Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: vernacular

94 Focus on Sustainable Future of New Vernacular Architecture — Building "Vernacular Consciousness" in the New Ara

Authors: Ji Min China

Abstract:

The 20th century was the century of globalization. Developed transportation and the progress of information media made the earth into a global village. The differences between regions is increasingly reduced, "cultural convergence" phenomenon intensified, regional specialties and traditional culture has been eroded. In the field of architecture, while experienced orderly rational modernism baptism, it is increasingly recognized that set the expense of cultural differences and forced to follow the universal international-style building has been outdated. At the same time, in the 21st century environmental issues has been paid more and more attention, and the concept of sustainable development and sustainable building have been proposed.This makes the domestic and foreign architects began to explore the possibilities of building and reflect local cultural characteristics of the new vernacular architecture as a viable diversified architectural tendencies by domestic and foreign architects’ favor. The author will use the production and creative process of the new vernacular architecture at home and abroad as the background, and select some outstanding examples of the analysis and discussion, then reinterpret the "new vernacular architecture" in China now. This paper will pay more attention to how to master the true meaning of the here and now "new vernacular" as well as its multiple dimensions of sustainability in the future. It also determines the paper will be a two-way aspect and multi-dimensional understanding and mining of the "new vernacular".

Keywords: new vernacular architecture, regional culture, multi dimension, sustainable

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93 How to Incorporate Vernacular Architecture into Practice for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from Kashmir and Kerala, India

Authors: Debanjana Chatterjee

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Vernacular settlements in India often take the form that is dictated by the climate they are in. India, with its vast cultural diversity and various climatic regions, offers a wide range of vernacular architecture. This paper focuses on two main geographical regions: Kashmir and Kerala. They bring together myriad challenges of climatic and social characteristics to incorporate into their vernacular architectures, which are still relevant despite the advent of globalization and modernization. Scholars like William Wurster and Catherine Bauer even claimed that all the traditional buildings in these places have the kind of urbanity, which is dignified and elegant but also lively and human that every architect would like to achieve if they knew how. With modernization, and with a greater ease of construction, a reduction in labor, and the apparent robustness of contemporary construction techniques, people have, however, become increasingly tentative in respect of vernacular architecture. And yet modern architecture has typically led to energize intensive structures without much consideration to the location and surroundings of the structure itself. In contrary, Laurie Baker, the British-born Indian architect, had shown us the way to integrate the knowledge of vernacular when he developed his designs based on the traditional architecture of Kerala, respecting the local climate and environment. This paper also explores his technical creativity in his design of Center for Development Studies (CDS) in Trivandrum. Hence, in order to protect and conserve our rich cultural and architectural heritage, the elements of vernacular should be incorporated into the contemporary planning and architecture for sustainable building design. The provision should be made to incorporate vernacular architecture and traditional knowledge in the policies. Ultimately, the policymakers, planners, and architects should consider this incorporation of traditional vernacular and contemporary sustainability in their work for the betterment of society now.

Keywords: vernacular, architecture, sustainable development, Kashmir and Kerala, climate, Laurie Baker

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92 Influence of Colonial Architecture on South Indian Vernacular Constructions: A Case of Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Jahnavi Priya Alluri, Sarang Barbarwar

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With over 6000 years of sustained civilization, India has been home to diverse social customs and various communities. The country’s culture and architecture have been profoundly impacted by the extensive variation in its geography and climatic conditions. In its history, many kingdoms have ruled in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The vernacular constructions of this region have progressed considerably in this period. The paper discusses the impact on vernacular architecture in Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh, post the arrival of the British. The town was a small settlement that finds its roots in the Vijaynagara Empire. The study tries to highlight the amalgamation of colonial influences on the local construction techniques and material usage. It discusses the new variation in the style of architecture through the case of Venkatagiri Palace and its precincts. The paper also discusses the traits of distinction in the influence through various social and economic groups of the old city of the same town.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, colonial architecture, Venkatagiri, south Indian vernacular

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91 Public Culture Intervention in the Sustainable Renewal of Vernacular Heritage, Taking the Villages Surrounding the Erlitou Site in China as an Example

Authors: Gong Zhang

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The villages surrounding protected areas of the Sites are a unique vernacular heritage due to their geographical location, long history, and the combination of nature and humanity. With the construction of more and more heritage sites, the villages around them are faced with the conflict between conservation and development. How to carry out sustainable micro-renewal while preserving the authenticity of the vernacular heritage is of great importance for the co-growth of the village residents and the site. This paper focuses on the process of revitalization of the villages nearby the Erlitou Site Park in China, aiming to study how sustainable village regeneration and conservation can be carried out through the activation of public culture. Firstly, through field research and literature review, this paper studies the vernacular morphology and architecture types of more than ten historical villages around the Erlitou site and investigates the traditional vernacular culture and the daily public activities of the local villagers. Secondly, taking the nearest village to the site area, Ranzhuang Village, as an example, the paper studies the role of public cultural activity interventions on the three different stages of vernacular heritage renewal: master planning, architecture group, and acupuncture-style micro-renewal of individual buildings, aiming to summarise its impact on villagers' lives and vernacular heritage. This paper concludes that a living regeneration with a moderate public cultural activity intervention can promote the symbiosis between the heritage site and the life of the villagers and increase the vitality of the village. This study aims to use the example of village regeneration in Henan, China, as a sustainable reference for the co-development of heritage sites and villages in other parts of the world.

