Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 938

Search results for: prospective cohort

938 HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men Measured by Pooling Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Its Comparison with HIV Incidence Estimated by BED-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Observed in a Prospective Cohort

Authors: Mei Han, Jinkou Zhao, Yuan Yao, Liangui Feng, Xianbin Ding, Guohui Wu, Chao Zhou, Lin Ouyang, Rongrong Lu, Bo Zhang


To compare the HIV incidence estimated using BED capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (BED-CEIA) and observed in a cohort against the HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) measured by pooling polymerase chain reaction (pooling-PCR). A total of 617 MSM subjects were included in a respondent driven sampling survey in Chongqing in 2008. Among the 129 that were tested HIV antibody positive, 102 were defined with long-term infection, 27 were assessed for recent HIV infection (RHI) using BED-CEIA. The remaining 488 HIV negative subjects were enrolled to the prospective cohort and followed-up every 6 months to monitor HIV seroconversion. All of the 488 HIV negative specimens were assessed for acute HIV infection (AHI) using pooling-PCR. Among the 488 negative subjects in the open cohort, 214 (43.9%) were followed-up for six months, with 107 person-years of observation and 14 subjects seroconverted. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI=9.1-15.7). Among the 488 HIV negative specimens, 5 were identified with acute HIV infection using pooling-PCR at an annual rate of 14.02% (95% CI=1.73-26.30). The estimated HIV-1 incidence was 12.02% (95% CI=7.49-16.56) based on BED-CEIA. The HIV incidence estimated with three different approaches was different among subgroups. In the highly HIV prevalent MSM, it costs US$ 1724 to detect one AHI case, while detection of one case of RHI with BED assay costs only US$ 42. Three approaches generated comparable and high HIV incidences, pooling PCR and prospective cohort are more close to the true level of incidence, while BED-CEIA seemed to be the most convenient and economical approach for at-risk population’s HIV incidence evaluation at the beginning of HIV pandemic. HIV-1 incidences were alarmingly high among MSM population in Chongqing, particularly within the subgroup under 25 years of age and those migrants aged between 25 to 34 years.

Keywords: BED-CEIA, HIV, incidence, pooled PCR, prospective cohort

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
937 Psychological Wellbeing of Caregivers: Findings from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

Authors: Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Sam-ang Seubsman


As Thais live longer, caregivers will become even more important to social and healthcare systems. Commonly reported in many low and middle‐income countries in Asia, formal social welfare services to support caregivers are lacking and informal family support will be required for all levels of care. In 2005, 87,151 open‐university adults were recruited to the Thai Cohort Study, with the majority aged between 25 and 39 years, and residing nationwide. At the 4‐year follow up in 2009 (n=60569) and the 8‐year follow‐up in 2013 (n=42785), prospective cohort participants were asked if they provide care for chronically ill, disabled, or frail family members. Among Thai cohort members reporting between 2009 and 2013, approximately 56% were not caregivers in either year, 24.5% reported providing care in 2009 only, 8.6% in 2013 only, and 10.6% reported providing care at both time points. Caregivers in the cohort reported providing financial support, help with shopping, emotional support, and assist with daily activities. Kessler 6 psychological distress scale, measured in both 2009 and 2013, was used as the primary outcome of a relationship between caregiving status and mental health. Using multivariate logistic regression, our 4‐year longitudinal findings revealed that cohort members who reported providing care at both time points were 1.4 to 1.6 times more likely to report high psychological distress than non‐caregivers, after accounting for potential covariates. With increasing needs for informal care provided by family members, the future health and social welfare system will need to provide adequate support to caregivers (e.g., respite care, clinical support and information for the family, and awareness of mental health among caregivers).

Keywords: family caregivers, psychological distress, prospective cohort, longitudinal study, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
936 Whole Body Vibration and Low Back Disorder among Saskatchewan Farmers: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Samuel Kwaku Essien, Catherine Trask, Niels Koehncke, Brenna Bath


Background: Low back disorder (LBD) is the most common musculoskeletal problem among farmers, with higher prevalence than other occupations. Operators of tractors and other farm machinery such as combines or all-terrain vehicles (ATV) can have considerable cumulative exposure to whole body vibration (WBV). Although there appears to be an association between LBD and WBV, lack of prospective studies makes the relationship between LBD and WBV unclear. Purpose: This study investigates the association between WBV and LBD among Saskatchewan farmers using a prospective cohort study Methods: The Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study Phase I (2007) and II (2013) data were used. Baseline data were collected via postal questionnaire on accumulated yearly tractor, combine, and ATV use as well as several covariates to support a biopsychosocial model of LBD. Follow-up data on musculoskeletal symptoms were collected for the 6-year with sample size of 1149. Questions on ‘low back trouble’ (ache, pain, discomfort) experienced in the last 12 months answered by farmer participants as ‘yes’ or ‘no’. A GEE-modified Poisson approach was performed using SPSS 22 and SAS 9.4. Results: Twelve-month Prevalence of LBD was 59.8%. In multivariate analysis of the 6-year follow-up, LBD was associated with ATV operation and tractor operation, with a dose-response relationship for annual accumulated tractor operation. Although combine operation ≥ 61 hrs/year was related to LBD in bivariate analysis, this difference did not persist after adjustment for confounder. Age was found to be a confounder in relationship between WBV and LBD and no interactions were found. Conclusion: Longer annual tractor operation and older age are important predictors of LBD symptoms in farmers. Future research involving direct measurement can help identify appropriate prevention strategies.

Keywords: agriculture, low back disorder, low back pain, occupational health

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
935 Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Ahmed A. Khamis, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz


The effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, it is limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of SDI on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. A prospective cohort study was conducted, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohorts with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.8%) cases were shown to have controlled glycemia, while there were 203 (70.2%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (6.2–10.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7±12.4 years is distributed among 11 (19.6%) patients with controlled diabetes, and 45 (80.4%) of them had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.1–11.9). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.15, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 15%. The absolute risk (AR) is 10.2%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 10. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients who had been treated with a moderate-SDI.

