±47.17 µg/g to 2300.85±35.49 µg/g), phloridzin (from 55.29±1.7 µg/g to 208.78±0.35 µg/g), and chlorogenic acid (from 501.39±28.84 µg/g to 1704.35±22.65 µg/g). It was observed that the amount of investigated phenolic compounds tended to increase from apples grown in the southern location (Poland) (1701.02±75.38 µg/g) to apples grown northern location (Estonia) (4862.15±56.37 µg/g). Apples (cv. 'Ligol') grown in Estonia accumulated approx. 2.86 times higher amount of phenolic compounds than apples grown in Poland. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by a grant from the Research Council of Lithuania, project No. S-MIP-17-8.

Keywords: apples, cultivar 'Ligol', geographical regions, HPLC, phenolic compounds

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193 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

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The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
192 The Psychological Contract and the Readiness to Verbalize It in Financial Institutions in Poland

Authors: Anna Rogozińska-Pawełczyk

Abstract:

A psychological contract is an agreement between the employer and an employee that covers the parties’ informal and frequently non-verbalized obligations and expectations towards each other. The contract is a cognitive pattern-governing employee’s behaviour in the organization. A gap between employee’s expectations and the organizational reality may lead to difficult-to-solve conflicts or cause the employee to modify their behaviour towards organizational values and goals, if they are willing and ready to verbalize their expectations. The article discusses psychological contracts in the financial institutions in Poland. Its theoretical part outlines the types of psychological contracts in organizations (relational, transactional, and balanced) and shows the process of their verbalization. The purpose of the article is to present how the type of the psychological contract relates to employee’s readiness to verbalize it. The article ends with conclusions arising from the study.

Keywords: customer contact staff in banks, employee expectations, financial institutions, mutual expectations, psychological contract, verbalization of the psychological contract

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191 The Admissibility of Evidence Obtained in Contravention of the Right to Privacy in a Criminal Trial: A Comparative Study of Poland and Germany

Authors: Konstancja Syller

Abstract:

International law and European regulations remain hardly silent about the admissibility of evidence obtained illegally in a criminal trial. However, Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights guarantees the right to a fair trial, it does not normalise a proceeding status of specified sources or means of proof outright. Therefore, it is the preserve of national legislation and national law enforcement authorities to decide on this matter. In most countries, especially in Germany and Poland, a rather complex normative approach to the issue of proof obtained in violation of the right to privacy is evident, which pursues in practise to many interpretive doubts. In Germany the jurisprudence has a significant impact within the range of the matter mentioned above. The Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of Germany protect the right to privacy quite firmly - they ruled on inadmissibility of obtaining a proof in the form of a diary or a journal as a protection measure of constitutional guaranteed right. At the same time, however, the Supreme Court is not very convinced with reference to the issue of whether materials collected as a result of an inspection, call recordings or listening to the premises, which were carried out in breach of law, can be used in a criminal trial. Generally speaking, German courts indicate a crucial importance of the principle of Truth and the principle of proportionality, which both enable a judgement to be made as to the possibility of using an evidence obtained unlawfully. Comparing, in Poland there is almost no jurisprudence of the Constitutional Tribunal relating directly to the issue of illegal evidence. It is somehow surprising, considering the doctrinal analysis of the admissibility of using such proof in a criminal trial is performed in relation to standards resulted from the Constitution. Moreover, a crucial de lega lata legal provision, which enables allowing a proof obtained in infringement of the provisions in respect of criminal proceedings or through a forbidden act, is widely criticised within the legal profession ant therefore many courts give it their own interpretation at odds with legislator’s intentions. The comparison of two civil law legal systems’ standards regarding to the admissibility of an evidence obtained in contravention of the right to privacy in a criminal trial, taking also into account EU legislation and judicature, is the conclusive aim of this article.

Keywords: criminal trial, evidence, Germany, right to privacy, Poland

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190 'Innovations among People' in Selected Social Economy Enterprises in Poland

Authors: Hanna Kroczak

Abstract:

In Poland, the system of social and professional reintegration of people at risk of social exclusion is, in fact, based on the activity of social economy enterprises. Playing this significant role these entities have to cope with various problems, related to the necessity of being successful on the open market, location on the peripheral (especially rural) areas or the “socialist heritage” in social and economic relations, which is certainly not favorable for implementing the idea of activation policy. One of the main objectives of the project entitled “Innovation among people. The analysis of the innovations creation and implementation in companies and social economy enterprises operating in Poland”, was to investigate the innovativeness of Polish social economy entities as a possible way for them to be prosperous (the project was funded by the Polish National Science Centre grant on the decision DEC-2013/11/B/HS4/00691). The ethnographic research in this matter was conducted in 2015 in two parts: six three-day studies using participant observation and individual in-depth interview (IDI) techniques (in three social cooperatives and three social integration centres) and two one-month shadowings (in one social cooperative and one social integration centre). Enterprises were selected from various provinces in Poland on the basis of data from previous computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) research, where they declared that innovation management is a central element of their strategy. The ethnographic study revealed that they, indeed, create innovations and the main types of them are social and organisational innovations – but not always and not all the employees are aware of that. Moreover, it turned out that wherever the research was conducted, researchers found some similar opportunities of innovations creating process, like a “charismatic leader”, true passion and commitment not depended on the earned money or building local institutional networks, and similar threats, e.g. under-staffed offices or the great bureaucracy of some institutions. The primary conclusion for the studied entities is that being innovative is not only their challenge and opportunity for well-being at the same time, but even a necessity, something deeply rooted in their specific organisational structures. Explanations and illustrations for the statements above will be presented in the proposed paper.

Keywords: ethnographic research, innovation, Polish social economy, professional reintegration, social economy enterprises, social reintegration

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189 Threats and Preventive Methods to Avoid Bird Strikes at the Deblin Military Airfield, Poland

Authors: J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski

Abstract:

The paper presents results of the project conducted in Poland devoted to study on bird strikes at military airfields. The main aim of this project was to develop methods of aircraft protection against threats from birds. The studies were carried out using two methods. One by transect and the other one by selected sector scanning. During the research, it was recorded, that 104 species of birds in the number about of 36000 were observed. The most frequent ones were starling Sturnus vulgaris (31.0%), jackdaw Corvus monedula (18.3%), rook Corvus frugilegus (15.9 %), lapwing Vanellus vanellus (6.2%). Moreover, it was found, that starlings constituted the most serious threat. It resulted from their relatively high attendance at the runway (about 300 individuals). Possible repellent techniques concerning of the Deblin military airfield were discussed. The analysis of the birds’ concentration depending on the altitude, part of the day, year, part of the airfield constituted a base to work out critical flight phase and appropriate procedures to prevent bird strikes.

Keywords: airport, bird strikes, flight safety, preventive methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 319