Keywords: Erlitou site, public culture intervention, sustainable, vernacular heritage

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90 Vernacular Language Origin and Student's Accent Neutralization: A Basis for BPO Employability

Authors: Elma C. Sultan

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The study concentrated on Vernacular Language Origin and Students’ Accent Neutralization of the College of Arts and Sciences fourth students in Samar State University, Catbalogan City answering respondent’s locale profile, vernacular language origin in terms of local dialect/s and domestic language/s used; the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and accent neutralization of the respondents; and the proposed activities to adopt in neutralizing students’ accent. It utilized the descriptive-correlational method of research determining the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. The researcher used: (1) questionnaire divided into three parts: the first part identified the students’ locale; the second part determined the respondents’ domestic language/s used while the third part identified their local language/s used, (2) validated accent neutralization assessment tool, (3) statistical treatments in the analysis of data: percentage to determine the profile of the students; chi-square test for independence to determine the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. Findings of the study showed that vowel and diphthong sound production, domestic and local languages in indigenous, and native dialects are significantly related to accent neutralization. While, slow reading speed has a higher possibility in affecting accent neutralization. These caused designing a 50-hour short-term program for accent neutralization focusing in the correct vowel and diphthong sounds production and appropriate reading speed in preparation for the respondents’ search for BPO employment. This short-term program ran for 5 hours in a day for five days in a week.

Keywords: accent neutralization, dialect, diphthongs, indigenous, language origin, language, native, reading speed, vernacular, vowels

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89 The Role of Digital Text in School and Vernacular Literacies: Students Digital Practices at Cybercafés in Mexico

Authors: Guadalupe López-Bonilla

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Students of all educational levels participate in literacy practices that may involve print or digital media. Scholars from the New Literacy Studies distinguish practices that fulfill institutional purposes such as those established at schools from literate practices aimed at doing other kinds of activities, such as reading instructions in order to play a video game; the first are known as institutional practices while the latter are considered vernacular literacies. When students perform these kinds of activities they engage with print and digital media according to the demands of the task. In this paper, it is aimed to discuss the results of a research project focusing on literacy practices of high school students at 10 urban cybercafés in Mexico. The main objective was to analyze the literacy practices of students performing both school tasks and vernacular literacies. The methodology included a focused ethnography with online and face to face observations of 10 high school students (5 male and 5 female) and interviews after performing each task. In the results, it is presented how students treat texts as open, dynamic and relational artifacts when engaging in vernacular literacies; while texts are conceived as closed, authoritarian and fixed documents when performing school activities. Samples of each type of activity are shown followed by a discussion of the pedagogical implications for improving school literacy.

Keywords: digital literacy, text, school literacy, vernacular practices

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88 A Study on Thermodynamic Prototype for Vernacular Dwellings in Perspective of Bioclimatic Architecture

Authors: Zhenzhen Zhang

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As major human activity places, buildings consume a large amount of energy, and residential buildings are very important part of it. An extensive research work had been conducted to research how to achieve low energy goals, vernacular dwellings and contemporary technologies are two prime parameters among them. On one hand, some researchers concentrated on vernacular dwellings which were climate-response design and could offer a better living condition without mechanic application. On the other hand, a series concepts appeared based on modern technologies, surplus energy house, bioclimatic architecture, etc. especially thermodynamic architecture which integrates the micro-climate, human activity, thermal comfort, and energy efficiency into design. How to blend the two parameters is the key research topic now, which would act as the key to how to integrate the ancient design wise and contemporary new technologies. By several cases study, this paper will represent the evolution of thermodynamic architecture and then try to develop one methodology about how to produce a typical thermodynamic prototype for one area by blending the ancient building wise and contemporary concepts to achieve both low energy consumption and surplus energy.

Keywords: vernacular dwelling, thermodynamic architecture, bioclimatic architecture, thermodynamic prototype, surplus energy

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87 Evaluation of the Sustainability of Greek Vernacular Architecture in Different Climate Zones: Architectural Typology and Building Physics

Authors: Christina Kalogirou

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Investigating the integration of bioclimatic design into vernacular architecture could lead to interesting results regarding the preservation of cultural heritage while enhancing the energy efficiency of historic buildings. Furthermore, these recognized principles and systems of bioclimatic design in vernacular settlements could be applied to modern architecture and thus to new buildings in such areas. This study introduces an approach to categorizing distinct technologies and design principles of bioclimatic design based on a thoughtful approach to various climatic zones and environment in Greece (mountainous areas, islands and lowlands). For this purpose, various types of dwellings are evaluated for their response to climate, regarding the layout of the buildings (orientation, floor plans’ shape, semi-open spaces), the site planning, the openings (size, position, protection), the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing) and the migratory living pattern according to seasonal needs. As a result, various passive design principles (that could be adapted to current architectural practice in such areas, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building, climate and energy efficiency) are proposed.