Keywords: cohort study, diabetes control, dose intensity, HbA1c, Malaysia, statin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled glycemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
934 Functional Outcome and Quality of Life of Conservative versus Surgical Management of Adult Potts Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mark Angelo Maranon, David Endriga


Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the differences in functional outcome and quality of life of adult patients with Potts disease who have undergone surgical versus non-surgical management. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 45 patients were followed up for 1 year after undergoing pharmacologic treatment alone versus a combination of anti-Kochs and surgery for Potts disease. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were obtained on initiation of treatment, after three months, six months and one year. Results: ASIA scores from the onset of treatment and after 1 year significantly improved (p<0.001) for both non-surgical and surgical patients. ODI scores significantly improved after 6 months of treatment for both surgical and non-surgical patients. Both surgical and non-surgical patients showed significant improvement in their SF-36 scores, but scores were noted to be higher in patients who underwent surgery. Conclusions: Significant improvement with regards to functional outcome and quality of life was noted from both surgical and non-surgical patients after 1 year of treatment, with earlier improvements and better final scores in SF 36 and ODI in patients who underwent surgery.

Keywords: tuberculosis, spinal, potts disease, functional outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
933 Adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-Style Diet and Risk of Mortality from Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

Authors: Roohallah Fallah-Moshkani, Mohammad Ali Mohsenpour, Reza Ghiasvand, Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Paula Brauer, Amin Salehi-Abargouei


Purpose: Several investigations have proposed the protective association between dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) style diet and risk of cancers; however, they have led to inconsistent results. The present study aimed to systematically review the prospective cohort studies conducted in this regard and, if possible, to quantify the overall effect of using meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for cohort studies published up to December 2017. Relative risks (RRs) which were reported for fully adjusted models and their confidence intervals were extracted for meta-analysis. Random effects model was incorporated to combine the RRs. Results: Sixteen studies were eligible to be included in the systematic review from which 8 reports were conducted on the effect of DASH on the risk of mortality from all cancer types, four on the risk of colorectal cancer, and three on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Four studies examined the association with other cancers (breast, hepatic, endometrial, and lung cancer). Meta-analysis showed that high concordance with DASH significantly decreases the risk of all cancer types (RR=0.83, 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.80-0.85); furthermore participants who highly adhered to the DASH had lower risk of developing colorectal (RR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.75-0.83), colon (RR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.74-0.87) and rectal (RR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98) cancer compared to those with the lowest adherence. Conclusions: DASH-style diet should be suggested as a healthy approach to protect from cancer in the community. Prospective studies exploring the effect on other cancer types and from regions other than the United States are highly recommended.

Keywords: cancer, DASH-style diet, dietary patterns, meta-analysis, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
932 Self-Efficacy Perceptions and the Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Assessment and Evaluation

Authors: Münevver Başman, Ezel Tavşancıl


Making the right decisions about students depends on teachers’ use of the assessment and evaluation techniques effectively. In order to do that, teachers should have positive attitudes and adequate self-efficacy perception towards assessment and evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between self-efficacy perception and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation and what kind of differences these issues have in terms of a variety of demographic variables. The study group consisted of 277 prospective teachers who have been studying in different departments of Marmara University, Faculty of Education. In this study, ‘Personal Information Form’, ‘A Perceptual Scale for Measurement and Evaluation of Prospective Teachers Self-Efficacy in Education’ and ‘Attitudes toward Educational Measurement Inventory’ are applied. As a result, positive correlation was found between self-efficacy perceptions and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation. Considering different departments, there is a significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them. However, considering variables of attending statistics class and the class types at the graduated high school, there is no significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them.

Keywords: attitude, perception, prospective teacher, self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
931 Incidence and Risk Factors of Central Venous Associated Infections in a Tunisian Medical Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Ammar Asma, Bouafia Nabiha, Ghammam Rim, Ezzi Olfa, Ben Cheikh Asma, Mahjoub Mohamed, Helali Radhia, Sma Nesrine, Chouchène Imed, Boussarsar Hamadi, Njah Mansour


Background: Central venous catheter associated infections (CVC-AI) are among the serious hospital-acquired infections. The aims of this study are to determine the incidence of CVC-AI, and their risk factors among patients followed in a Tunisian medical intensive care unit (ICU). Materials / Methods: A prospective cohort study conducted between September 15th, 2015 and November 15th, 2016 in an 8-bed medical ICU including all patients admitted for more than 48h. CVC-AI were defined according to CDC of ATLANTA criteria. The enrollment was based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis of CVC-AI. For all subjects, age, sex, underlying diseases, SAPS II score, ICU length of stay, exposure to CVC (number of CVC placed, site of insertion and duration catheterization) were recorded. Risk factors were analyzed by conditional stepwise logistic regression. The p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among 192 eligible patients, 144 patients (75%) had a central venous catheter. Twenty-eight patients (19.4%) had developed CVC-AI with density rate incidence 20.02/1000 CVC-days. Among these infections, 60.7% (n=17) were systemic CVC-AI (with negative blood culture), and 35.7% (n=10) were bloodstream CVC-AI. The mean SAPS II of patients with CVC-AI was 32.76 14.48; their mean Charlson index was 1.77 1.55, their mean duration of catheterization was 15.46 10.81 days and the mean duration of one central line was 5.8+/-3.72 days. Gram-negative bacteria was determined in 53.5 % of CVC-AI (n= 15) dominated by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumani (n=7). Staphylococci were isolated in 3 CVC-AI. Fourteen (50%) patients with CVC-AI died. Univariate analysis identified men (p=0.034), the referral from another hospital department (p=0.03), tobacco (p=0.006), duration of sedation (p=0.003) and the duration of catheterization (p=0), as possible risk factors of CVC-AI. Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors of CVC-AI were, male sex; OR= 5.73, IC 95% [2; 16.46], p=0.001, Ramsay score; OR= 1.57, IC 95% [1.036; 2.38], p=0.033, and duration of catheterization; OR=1.093, IC 95% [1.035; 1.15], p=0.001. Conclusion: In a monocenter cohort, CVC-AI had a high density and is associated with poor outcome. Identifying the risk factors is necessary to find solutions for this major health problem.