Keywords: bioclimatic design, buildings physics, climatic zones, energy efficiency, vernacular architecture

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86 An Environmentally Friendly Approach towards the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Maria Philokyprou, Aimilios Michael

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Contemporary theories of sustainability, concerning the natural and built environment, have recently introduced an environmental attitude towards the architectural design that, in turn, affects the practice of conservation and reuse of the existing building stock. This paper presents an environmentally friendly approach towards the conservation of vernacular architecture and it is based on the results of a research program which involved the investigation of sustainable design elements of traditional buildings in Cyprus. The research in question showed that Cypriot vernacular architecture gave more emphasis on cooling rather than heating strategies. Another notable finding of the investigation was the great importance given to courtyards as they enhance considerably, and in various ways, the microclimatic conditions of the immediate environment with favorable results throughout the year. Moreover, it was shown that the reduction in temperature fluctuation observed in the closed and semi-open spaces, compared to the respective temperature fluctuation of the external environment - due to the thermal inertia of the building envelope - helps towards the achievement of more comfortable living conditions within traditional dwellings. This paper concludes with a proposal of a sustainable approach towards the conservation of the existing environment and the introduction of new environmental criteria for the conservation of traditional buildings, beyond the aesthetic, morphological and structural ones that are generally applied.

Keywords: bioclimatic, conservation, environmental, traditional dwellings, vernacular architecture

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85 Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study

Authors: Christina Kalogirou

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The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.

Keywords: thermal comfort, in situ measurements, occupant behaviour, vernacular architecture

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84 Reconciling the Modern Standard Arabic with the Local Dialects in Writing Literary Texts

Authors: Ahmed M. Ghaleb, Ehab S. Al-Nuzaili

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This paper attempts to shed light on the question of the choice between standard Arabic and the vernacular in writing literary texts. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) has long been the formal language of writing education, administration, and media, shred across the Arab countries. In the mid-20th century, some writers have begun to write their literary works in local dialects claiming that they can be more realistic. On the other hand, other writers have opposed this new trend as it can be a threat to the Standard Arabic or MSA that unify all Arabs. However, some other writers, like Tawfiq al-Hakim, Hamed Damanhouri, Najib Mahfouz, and Hanna Mineh, attempted to solve this problem by using what W. M. Hutchins called a 'hybrid language', a middle language between the standard and the vernacular. It is also termed 'a third language'. The paper attempts to examine some of the literary texts in which a combination of the standard and the colloquial is employed. Thus, the paper attempts to find out a solution by proposing a third language, a form that can combine the MSA and the colloquial, and the possibility of using it in writing literary texts. Therefore, the paper can bridge the gap between the different levels of Arabic.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, dialect or vernacular, diglossia, third language

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83 Design with Nature: Vernacular Buildings Adaptation to Sand Landforms in Sahara Desert

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad

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The Sahara desert covers third of the total surface of Africa with a quarter of this area within the national boundaries of Algeria. Sand drift and deposition is considered one of the major factors of the desertification process in the area. It is estimated that a third of the world's hot arid lands are covered by aeolian sand deposits, forming extensive sand bedforms. The Gourrara region in the Grand Erg Occidental (west of Algerian Sahara) and the region of Souf in the Grand Erg Oriental (east of Algerian Sahara) have been chosen as case studies. These were significant cultural and trading centers for many centuries despite their remote location and their harsh desert environment particularly solar radiation and sand drift and deposition. The architecture of the sustained vernacular settlements in each of the two regions has unique design features for this environment. So do the irrigation systems used - palm groves and the foggara system for capturing and distributing groundwater. However, the ecological balance which enabled the Saharans to live with the desert has been upset. New buildings often use technology based on models imported or imposed from areas that climatically have little in common. These make the inhabitants live ‘in the desert’ rather than ‘with the desert’. This paper will describe the qualities of the vernacular architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness and adaptability to the region’s harsh desert environment in comparison with contemporary buildings. Developing design guides and approaches based on lessons from the traditional architecture is important to ensure sustained livelihoods of the inhabitants in these areas.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, desert architecture, hot climate, aeolian sand deposition

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82 A Study on Shavadoon Underground Living Space in Dezful and Shooshtar Cities, Southwest of Iran: As a Sample of Sustainable Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Haniyeh Okhovat, Mahmood Hosseini, Omid Kaveh Ahangari, Mona Zaryoun

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Shavadoon is a type of underground living space, formerly used in urban residences of Dezful and Shooshtar cities in southwestern Iran. In spite of their high efficiency in creating cool spaces for hot summers of that area, Shavadoons were abandoned, like many other components of vernacular architecture, as a result of the modernism movement. However, Shavadoons were used by the local people as shelters during the 8-year Iran-Iraq war, and although several cases of bombardment happened during those years, no case of damage was reported in those two cities. On this basis, and regarding the high seismicity of Iran, the use of Shavadoons as post-disasters shelters can be considered as a good issue for research. This paper presents the results of a thorough study conducted on these spaces and their seismic behavior. First, the architectural aspects of Shavadoon and their construction technique are presented. Then, the results of seismic evaluation of a sample Shavadoon, conducted by a series of time history analyses, using Plaxis software and a set of selected earthquakes, are briefly explained. These results show that Shavadoons have good stability against seismic excitations. This stability is mainly because of the high strength of conglomerate materials inside which the Shavadoons have been excavated. On this basis, and considering other merits of this components of vernacular architecture in southwest of Iran, it is recommended that the revival of these components is seriously reconsidered by both architects and civil engineers.

Keywords: Shavadoon, Iran high seismicity, Conglomerate, Modeling in Plaxis, Vernacular sustainable architecture

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81 Factors Affecting the Formation of Architectural Space and Construction Systems in the Jordanian Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Mohannad Tarrad

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The research deals with the beginnings of the vernacular Jordanian architecture since the establishment of the Jordanian state in the early nineteenth century until now, where the Jordanian architecture was based on the interactions of the Jordanian society with the surrounding environment, where the local materials available in the construction area were used, and the construction systems inherited from previous civilizations were used. The builders in Jordan relied on exchanging knowledge and transferring it from one generation to another, where they were able to formulate a construction style capable of responding to the requirement of architectural spaces, and each region of Jordan has its own way of building, as there are various geographical areas in Jordan, including agricultural, mountainous and desert areas. Then the research touched on a historical study of the architectural space and identifying the value of the architectural space in the Jordanian social life, which is related to the customs and traditions of a society influenced by the Arab Islamic civilization, and then the construction, the structural structure, its characteristics and the constituent elements of the building were defined in the vernacular l Jordanian architecture. From the structural point of view, and then to identify the structural materials used in the structural structure and the impact of the structural structure on the design from several aspects, leading to the interior space and the factors affecting it. The research aims to explain and clarify the interconnected design and construction solutions in the vernacular Jordanian architecture in a manner that respects the environmental context, taking into account the material cost of the building, where the financial situation of the home owner plays an important role in choosing the building material and construction method. Case studies from heritage buildings from several Jordanian regions will be analyzed to illustrate the idea of the research.

Keywords: construction systems, architectural space, environmental context, Jordanian architecture

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80 Translation and Sociolinguistics of Classical Books

Authors: Laura de Almeida

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This paper aims to present research involving the translation of classical books originally in English and translated into the Portuguese language. The objective is to analyze the linguistic varieties evident and how they appear in the other language the work was translated into. We based our study on the sociolinguistics theory, more specifically, the study of the Black English Vernacular. Our methodology is built on collecting data from the speech characters of the Black English Vernacular from some books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. On doing so, we compare the two versions of a book and how they reflected the linguistic variety. Our purpose is to show that some translators do not worry when dealing with linguistic variety. In other words, they just translate the story without taking into account some important linguistic aspects which need attention, such as language variation.

Keywords: classical books, linguistic variation, sociolinguistics, translation

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79 Challenges of Teaching English Language in Polytechnics

Authors: Jyoti Sanjay Pathrikar

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The 21st century is marked by increased industrialization and a great spurt of technical institutes in almost all parts of the country. In this changing scenario, teaching English language to the students of polytechnic institutes, situated in the small towns of the country is a great challenge as well as responsibility. The learners have very strong vernacular roots and their adaptation to the English language is really slow, as a result teaching English language to them is a herculean task. The students of polytechnics get admission despite of low grades, the base of English has to be prepared at the plus two level, the influence of the local language looms large and the reluctance to learn the English language is obvious. However, the needs of the industries have to be kept in mind and the prospective engineers have to be taught the language. There is an urgent need to devise new ways of teaching the language keeping in mind the requirements of the industry, the capability of the students and maintaining the sanctity of the language. A way has to be carved out.

Keywords: industrialization, herculean, prospective, sanctity, vernacular

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78 Passive Retrofitting Strategies for Windows in Hot and Humid Climate Vijayawada

Authors: Monica Anumula

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Nowadays human beings attain comfort zone artificially for heating, cooling and lighting the spaces they live, and their main importance is given to aesthetics of building and they are not designed to protect themselves from climate. They depend on artificial sources of energy resulting in energy wastage. In order to reduce the amount of energy being spent in the construction industry and Energy Package goals by 2020, new ways of constructing houses is required. The larger part of energy consumption of a building is directly related to architectural aspects hence nature has to be integrated into the building design to attain comfort zone and reduce the dependency on artificial source of energy. The research is to develop bioclimatic design strategies and techniques for the walls and roofs of Vijayawada houses. Study and analysis of design strategies and techniques of various cases like Kerala, Mangalore etc. for similar kind of climate is examined in this paper. Understanding the vernacular architecture and modern techniques of that various cases and implementing in the housing of Vijayawada not only decreases energy consumption but also enhances socio cultural values of Vijayawada. This study focuses on the comparison of vernacular techniques and modern building bio climatic strategies to attain thermal comfort and energy reduction in hot and humid climate. This research provides further thinking of new strategies which include both vernacular and modern bioclimatic techniques.