Keywords: central venous catheter associated infection, intensive care unit, prospective cohort studies, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
930 Hydrocarbon New Business Opportunities in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges

Authors: N. G. Obaje, S. I. Ibrahim, N. Dadi-Mamud, M. K. Musa, I. Yusuf


An integrated study combining geological prospectivity mapping and geophysical aeromagnetic interpretation was carried out to determine hydrocarbon new business opportunities that may exist in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria. Geological mapping was used to delineate the geological boundaries between the formations which is a significant initial criterion in evaluating hydrocarbon prospectivity. Processed and interpreted geophysical aeromagnetic data over the basin juxtaposed against the geological map has led to ranking of the prospectivity as less prospective, prospective and more prospective. The prospective and more prospective areas constitute new hydrocarbon business opportunities in the basin. The more prospective areas are at Pattishabakolo near Bida and at Kandi near Gulu. Prospective areas cover Badegi, Lemu, Duba, Kutigi, Auna, Mashegu and Mokwa. Geochemical data show that hydrocarbon source rocks exist within the Enagi and Patti formations in the northern and southern sections respectively. The geophysical aeromagnetic data indicates depths of more than 2,000m (> 2 Km) within the identified prospective areas. New business opportunities as used here refer to open acreages in Nigeria’s sedimentary basins that have not been licensed out by the government (Department of Petroleum Resources) to any operator but with significant potentials for commercial hydrocarbon accumulation.

Keywords: hydrocarbon, aeromagnetic, business opportunity, Bida Basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
929 Prospective Teachers’ Comments on Both Students’ Misconceptions and Their

Authors: Mihriban Hacisalihoğlu Karadeniz, Figen Bozkuş, Tuğba Baran, Ümit Akar


Creating the correct symmetry of conceptual knowledge about students, conceptual information about the symmetry of the instructors is important. However, teachers’, the students should be aware of the existing misconceptions and be able to develop strategies to correct these misconceptions. In this study, the purpose, the prospective teachers’, the students’ explanations for corrections of misconceptions and misconceptions were asked to be introduced. The working group during the 2012-2013 academic year, Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Mathematics Education consists of studying at the twenty-six prospective teachers. The study adopted a qualitative approach. The data prepared by the researchers were obtained with an open-ended test. As a result of analysis of the data, prospective with teaching the concept of symmetry observed in more developed practical solutions. These solutions are focused on the method, students utilization mirrors, paper folding, such as using a square piece of registration of events. Prospective teachers’ who think this way, students observed that overlooked the creation of conceptual knowledge.

Keywords: symmetry concepts, misconceptions, elementary mathematics, prospective teachers-students

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
928 Retrieval-Induced Forgetting Effects in Retrospective and Prospective Memory in Normal Aging: An Experimental Study

Authors: Merve Akca


Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon that selective retrieval of some information impairs memory for related, but not previously retrieved information. Despite age differences in retrieval-induced forgetting regarding retrospective memory being documented, this research aimed to highlight age differences in RIF of the prospective memory tasks for the first time. By using retrieval-practice paradigm, this study comparatively examined RIF effects in retrospective memory and event-based prospective memory in young and old adults. In this experimental study, a mixed factorial design with age group (Young, Old) as a between-subject variable, and memory type (Prospective, Retrospective) and item type (Practiced, Non-practiced) as within-subject variables was employed. Retrieval-induced forgetting was observed in the retrospective but not in the prospective memory task. Therefore, the results indicated that selective retrieval of past events led to suppression of other related past events in both age groups but not the suppression of memory for future intentions.

Keywords: prospective memory, retrieval-induced forgetting, retrieval inhibition, retrospective memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
927 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge on the Definition of Limit and Derivative

Authors: Reyhan Tekin Sitrava


Teachers should have robust and comprehensive content knowledge for effective mathematics teaching. It was explained that content knowledge includes knowing the facts, truths, and concepts; explaining the reasons behind these facts, truths and concepts, and making relationship between the concepts and other disciplines. By virtue of its importance, it will be significant to explore teachers and prospective teachers’ content knowledge related to variety of topics in mathematics. From this point of view, the purpose of this study was to investigate prospective mathematics teachers’ content knowledge. Particularly, it was aimed to reveal the prospective teachers’ knowledge regarding the definition of limit and derivate. To achieve the purpose and to get in-depth understanding, a qualitative case study method was used. The data was collected from 34 prospective mathematics teachers through a questionnaire containing 2 questions. The first question required the prospective teachers to define the limit and the second one required to define the derivative. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Based on the analysis of the data, although half of the prospective teachers (50%) could write the definition of the limit, nine prospective teachers (26.5%) could not define limit. However, eight prospective teachers’ definition was regarded as partially correct. On the other hand, twenty-seven prospective teachers (79.5%) could define derivative, but seven of them (20.5%) defined it partially. According to the findings, most of the prospective teachers have robust content knowledge on limit and derivative. This result is important because definitions have a virtual role in learning and teaching of mathematics. More specifically, definition is starting point to understand the meaning of a concept. From this point of view, prospective teachers should know the definitions of the concepts to be able to teach them correctly to the students. In addition, they should have knowledge about the relationship between limit and derivative so that they can explain these concepts conceptually. Otherwise, students may memorize the rules of calculating the derivative and the limit. In conclusion, the present study showed that most of the prospective mathematics teachers had enough knowledge about the definition of derivative and limit. However, the rest of them should learn their definition conceptually. The examples of correct, partially correct, and incorrect definition of both concepts will be presented and discussed based on participants’ statements. This study has some implications for instructors. Instructors should be careful about whether students learn the definition of these concepts or not. In order to this, the instructors may give prospective teachers opportunities to discuss the definition of these concepts and the relationship between the concepts.