Keywords: bioclimatic design, energy consumption, hot and humid climates, thermal comfort

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77 Sustainability of Vernacular Architecture in Zegalli Houses in Northern Iran with Emphasis on Their Seismic Behavior

Authors: Mona Zaryoun, Mahmood Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Khalkhali, Haniyeh Okhovat

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Zegalli houses in Guilan province, northern Iran, are a type of vernacular houses which their foundation, skeleton and walls all have been made of wood. The only houses which could survive the major Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of 1990 with a magnitude of 7.2 were these houses. Regarding this fact, some researchers started thinking of this type of foundations used in these houses to benefit from rocking-wise behavior. On the one hand, the relatively light weight of the houses, have helped these houses to withstand well against seismic excitations. In this paper at first a brief description of Zegalli houses and their architectural features, with emphasis on their foundation is presented. in the next stage foundation of one of these houses is modeled as a sample by a using a computer program, which has been developed in MATLAB environment, and by using the horizontal and vertical accelerograms of a set of selected site compatible earthquakes, a series of time history analysis (THA) are carried out to investigate the behavior of this type of houses against earthquake. Based on numerical results of THA it can be said that even without no sliding at the foundation timbers, only due to the rocking which occurs in various levels of the foundation the seismic response of the house is significantly reduced., which results in their stability subjected to earthquakes with peak ground acceleration of around 0.35g. Therefore, it can be recommended the Zegalli houses are considered as sustainable Iranian vernacular architecture, and it can be recommended that the use of these houses and their architecture and their structural merits are reconsidered by architects as well as civil and structural engineers.

Keywords: MATLAB software, rocking behavior, time history analysis, Zegalli houses

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76 Virtual Computing Lab for Phonics Development among Deaf Students

Authors: Ankita R. Bansal, Naren S. Burade

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Idea is to create a cloud based virtual lab for Deaf Students, “A language acquisition program using Visual Phonics and Cued Speech” using VMware Virtual Lab. This lab will demonstrate students the sounds of letters associated with the Language, building letter blocks, making words, etc Virtual labs are used for demos, training, for the Lingual development of children in their vernacular language. The main potential benefits are reduced labour and hardware costs, faster response times to users. Virtual Computing Labs allows any of the software as a service solutions, virtualization solutions, and terminal services solutions available today to offer as a service on demand, where a single instance of the software runs on the cloud and services multiple end users. VMWare, XEN, MS Virtual Server, Virtuoso, and Citrix are typical examples.

Keywords: visual phonics, language acquisition, vernacular language, cued speech, virtual lab

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75 Rural Population Participation in Minsu Industry as the Method for Rural Revitalization in China

Authors: Xiaoxin Zhao

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Because of the long-time dual structure development in urban and rural areas, the rapid urbanization in China devours the rural resources and causes the unbalanced development of cities and the countryside. On one side, the urban sprawl is swallowing the villages in the peripheral area of cities and forms the ‘urban village’. On the other side, people from traditional and vernacular villages immigrate to the metropolis that their homeland becomes the ‘hollowed village’. In 2005, the national state council noticed the significance of rural development and promoted the ‘beautiful countryside’ project when Minsu was rising. In the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (2017), president Xi Jinping announces the importance of ‘rural revitalization’ and states that the relationship between urban and rural areas should be an integrated development model. However, most Minsu projects in China was invested and managed by individual or group investors and focused on the profits but not the vernacular culture and rural development, and enhanced the urban-rural distinction. This paper introduces two Minsu projects in China designed by star-architects and advertised by social network media as case studies through photos and public comments collections. Architects as the servant to the investors, designed fancy houses, brings the urban life mode but expelled the real vernacular lifestyle as a cultural experience in rural areas. Moreover, to advertise the Minsu hotel, the social media propagates a distorted value that ‘luxury is good taste’ and motivates the vanity of people. Lastly, to maximize the profits, the investors set a high price that caused another unbalanced development in rural area since the price for one night in the Minsu hotel may exceed the monthly income of a local inhabitant. With these material, the author discusses the problems in Chinese Minsu industry and argues that the media, architects and investors play the negative role in the separation between Minsu cultural tourism and rural population. As a result, the author points out the significance of rural population participation that sharing the profits with them if we take Minsu industry as a method for rural revitalization in China.

Keywords: Minsu, vernacular, rural development, rural population participation

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74 Exploring the Visual Representations of Neon Signs and Its Vernacular Tacit Knowledge of Neon Making

Authors: Brian Kwok

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Hong Kong is well-known for its name as "the Pearl of the Orient", due to its spectacular night-view with vast amount of decorative neon lights on the streets. Neon signs are first used as the pervasive media of communication for all kinds of commercial advertising, ranging from movie theatres to nightclubs and department stores, and later appropriated by artists as medium of artwork. As a well-established visual language, it displays texts in bilingual format due to British's colonial influence, which are sometimes arranged in an opposite reading order. Research on neon signs as a visual representation is rare but significant because they are part of people’s collective memories of the unique cityscapes which associate the shifting values of people's daily lives and culture identity. Nevertheless, with the current policy to remove abandoned neon signs, their total number dramatically declines recently. The Buildings Department found an estimation of 120,000 unauthorized signboards (including neon signs) in Hong Kong in 2013, and the removal of such is at a rate of estimated 1,600 per year since 2006. In other words, the vernacular cultural values and historical continuity of neon signs will gradually be vanished if no immediate action is taken in documenting them for the purpose of research and cultural preservation. Therefore, the Hong Kong Neon Signs Archive project was established in June of 2015, and over 100 neon signs are photo-documented so far. By content analysis, this project will explore the two components of neon signs – the use of visual languages and vernacular tacit knowledge of neon makers. It attempts to answer these questions about Hong Kong's neon signs: 'What are the ways in which visual representations are used to produce our cityscapes and streetscapes?'; 'What are the visual languages and conventions of usage in different business types?'; 'What the intact knowledge are applied when producing these visual forms of neon signs?'