Keywords: content knowledge, derivative, limit, prospective mathematics teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
926 Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4

Authors: G. Shiha, S. Seif, W. Samir, K. Zalata


Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4 FibroTest (FT) is non-invasive score of liver fibrosis that combines the quantitative results of 5 serum biochemical markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin) and adjusted with the patient's age and sex in a patented algorithm to generate a measure of fibrosis. FT has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (Halfon et al., Gastroenterol. Clin Biol.( 2008), 32 6suppl 1, 22-39). The validation of fibro test ( FT) in genotype IV is not well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of FibroTest in an independent prospective cohort of hepatitis C patients with genotype 4. Subject was 122 patients with CHC. All liver biopsies were scored using METAVIR system. Our fibrosis score(FT) were measured, and the performance of the cut-off score were done using ROC curve. Among patients with advanced fibrosis, the FT was identically matched with the liver biopsy in 18.6%, overestimated the stage of fibrosis in 44.2% and underestimated the stage of fibrosis in 37.7% of cases. Also in patients with no/mild fibrosis, identical matching was detected in 39.2% of cases with overestimation in 48.1% and underestimation in 12.7%. So, the overall results of the test were identical matching, overestimation and underestimation in 32%, 46.7% and 21.3% respectively. Using ROC curve it was found that (FT) at the cut-off point of 0.555 could discriminate early from advanced stages of fibrosis with an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72, sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 68%, NPV of 66% and accuracy of 67%. As FibroTest Score overestimates the stage of advanced fibrosis, it should not be considered as a reliable surrogate for liver biopsy in hepatitis C infection with genotype 4.

Keywords: fibrotest, chronic Hepatitis C, genotype 4, liver biopsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
925 A Prospective Study on the Evaluation of Statins Usage on HbA1c Control among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in an Outpatients Setting

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz, Tarek M. Elsayed


Medication safety is always an issue. In 2015, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau released a statement requesting all statins manufacturers in Malaysia to include the risk of diabetes information in the drug information leaflet in response to United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) report. However, the data regarding this warning label in Malaysia is limited, so there is still some uncertainty whether such risk can also be observed in the Malaysian population or not. The study aims to determine the effect of statins on HbA1c% in type 2 diabetic outpatients in endocrine clinics at Hospital Pulau Pinang between June 2015 and May 2016 in Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study, records of 400 type 2 diabetic patients (control group 104 patients not using statin and treatment group 296 patients using statin) were reviewed to identify demographic criteria and lab tests. The prevalence of glycemic control (Glycated hemoglobin, HbA1C ≤ 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, according to American Diabetes Association guidelines 2015. The results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 296 patients with Type 2 diabetes using statins cohort with a mean age of 57.52 ± 12.2 years, only 81 (27.4%) cases had controlled glycemia, and 215 (72.6%) had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (6.3–11.1). While the control group 104 diabetic patients had a mean age 46.1 ± 18 years and distributed among 59 (56.7%) patients with controlled diabetes and 45 (43.3%) cases, had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (5.2–10.3). The relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in diabetic patients used statins was 1.68, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) was 68%. The absolute risk (AR) was 29.3%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) was 4. Diabetic patients using statins have more risk of uncontrolled glycemia than the patients with Type 2 diabetes non-using statins.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, Malaysia, outpatients, statin, type 2, uncontrolled glycemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
924 Effect of Dietarty Diversity on Maternal Dietary Diversity of Anemia of the Mother during Pregnancy and Prenatal Outcomes: Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Central Ethiopia

Authors: Taddese Alemu Zerfu, Melaku Umeta Deressa, Kaleab Baye


Background: Maternal and child under-nutrition is the underlying cause of 3•5 million annual deaths, globally. Anemia during pregnancy is among the leading nutritional disorders with serious short and long term consequences to both the mother and fetus. Objective: Examine the effect of dietary diversity on maternal anemia, nutritional status and key pregnancy outcomes of pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study design, involving a total of 432 eligible pregnant women, in their second antenatal care visit was conducted between August 2014 to March, 2015. The individual dietary diversity status of mothers was used as the exposure variable to select, enroll and follow the mothers. All mothers were enrolled during second antenatal care visit and followed until delivery. Epi-data, SPSS and STATA software are used to enter and analyze the data. Chi-square test, independent 't'-test, and GLM are used to calculate risk, association and differences between key variables at P < 0.05. Results: Study participants did not differ in many of the basic characteristics (p < 0.05). The incidence of maternal anemia increased significantly from 28.6% to 32.1% between baseline and term. Pregnant mothers with inadequate dietary diversity groups had more (56% at baseline and 68% at term) risk of anemia than the comparison (adequate) groups, (RR, 1.56 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 - 1.83 and 1.39 - 2.04). The overall incidence of still birth, low birth weight and pre-term birth was 4.5%, 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively. The variation of these outcomes was significant across study groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendations: Dietary diversity status of pregnant mothers has significant effect on the incidence of anemia and key pregnancy outcomes in resource limited settings, like rural Ethiopia. Therefore, apart from the ongoing routine IFA supplementation, special emphasis should be given to dietary diversity of mothers to improve related outcomes of pregnancy and maternal health.

Keywords: anemia, birth weight, dietary diversity, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
923 More Precise: Patient-Reported Outcomes after Stroke

Authors: Amber Elyse Corrigan, Alexander Smith, Anna Pennington, Ben Carter, Jonathan Hewitt


Background and Purpose: Morbidity secondary to stroke is highly heterogeneous, but it is important to both patients and clinicians in post-stroke management and adjustment to life after stroke. The consideration of post-stroke morbidity clinically and from the patient perspective has been poorly measured. The patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) in morbidity assessment help improve this knowledge gap. The primary aim of this study was to consider the association between PRO outcomes and stroke predictors. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study assessed 549 stroke patients at 19 hospital sites across England and Wales during 2019. Following a stroke event, demographic, clinical, and PRO measures were collected. Prevalence of morbidity within PRO measures was calculated with associated 95% confidence intervals. Predictors of domain outcome were calculated using a multilevel generalized linear model. Associated P -values and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results: Data were collected from 549 participants, 317 men (57.7%) and 232 women (42.3%) with ages ranging from 25 to 97 (mean 72.7). PRO morbidity was high post-stroke; 93.2% of the cohort report post-stroke PRO morbidity. Previous stroke, diabetes, and gender are associated with worse patient-reported outcomes across both the physical and cognitive domains. Conclusions: This large-scale multicenter cohort study illustrates the high proportion of morbidity in PRO measures. Further, we demonstrate key predictors of adverse outcomes (Diabetes, previous stroke, and gender) congruence with clinical predictors. The PRO has been demonstrated to be an informative and useful stroke when considering patient-reported outcomes and has wider implications for considerations of PROs in clinical management. Future longitudinal follow-up with PROs is needed to consider association of long-term morbidity.

Keywords: morbidity, patient-reported outcome, PRO, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
922 The Impact of a Cognitive Acceleration Program on Prospective Teachers' Reasoning Skills

Authors: Bernardita Tornero


Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education (CAME) programmes have been used successfully for promoting the development of thinking skills in school students for the last 30 years. Given that the approach has had a tremendous impact on the thinking capabilities of participating students, this study explored the experience of using the programme with prospective primary teachers in Chile. Therefore, this study not only looked at the experience of prospective primary teachers during the CAME course as learners, but also examined how they perceived the approach from their perspective as future teachers, as well as how they could transfer the teaching strategies they observed to their future classrooms. Given the complexity of the phenomenon under study, this research used a mixed methods approach. For this reason, the impact that the CAME course had on prospective teachers’ thinking skills was not only approached by using a test that assessed the participants’ improvements in these skills, but their learning and teaching experiences were also recorded through qualitative research tools (learning journals, interviews and field notes). The main findings indicate that, at the end of the CAME course, prospective teachers not only demonstrated higher thinking levels, but also showed positive attitudinal changes towards teaching and learning in general, and towards mathematics in particular. The participants also had increased confidence in their ability to teach mathematics and to promote thinking skills in their students. In terms of the CAME methodology, prospective teachers not only found it novel and motivating, but also commented that dealing with the thinking skills topic during a university course was both unusual and very important for their professional development. This study also showed that, at the end of the CAME course, prospective teachers felt they had developed strategies that could be used in their classrooms in the future. In this context, the relevance of the study is not only that it described the impact and the positive results of the first experience of using a CAME approach with prospective teachers, but also that some of the conclusions have significant implications for the teaching of thinking skills and the training of primary school teachers.

Keywords: cognitive acceleration, formal reasoning, prospective teachers, initial teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
921 Chronic Aflatoxin Exposure During Pregnancy Is Associated With Lower Fetal Growth Trajectories: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia

Authors: K. Tesfamariam, S. Gebreyesus, C. Lachat, P. Kolsteren, S. De Saeger, M. De Boevre, A. Argaw


Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi, which are ubiquitously present in the food supplies of low- and middle-income countries. Studies of maternal aflatoxin exposure and fetal outcomes are mainly focused on size at birth and the effect on intrauterine fetal growth has not been assessed using repeated longitudinal fetal biometry across gestation. Therefore, this study intends to assess the association between chronic aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and fetal growth trajectories in a rural Ethiopian setting. In a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 492 pregnant women. A phlebotomist collected 5 mL of a venous blood sample from eligible women before 28 completed weeks of gestation and aflatoxin B1-lysine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) gestational age was 19.1 (3.71) weeks at enrollment, and 28.5 (3.51) and 34.5 (2.44) weeks of gestation at the second and third rounds of ultrasound measurements, respectively. Estimated fetal weight was expressed in centiles using the INTERGROWTH-21st reference. We fitted a multivariable linear mixed-effects model to estimate the rate of fetal growth between aflatoxin-exposed (i.e., aflatoxin B1-lysine concentration above or equal to the limit of detection) and non-exposed mothers in the study. Mothers had a mean (±SD) age of 26.0 (4.58) years. The median (P25, P75) serum AFB1-lysine concentration was 12.6 (0.93, 96.9) pg/mg albumin, and aflatoxin exposure was observed in 86.6% of maternal blood samples. Eighty-five percent of the women enrolled provided at least two ultrasound measurements for analysis. On average, the aflatoxin-exposed group had a significantly lower change over time in fetal weight-for-gestational age centile than the unexposed group (ß = -1.01 centiles/week, 95% CI: -1.87, -0.15, p = 0.02). Chronic maternal AF exposure is associated with lower fetal weight gain over time. Our findings emphasize the importance of nutrition-sensitive strategies to mitigate dietary aflatoxin exposure as well as adopting food safety measures in low-income settings, particularly during the fetal period of development.

Keywords: aflatoxin, fetal growth, low-income setting, mycotoxins

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
920 Effect of Reflective Practices on the Performance of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Madiha Zahid, Afifa Khanam


The present study aims to investigate the effect of reflective teaching practices on prospective teachers’ performance. Reflective teaching practice helps teachers to plan, implement and improve their performance by rethinking about their strengths and weaknesses. An action research was conducted by the researcher. All prospective teachers of sixth semester in a women university’s teacher education program were the population of the study. From 40 students, 20 students were taken as experimental group, and the rest of 20 students were taken as control group. During the action research a cyclic process of producing a module, training teachers for the reflective practices and then observing them during their class for reflective practice was done by the researchers. The research used a set of rubrics and checklists for assessing prospective teachers’ performance during their class. Finally, the module was modified with the help of findings. It was found that the training has improved the performance of teachers as they revised and modified their teaching strategies through reflective practice. However, they were not able to train their students for reflective practice as per expectation. The study has implications for teacher training programs to include reflective practice modules as part of their course work for making them better teachers.