Keywords: cityscapes, neon signs, tacit knowledge, visual representation

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73 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

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This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic house, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture

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72 Influential Factors on Woodcarvings in Traditional Malay Houses of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Authors: Nurdiyana Zainal Abidin, Raja Nafida Raja Shahminan, Fawazul Khair Ibrahim

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Timber vernacular houses in Malaysia are unique heritage buildings which can be identified through their designs, structure, architectural elements and ornamentations. Woodcarvings are common forms of ornamentations and decorations in Traditional Malay Houses and they can be found throughout Malaysia including in Negeri Sembilan. As a multi-cultural, multi-racial, and multi-religion state which uniquely practices the matrilineal social system, Negeri Sembilan has a strong connection to its’ history and heritage and in particular the distinctive vernacular architecture. The purpose of this paper is to underline the factors that influence the woodcarvings in Traditional Malay Houses in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The houses studied were from the archives of measured drawings in Center of Built Environment in the Malay World (KALAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The findings indicated several factors influencing the woodcarver’s works and also the applications of the woodcarvings such as religious factors, cultural factors and political factors. These factors among several other shows that woodcarvings were predetermined before being carved and that they were not just merely placed without reason but are functioning pieces of aesthetic ornamentation.

Keywords: influences, traditional Malay houses, woodcarvings, multi-cultural

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71 Kelantan Malay Cultural Landscape: The Concept of Kota Bharu Islamic City

Authors: Mohammad Rusdi Mohd Nasir, Ismail Hafiz Salleh

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Kota Bharu, as an Islamic City, represents a symbolic icon in the urban development of the Islamic state of Kelantan, Malaysia. This research seeks to provide a basis for new approaches to landscape planning that shows greater respect for the traditional vernacular landscape. In addition, this research also intends to distinguish the prospects for the future Kelantan Malay cultural landscape, building upon the multiple historical influences in the evolution of the cultural landscape using multiple methods including literature review, observation, document analysis and content analysis. The study of the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape is particularly important in view of its distinctive contribution to Malay heritage by identifying the elements, characteristics, history and their influences. As a result, this research recognizes the importance of incorporating the existing heritage alongside contemporary design as well as further research on the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape. Optimistically, there will be better landscape practices in the future to understand the past, the present and the future prospects of the vernacular tradition, in order to ensure that our architecture, landscape and urbanism practices express its values.

Keywords: Malay culture, Malay heritage, cultural landscape, Islamic concept

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70 Ethnolinguistic Identity and Language Policies: Negotiating Identity and Diversity in Modern Linguistic Environment in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

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The question of language and identity in the post-colonial Africa has resulted in the policy inconsistencies and perceived wayward practices regarding language use. The need to reside and situate oneself in the global village has alienated local identities, with most countries, Malawi in particular promoting exogenous colonial language(s) at the expense of local languages that mirror people’s identities. This has brought a mismatch between language policy and implementation. The resultant effect has been alienation of the ‘Self’ from one’s indigenous identity and creation of the ‘other’ in the foreign identity, and the undermining of the linguistic rights of the minority language speakers. The need to negotiate the identity and modernity in the global village is thus imperative. The paper attempts to review the language situation in Malawi in light of the growing desire for international integration vis-à-vis the cultivation and maintenance of national ethnolinguistic identity. It further highlights the dilemma that the promotion of vernacular languages is facing in the modern Malawi. It also examines the Malawi language policy and its implementation. The failures, challenges, and inconsistencies are discussed in order to negotiate the position of minority languages in the modern Malawi. The paper notes that identity construction and maintenance within the framework of language policy in Malawi is undermined by attitudinal factors towards one’s culture and language. The paper then provides suggestions of negotiating identity in Malawi within the framework of globalisation through the placement of premiums on the minority languages.

Keywords: identity, language policy, minority languages, vernacular language

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69 Configuration of Water-Based Features in Islamic Heritage Complexes and Vernacular Architecture: An Analysis into Interactions of Morphology, Form, and Climatic Performance

Authors: Mustaffa Kamal Bashar Mohd Fauzi, Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Nurul Syala Abdul Latip