Keywords: reflective practices, prospective teacher, effect, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
919 Exclusive Breastfeeding Abandonment among Adolescent Mothers: A Cohort Study

Authors: Maria I. Nuñez-Hernández, Maria L. Riesco


Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) up to 6 months old infant have been considered one of the most important factors in the overall development of children. Nevertheless, as resources are scarce, it is essential to identify the most vulnerable groups that have major risk of EBF abandonment, in order to deliver the best strategies. Children of adolescent mothers are within these groups. Aims: To determine the EBF abandonment rate among adolescent mothers and to analyze the associated factors. Methods: Prospective cohort study of adolescent mothers in the southern area of Santiago, Chile, conducted in primary care services of public health system. The cohort was established from 2014 to 2015, with a sample of 105 adolescent mothers and their children at 2 months of life. The inclusion criteria were: adolescent mother from 14 to 19 years old; not twin babies; mother and baby leaving the hospital together after birthchild; correct attachment of the baby to the breast; no difficulty understanding the Spanish language or communicating. Follow-up was performed at 4 and 6 months old infant. Data were collected by interviews, considering EBF as breastfeeding only, without adding other milk, tea, juice, water or other product that not breast milk, except drugs. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, by Kaplan-Meier estimator and Log-Rank test, admitting the probability of occurrence of type I error of 5% (p-value = 0.05). Results: The cumulative EBF abandonment rate at 2, 4 and 6 months was 33.3%, 52.2% and 63.8%, respectively. Factors associated with EBF abandonment were maternal perception of the quality of milk as poor (p < 0.001), maternal perception that the child was not satisfied after breastfeeding (p < 0.001), use of pacifier (p < 0.001), maternal consumption of illicit drugs after delivery (p < 0.001), mother return to school (p = 0.040) and presence of nipple trauma (p = 0.045). Conclusion: EBF abandonment rate was higher in the first 4 months of life and is superior to the population of women who breastfeed. Among the EBF abandonment factors, one of them is related to the adolescent condition, and two are related to the maternal subjective perception.

Keywords: adolescent, breastfeeding, midwifery, nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
918 Analyzing the Oil and Gas Exploration Opportunities in Poland: Five Prospective Areas Selected and Dedicated to the Tender

Authors: Krystian Wójcik, Sara Wróblewska, Marcin Łojek, Katarzyna Sobień


Polish Geological Survey selected five of the most prospective areas for oil and gas exploration in Poland. They are dedicated to the 6th international tender round for hydrocarbon concessions, planned in 2022. The main exploration target of these areas is related to conventional and unconventional accumulations of gas and oil in the Carpathian basement, Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (Block 413 – 414), as well as in the Carboniferous, Rotliegend, Main Dolomite (Block 208, Cybinka – Torzym, Zielona Góra West), and in the Mesozoic of the Polish Lowlands (Koło).

Keywords: concession policy, international tender, oil and gas exploration horizons, prospective areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
917 Exploring the Effect of Using Lesh Model in Enhancing Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Number Sense

Authors: Areej Isam Barham


Developing students’ number sense is an essential element in the learning of mathematics. Number sense is one of the foundational ideas in mathematics where students need to understand numbers, representing them in different ways, and realize the relationships among numbers. Number sense also reflects students’ understanding of the meaning of operations, how they related to one another, how to compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Developing students’ number sense in the mathematics classroom requires good preparation for mathematics teachers, those who will direct their students towards the real understanding of numbers and its implementation in the learning of mathematics. This study describes the development of elementary prospective mathematics teachers’ number sense through a mathematics teaching methods course at Qatar University. The study examined the effect of using the Lesh model in enhancing mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense. Thirty-nine elementary prospective mathematics teachers involved in the current study. The study followed an experimental research approach, and quantitative research methods were used to answer the research questions. Pre-post number sense test was constructed and implemented before and after teaching by using the Lesh model. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive data analysis and t-test were used to examine the impact of using the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense. Finding of the study indicated poor number sense and limited numeracy skills before implementing the use of the Lesh model, which highly demonstrate the importance of the study. The results of the study also revealed a positive impact on the use of the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense with statistically significant differences. The discussion of the study addresses different features and issues related to the participants’ number sense. In light of the study, the research presents recommendations and suggestions for the future development of mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense.

Keywords: number sense, Lesh model, prospective mathematics teachers, development of number sense

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
916 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok


The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
915 The Display of Age-Period/Age-Cohort Mortality Trends Using 1-Year Intervals Reveals Period and Cohort Effects Coincident with Major Influenza A Events