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It is increasingly realized that sustainability includes both a response to the climatic and cultural context of a place. To assess the cultural context, a morphological analysis of urban patterns from heritage legacies is necessary. While the climatic form is derived from an analysis of meteorological data, cultural patterns and forms must be abstracted from a typological and morphological study. This current study aims to analyzes morphological and formal elements of water-based architectural and urban design of past Islamic vernacular complexes in the hot arid regions and how a vast utilization of water was shaped and sited to act as cooling devices for an entire complex. Apart from its pleasant coolness, water can be used in an aesthetically way such as emphasizing visual axes, vividly enhancing the visual of the surrounding environment and symbolically portraying the act of purity in the design. By comparing 2 case studies based on the analysis of interactions of water features into the form, planning and morphology of 2 Islamic heritage complexes, Fatehpur Sikri (India) and Lahore Fort (Pakistan) with a focus on Shish Mahal of Lahore Fort in terms of their mass, architecture and urban planning, it is agreeable that water plays an integral role in their climatic amelioration via different methods of water conveyance system. Both sites are known for their substantial historical values and prominent for their sustainable vernacular buildings for example; the courtyard of Shish Mahal in Lahore fort are designed to provide continuous coolness by constructing various miniatures water channels that run underneath the paved courtyard. One of the most remarkable features of this system that all water is made dregs-free before it was inducted into these underneath channels. In Fatehpur Sikri, the method of conveyance seems differed from Lahore Fort as the need to supply water to the ridge where Fatehpur Sikri situated is become the major challenges. Thus, the achievement of supplying water to the palatial complexes is solved by placing inhabitable water buildings within the two supply system for raising water. The process of raising the water can be either mechanical or laborious inside the enclosed well and water rising houses. The studies analyzes and abstract the water supply forms, patterns and flows in 3-dimensional shapes through the actions of evaporative cooling and wind-induced ventilation under arid climates. Through the abstraction analytical and descriptive relational morphology of the spatial configurations, the studies can suggest the idealized spatial system that can be used in urban design and complexes which later became a methodological and abstraction tool of sustainability to suit the modern contemporary world.

Keywords: heritage site, Islamic vernacular architecture, water features, morphology, urban design

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68 Evaluation of Traditional Housing Texture in Context of Sustainability

Authors: Esra Yaldız, Dicle Aydın

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Sustainability is a term that provides deciding about the future considering environment and investigates the harmony and balance between protection and usage of the resource. The main objective of sustainability is creating residential areas is nature compatible or providing continuance thereby adapting existing residential area to nature. In this context, historical and traditional areas must have utilized according to sustainability. Traditional housing texture are identified as a traditional architectural product has been designed based on this term. General characteristics of traditional housing within the context of sustainable architecture are their specific dynamics and components and their harmonisation of environment and nature. Owing to the fact that traditional housing texture harmonizes natural conditions of the region, topography, climate and their context, construction materials are provided from environment and traditional techniques and their forms are used and due to construction materials has natural insulation traditional housing create healthy and comfortable living environment, traditional housing is rather significant in terms of sustainable architecture. The basis of this study comprise the routers in traditional housing design in accordance with the principles of sustainability. These are, accommodating topography, climate, and geography, accessibility, structuring at the scale of human, utilization of green zones, unique to the region used construction materials, the form of construction, building envelope and space organization of dwelling. In this context, the purpose of this study is that vernacular architecture approaches of traditional housing textures which are in Central Anatolia Region Located in Anatolia are utilized with regard to sustainability.

Keywords: Anatolia, sustainability, traditional housing texture, vernacular architecture

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67 The Conflict of Grammaticality and Meaningfulness of the Corrupt Words: A Cross-lingual Sociolinguistic Study

Authors: Jayashree Aanand, Gajjam

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The grammatical tradition in Sanskrit literature emphasizes the importance of the correct use of Sanskrit words or linguistic units (sādhu śabda) that brings the meritorious values, denying the attribution of the same religious merit to the incorrect use of Sanskrit words (asādhu śabda) or the vernacular or corrupt forms (apa-śabda or apabhraṁśa), even though they may help in communication. The current research, the culmination of the doctoral research on sentence definition, studies the difference among the comprehension of both correct and incorrect word forms in Sanskrit and Marathi languages in India. Based on the total of 19 experiments (both web-based and classroom-controlled) on approximately 900 Indian readers, it is found that while the incorrect forms in Sanskrit are comprehended with lesser accuracy than the correct word forms, no such difference can be seen for the Marathi language. It is interpreted that the incorrect word forms in the native language or in the language which is spoken daily (such as Marathi) will pose a lesser cognitive load as compared to the language that is not spoken on a daily basis but only used for reading (such as Sanskrit). The theoretical base for the research problem is as follows: among the three main schools of Language Science in ancient India, the Vaiyākaraṇas (Grammarians) hold that the corrupt word forms do have their own expressive power since they convey meaning, while as the Mimāṁsakas (the Exegesists) and the Naiyāyikas (the Logicians) believe that the corrupt forms can only convey the meaning indirectly, by recalling their association and similarity with the correct forms. The grammarians argue that the vernaculars that are born of the speaker’s inability to speak proper Sanskrit are regarded as degenerate versions or fallen forms of the ‘divine’ Sanskrit language and speakers who could not use proper Sanskrit or the standard language were considered as Śiṣṭa (‘elite’). The different ideas of different schools strictly adhere to their textual dispositions. For the last few years, sociolinguists have agreed that no variety of language is inherently better than any other; they are all the same as long as they serve the need of people that use them. Although the standard form of a language may offer the speakers some advantages, the non-standard variety is considered the most natural style of speaking. This is visible in the results. If the incorrect word forms incur the recall of the correct word forms in the reader as the theory suggests, it would have added one extra step in the process of sentential cognition leading to more cognitive load and less accuracy. This has not been the case for the Marathi language. Although speaking and listening to the vernaculars is the common practice and reading the vernacular is not, Marathi readers have readily and accurately comprehended the incorrect word forms in the sentences, as against the Sanskrit readers. The primary reason being Sanskrit is spoken and also read in the standard form only and the vernacular forms in Sanskrit are not found in the conversational data.