Authors: Maria Ines Azambuja


Graphic displays of Age-Period-Cohort (APC) mortality trends generally uses data aggregated within 5 or 10-year intervals. Technology allows one to increase the amount of processed data. Displaying occurrences by 1-year intervals is a logic first step in the direction of attaining higher quality landscapes of variations in temporal occurrences. Method: 1) Comparison of UK mortality trends plotted by 10-, 5- and 1-year intervals; 2) Comparison of UK and US mortality trends (period X age and cohort X age) displayed by 1-year intervals. Source: Mortality data (period, 1x1, males, 1933-1912) uploaded from the Human Mortality Database to Excel files, where Period X Age and Cohort X Age graphics were produced. The choice of transforming age-specific trends from calendar to birth-cohort years (cohort = period – age) (instead of using cohort 1x1 data available at the HMD resource) was taken to facilitate the comparison of age-specific trends when looking across calendar-years and birth-cohorts. Yearly live births, males, 1933 to 1912 (UK) were uploaded from the HFD. Influenza references are from the literature. Results: 1) The use of 1-year intervals unveiled previously unsuspected period, cohort and interacting period x cohort effects upon all-causes mortality. 2) The UK and US figures showed variations associated with particular calendar years (1936, 1940, 1951, 1957-68, 72) and, most surprisingly, with particular birth-cohorts (1889-90 in the US, and 1900, 1918-19, 1940-41 and 1946-47, in both countries. Also, the figures showed ups and downs in age-specific trends initiated at particular birth-cohorts (1900, 1918-19 and 1947-48) or a particular calendar-year (1968, 1972, 1977-78 in the US), variations at times restricted to just a range of ages (cohort x period interacting effects). Importantly, most of the identified “scars” (period and cohort) correlates with the record of occurrences of Influenza A epidemics since the late 19th Century. Conclusions: The use of 1-year intervals to describe APC mortality trends both increases the amount of information available, thus enhancing the opportunities for patterns’ recognition, and increases our capability of interpreting those patterns by describing trends across smaller intervals of time (period or birth-cohort). The US and the UK mortality landscapes share many but not all 'scars' and distortions suggested here to be associated with influenza epidemics. Different size-effects of wars are evident, both in mortality and in fertility. But it would also be realistic to suppose that the preponderant influenza A viruses circulating in UK and US at the beginning of the 20th Century might be different and the difference to have intergenerational long-term consequences. Compared with the live births trend (UK data), birth-cohort scars clearly depend on birth-cohort sizes relatives to neighbor ones, which, if causally associated with influenza, would result from influenza-related fetal outcomes/selection. Fetal selection could introduce continuing modifications on population patterns of immune-inflammatory phenotypes that might give rise to 'epidemic constitutions' favoring the occurrence of particular diseases. Comparative analysis of mortality landscapes may help us to straight our record of past circulation of Influenza viruses and document associations between influenza recycling and fertility changes.

Keywords: age-period-cohort trends, epidemic constitution, fertility, influenza, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
914 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika


The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
913 Dietary Vitamin D Intake and the Bladder Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Authors: Iris W. A. Boot, Anke Wesselius, Maurice P. Zeegers


Diet may play an essential role in the aetiology of bladder cancer (BC). Vitamin D is involved in various biological functions which have the potential to prevent BC development. Besides, vitamin D also influences the uptake of calcium and phosphorus , thereby possibly indirectly influencing the risk of BC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between vitamin D intake and BC risk. Individual dietary data were pooled from three cohort studies. Food item intake was converted to daily intakes of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus. Pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox-regression models. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age and smoking status (Model 1), and additionally for the food groups fruit, vegetables and meat (Model 2). Dose–response relationships (Model 1) were examined using a nonparametric test for trend. In total, 2,871 cases and 522,364 non-cases were included in the analyses. The present study showed an overall increased BC risk for high dietary vitamin D intake (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.26). A similar increase BC risk with high vitamin D intake was observed among women and for the non-muscle invasive BC subtype, (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.15-1.72, HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27, respectively). High calcium intake decreased the BC risk among women (HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.97). A combined inverse effect on BC risk was observed for low vitamin D intake and high calcium intake (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.93), while a positive effect was observed for high vitamin D intake in combination with low, moderate and high phosphorus (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59, HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36, HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31, respectively). Combining all nutrients showed a decreased BC risk for low vitamin D intake, high calcium and moderate phosphor intake (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.75), and an increased BC risk for moderate intake of all the nutrients (HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38), for high vitamin D and low calcium and phosphor intake (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.62), and for moderate vitamin D and calcium and high phosphorus intake (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59). No significant dose-response analyses were observed. The findings of this study show an increased BC risk for high dietary vitamin D intake and a decreased risk for high calcium intake. Besides, the study highlights the importance of examining the effect of a nutrient in combination with complementary nutrients for risk assessment. Future research should focus on nutrients in a wider context and in nutritional patterns.

Keywords: bladder cancer, nutritional oncology, pooled cohort analysis, vitamin D

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
912 Multilevel of Factors Affected Optimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression amongst HIV-Infected Prisoners in South Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Terefe Fuge, George Tsourtos , Emma Miller


Objectives: Maintaining optimal adherence and viral suppression in people living with HIV (PLWHA) is essential to ensure both preventative and therapeutic benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prisoners bear a particularly high burden of HIV infection and are highly likely to transmit to others during and after incarceration. However, the level of adherence and viral suppression, as well as its associated factors in incarcerated populations in low-income countries is unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of non-adherence and viral failure, and contributing factors to this amongst prisoners in South Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted between June 1, 2019 and July 31, 2020 to compare the level of adherence and viral suppression between incarcerated and non-incarcerated PLWHA. The study involved 74 inmates living with HIV (ILWHA) and 296 non-incarcerated PLWHA. Background information including sociodemographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural, and incarceration-related characteristics was collected using a structured questionnaire. Adherence was determined based on participants’ self-report and pharmacy refill records, and plasma viral load measurements which were undertaken within the study period were prospectively extracted to determine viral suppression. Various univariate and multivariate regression models were used to analyse data. Results: Self-reported dose adherence was approximately similar between ILWHA and non-incarcerated PLWHA (81% and 83% respectively), but ILWHA had a significantly higher medication possession ratio (MPR) (89% vs 75%). The prevalence of viral failure (VF) was slightly higher (6%) in ILWHA compared to non-incarcerated PLWHA (4.4%). The overall dose non-adherence (NA) was significantly associated with missing ART appointments, level of satisfaction with ART services, patient’s ability to comply with a specified medication schedule and types of methods used to monitor the schedule. In ILWHA specifically, accessing ART services from a hospital compared to a health centre, an inability to always attend clinic appointments, experience of depression and a lack of social support predicted NA. VF was significantly higher in males, people of age 31-35 years and in those who experienced social stigma, regardless of their incarceration status. Conclusions: This study revealed that HIV-infected prisoners in South Ethiopia were more likely to be non-adherent to doses and so to develop viral failure compared to their non-incarcerated counterparts. A multitude of factors was found to be responsible for this requiring multilevel intervention strategies focusing on the specific needs of prisoners.