Keywords: experimental sociolinguistics, grammaticality and meaningfulness, Marathi, Sanskrit

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66 Exploration of Environmental Parameters on the Evolution of Vernacular Building Techniques in East Austria

Authors: Hubert Feiglstorfer

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Due to its location in a transition zone from the Pannonian to the pre-Alpine region, the east of Austria shows a small-scale diversity in the regional development of certain vernacular building techniques. In this article the relationship between natural building material resources, topography and climate will be examined. Besides environmental preconditions, social and economic historical factors have developed different construction techniques within certain regions in the Weinviertel and Burgenland, the two eastern federal states of Austria. But even within these regions, varying building techniques were found, due to the locally different use of raw materials like wood, stone, clay, lime, or organic fibres. Within these small-scale regions, building traditions were adapted over the course of time due to changes in the use of the building material, for example from wood to brick or from wood to earth. The processing of the raw materials varies from region to region, for example as rammed earth, cob, log, or brick construction. Environmental preconditions cross national borders. For that reason, developments in the neighbouring countries, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia are included in this analysis. As an outcome of this research a map was drawn which shows the interrelation between locally available building materials, topography, climate and local building techniques? As a result of this study, which covers the last 300 years, one can see how the local population used natural resources very sensitively adapted to local environmental preconditions. In the case of clay, for example, changes of proportions of lime and particular minerals cause structural changes that differ from region to region. Based on material analyses in the field of clay mineralogy, on ethnographic research, literature and archive research, explanations for certain local structural developments will be given for the first time over the region of East Austria.

Keywords: European crafts, material culture, architectural history, earthen architecture, earth building history

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65 Developing a Place-Name Gazetteer for Singapore by Mining Historical Planning Archives and Selective Crowd-Sourcing

Authors: Kevin F. Hsu, Alvin Chua, Sarah X. Lin

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As a multilingual society, Singaporean names for different parts of the city have changed over time. Residents included Indigenous Malays, dialect-speakers from China, European settler-colonists, and Tamil-speakers from South India. Each group would name locations in their own languages. Today, as ancestral tongues are increasingly supplanted by English, contemporary Singaporeans’ understanding of once-common place names is disappearing. After demolition or redevelopment, some urban places will only exist in archival records or in human memory. United Nations conferences on the standardization of geographic names have called attention to how place names relate to identity, well-being, and a sense of belonging. The Singapore Place-Naming Project responds to these imperatives by capturing past and present place names through digitizing historical maps, mining archival records, and applying selective crowd-sourcing to trace the evolution of place names throughout the city. The project ensures that both formal and vernacular geographical names remain accessible to historians, city planners, and the public. The project is compiling a gazetteer, a geospatial archive of placenames, with streets, buildings, landmarks, and other points of interest (POI) appearing in the historic maps and planning documents of Singapore, currently held by the National Archives of Singapore, the National Library Board, university departments, and the Urban Redevelopment Authority. To create a spatial layer of information, the project links each place name to either a geo-referenced point, line segment, or polygon, along with the original source material in which the name appears. This record is supplemented by crowd-sourced contributions from civil service officers and heritage specialists, drawing from their collective memory to (1) define geospatial boundaries of historic places that appear in past documents, but maybe unfamiliar to users today, and (2) identify and record vernacular place names not captured in formal planning documents. An intuitive interface allows participants to demarcate feature classes, vernacular phrasings, time periods, and other knowledge related to historical or forgotten spaces. Participants are stratified into age bands and ethnicity to improve representativeness. Future iterations could allow additional public contributions. Names reveal meanings that communities assign to each place. While existing historical maps of Singapore allow users to toggle between present-day and historical raster files, this project goes a step further by adding layers of social understanding and planning documents. Tracking place names illuminates linguistic, cultural, commercial, and demographic shifts in Singapore, in the context of transformations of the urban environment. The project also demonstrates how a moderated, selectively crowd-sourced effort can solicit useful geospatial data at scale, sourced from different generations, and at higher granularity than traditional surveys, while mitigating negative impacts of unmoderated crowd-sourcing. Stakeholder agencies believe the project will achieve several objectives, including Supporting heritage conservation and public education; Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage; Providing historical context for street, place or development-renaming requests; Enhancing place-making with deeper historical knowledge; Facilitating emergency and social services by tagging legal addresses to vernacular place names; Encouraging public engagement with heritage by eliciting multi-stakeholder input.

Keywords: collective memory, crowd-sourced, digital heritage, geospatial, geographical names, linguistic heritage, place-naming, Singapore, Southeast Asia

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