Keywords: Adherence , Antiretroviral therapy, Incarceration, South Ethiopia, Viral suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
911 Risk of Mortality and Spectrum of Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma before and after Ibrutinib Approval: A Population-Based Study

Authors: Karthik Chamari, Vasudha Rudraraju, Gaurav Chaudhari


Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The course of MCL is moderately aggressive and variable, and it has median overall survival of 8 to 10 years. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration in November of 2013 for the treatment of MCL patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there has been a change in survival and patterns of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among the MCL population in the US after ibrutinib approval. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18, we conducted a retrospective study with patients diagnosed with MCL (ICD-0-3 code 9673/3) between 2007 and 2018. We divided patients into two six-year cohorts, pre-ibrutinib approval (2007-2012) and post-ibrutinib approval (2013-2018), and compared relative survival rates (RSRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs between cohorts. Results: We included 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL between 2007 and 2018 in the SEER-18 survival and SIR registries. Of these, 4,205 (45%) patients were included in the pre-ibrutinib cohort, and 5052 (55%) patients were included in the post-ibrutinib cohort. The median follow-up duration for the pre-ibrutinib cohort was 54 months (range 0 to 143 months), and the post-ibrutinib cohort was 20 months (range 0 to 71 months). There was a significant difference in the five-year RSRs between pre-ibrutinib and post-ibrutinib cohorts (57.5% vs. 62.6%, p < 0.005). Out of the 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL, 920 developed SPMs. A higher proportion of SPMs occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (63%) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (37%). Non-hematological malignancies comprised most of all SPMs. A higher incidence of non-hematological malignancies occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1 to 1.3). There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancers of the respiratory tract (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18), urinary tract (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.06) when compared with other non-hematological malignancies in post-ibrutinib cohort. Conclusions: Our study results suggest the relative survival rates have increased since the approval of ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma patients. Additionally, for some unclear reasons, the incidence of SPM’s (non-hematological malignancies), mainly cancers of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, have increased in the six years following the approval of ibrutinib. Further studies should be conducted to determine the cause of these findings.

Keywords: mantle cell lymphoma, Ibrutinib, relative survival analysis, secondary primary cancers

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
910 Effect of Atrial Flutter on Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed, Richard Amoateng, Akhil Jain, Mohamed Ahmed


Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a type of acquired cardiomyopathy caused by chronic alcohol consumption. Frequently ACM is associated with arrhythmias such as atrial flutter. Our aim was to characterize the patient demographics and investigate the effect of atrial flutter (AF) on ACM. This was a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to identify admissions in adults with principal and secondary diagnoses of alcoholic cardiomyopathy and atrial flutter from 2019. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, race, household income, insurance status, Elixhauser comorbidity score, hospital location, bed size, and teaching status. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were the length of stay (LOS) and total charge in USD. There was a total of 21,855 admissions with alcoholic cardiomyopathy, of which 1,635 had atrial flutter (AF-ACM). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, AF-ACM cohort had fewer females (4.89% vs 14.54%, p<0.001), were older (58.66 vs 56.13 years, p<0.001), fewer Native Americans (0.61% vs2.67%, p<0.01), had fewer smaller (19.27% vs 22.45%, p<0.01) & medium-sized hospitals (23.24% vs28.98%, p<0.01), but more large-sized hospitals (57.49% vs 48.57%, p<0.01), more Medicare (40.37% vs 34.08%, p<0.05) and fewer Medicaid insured (23.55% vs 33.70%, p=<0.001), fewer hypertension (10.7% vs 15.01%, p<0.05), and more obesity (24.77% vs 16.35%, p<0.001). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, there was no difference in AF-ACM cohort mortality rate (6.13% vs 4.20%, p=0.0998), unadjusted mortality OR 1.49 (95% CI 0.92-2.40, p=0.102), adjusted mortality OR 1.36 (95% CI 0.83-2.24, p=0.221), but there was a difference in LOS 1.23 days (95% CI 0.34-2.13, p<0.01), total charge $28,860.30 (95% CI 11,883.96-45,836.60, p<0.01). In patients admitted with ACM, the presence of AF was not associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate or odds of all-cause mortality; however, it was associated with 1.23 days increase in LOS and a $28,860.30 increase in total hospitalization charge. Native Americans, older age and obesity were risk factors for the presence of AF in ACM.

Keywords: alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial flutter, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
909 Topical Negative Pressure for Autologous Fat Grafting in Breast Augmentation

Authors: Mohamed Eftal Bin Mohamed Ebrahim, Alexander Varey


Aim: Topical negative pressure has been shown to enhance angiogenesis during wound healing, both for open and closed wounds. Since angiogenesis is a key requirement for successful fat grafting, there may be a role for topical negative pressure as a means of enhancing the take rate during autologous fat grafting to breasts. Here we present a systematic review of the literature on this topic. Methods: Ovid and Embase were utilized, with searches ranging between 1960 – 2019. Terms (“Liposculpting” OR “Fat grafting” OR “Lipofilling” OR “Lipograft” OR “Fat transfer”) AND (“Negative Pressure” OR “Brava” OR “Kiwi”) AND (“Breast”) were merged as keywords. Inclusion criteria were females, autologous fat graft to breast with topical negative pressure prior to the procedure. Studies were excluded if there was no primary endpoint or non-original article. Results: Upon reviewing 219 articles, 2 met inclusion criteria. A total of 565 and 46 breasts in each article were treated respectively using the negative pressure device BRAVA®, with each cohort having different pre-and post-operative pressure settings. Khouri et al. cohort had higher graft survival (79%) compared to Del Vecchio et al. cohort (64%); however, the latter had fewer complications compared to Khouri’s cohort, e.g., fat necrosis, pneumothorax and infection. Conclusion: There is limited evidence regarding the use of topical negative pressure for fat grafting to the breasts. However, in the two studies published, the reported rates of success are high, suggesting there may be a benefit. Consequently, a randomized controlled trial on this area is required.

Keywords: fat grafting, lipograft, negative pressure, breast, breast augmentation, brava

Procedia PDF Downloads 102