Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 443

Search results for: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

443 MR Imaging Spectrum of Intracranial Infections: An Experience of 100 Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India

Authors: Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar

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Infections of the nervous system and adjacent structures are often life-threatening conditions. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS disease remains a challenge. Our aim is to evaluate the typical and atypical neuro-imaging features of the various routinely encountered CNS infected patients so as to form guidelines for their imaging recognition and differentiation from tumoral, vascular and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), Cerebro Spinal Fluid (Csf), Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

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442 Investigation of the Progressive Collapse Potential in Steel Buildings with Composite Floor System

Authors: Pouya Kaafi, Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri

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Abnormal loads due to natural events, implementation errors and some other issues can lead to occurrence of progressive collapse in structures. Most of the past researches consist of 2- Dimensional (2D) models of steel frames without consideration of the floor system effects, which reduces the accuracy of the modeling. While employing a 3-Dimensional (3D) model and modeling the concrete slab system for the floors have a crucial role in the progressive collapse evaluation. In this research, a 3D finite element model of a 5-story steel building is modeled by the ABAQUS software once with modeling the slabs, and the next time without considering them. Then, the progressive collapse potential is evaluated. The results of the analyses indicate that the lack of the consideration of the slabs during the analyses, can lead to inaccuracy in assessing the progressive failure potential of the structure.

Keywords: abnormal loads, composite floor system, intermediate steel moment resisting frame system, progressive collapse

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441 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose

Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra

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The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70

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440 Effect of Progressive Type-I Right Censoring on Bayesian Statistical Inference of Simple Step–Stress Acceleration Life Testing Plan under Weibull Life Distribution

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan

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This paper discusses the effects of using progressive Type-I right censoring on the design of the Simple Step Accelerated Life testing using Bayesian approach for Weibull life products under the assumption of cumulative exposure model. The optimization criterion used in this paper is to minimize the expected pre-posterior variance of the PTH percentile time of failures. The model variables are the stress changing time and the stress value for the first step. A comparison between the conventional and the progressive Type-I right censoring is provided. The results have shown that the progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of testing on the expense of the test precision when the sample size is small. Moreover, the results have shown that using strong priors or large sample size reduces the sensitivity of the test precision to the censoring proportion. Hence, the progressive Type-I right censoring is recommended in these cases as progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of the test and doesn't affect the precision of the test a lot. Moreover, the results have shown that using direct or indirect priors affects the precision of the test.

Keywords: reliability, accelerated life testing, cumulative exposure model, Bayesian estimation, progressive type-I censoring, Weibull distribution

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439 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance Design of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos

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Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed. The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this concern.

Keywords: cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical

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438 Metabolic Cost and Perceived Exertion during Progressive and Randomized Walking Protocols

Authors: Simeon E. H. Davies

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This study investigated whether selected metabolic responses and the perception of effort varied during four different walk protocols where speed increased progressively 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km/hr (progressive treadmill walk (PTW); and progressive land walk (PLW); or where the participant adjusted to random changes of speed e.g. 6, 3, 7, 4, and 5 km/hr during a randomized treadmill walk (RTW); and a randomized land walk (RLW). Mean stature and mass of the seven participants was 1.75m and 70kg respectively, with a mean body fat of 15%. Metabolic measures including heart rate, relative oxygen uptake, ventilation, increased in a linear fashion up to 6 km/hr, however at 7 km/hr there was a significant increase in metabolic response notably during the PLW, and to a similar, although lesser extent in RLW, probably as a consequence of the loss of kinetic energy when turning at each cone in order to maintain the speed during each shuttle. Respiration frequency appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physical exertion, exhibiting a rapid elevation at 5 km/hr. The perception of effort during each mode and at each speed was largely congruent during each walk protocol.

Keywords: exertion, metabolic, progressive, random, walking

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437 Tracing the Developmental Repertoire of the Progressive: Evidence from L2 Construction Learning

Authors: Tianqi Wu, Min Wang

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Research investigating language acquisition from a constructionist perspective has demonstrated that language is learned as constructions at various linguistic levels, which is related to factors of frequency, semantic prototypicality, and form-meaning contingency. However, previous research on construction learning tended to focus on clause-level constructions such as verb argument constructions but few attempts were made to study morpheme-level constructions such as the progressive construction, which is regarded as a source of acquisition problems for English learners from diverse L1 backgrounds, especially for those whose L1 do not have an equivalent construction such as German and Chinese. To trace the developmental trajectory of Chinese EFL learners’ use of the progressive with respect to verb frequency, verb-progressive contingency, and verbal prototypicality and generality, a learner corpus consisting of three sub-corpora representing three different English proficiency levels was extracted from the Chinese Learners of English Corpora (CLEC). As the reference point, a native speakers’ corpus extracted from the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays was also established. All the texts were annotated with C7 tagset by part-of-speech tagging software. After annotation all valid progressive hits were retrieved with AntConc 3.4.3 followed by a manual check. Frequency-related data showed that from the lowest to the highest proficiency level, (1) the type token ratio increased steadily from 23.5% to 35.6%, getting closer to 36.4% in the native speakers’ corpus, indicating a wider use of verbs in the progressive; (2) the normalized entropy value rose from 0.776 to 0.876, working towards the target score of 0.886 in native speakers’ corpus, revealing that upper-intermediate learners exhibited a more even distribution and more productive use of verbs in the progressive; (3) activity verbs (i.e., verbs with prototypical progressive meanings like running and singing) dropped from 59% to 34% but non-prototypical verbs such as state verbs (e.g., being and living) and achievement verbs (e.g., dying and finishing) were increasingly used in the progressive. Apart from raw frequency analyses, collostructional analyses were conducted to quantify verb-progressive contingency and to determine what verbs were distinctively associated with the progressive construction. Results were in line with raw frequency findings, which showed that contingency between the progressive and non-prototypical verbs represented by light verbs (e.g., going, doing, making, and coming) increased as English proficiency proceeded. These findings altogether suggested that beginning Chinese EFL learners were less productive in using the progressive construction: they were constrained by a small set of verbs which had concrete and typical progressive meanings (e.g., the activity verbs). But with English proficiency increasing, their use of the progressive began to spread to marginal members such as the light verbs.

Keywords: Construction learning, Corpus-based, Progressives, Prototype

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436 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

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This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: fire, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering

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435 Studying Educational Processes through a Multifocal Viewpoint: Educational and Social Studies

Authors: Noa Shriki, Atara Shriki

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Lifelong learning is considered as essential for teacher's professional development, which in turn has implications for the improvement of the entire education system. In recent years, many programs designed to support teachers' professional development are criticized for not achieving their goal. A variety of reasons have been proposed for the purpose of explaining the causes of the ineffectiveness of such programs. In this study, we put to test the possibility that teachers do not change as a result of their participation in professional programs due to a gap between the contents and approaches included in them and teacher's beliefs about teaching and learning. Eighteen elementary school mathematics teachers participated in the study. These teachers were involved in collaborating with their students in inquiring mathematical ideas, while implementing action research. Employing educational theories, the results indicated that this experience had a positive effect on teacher's professional development. In particular, there was an evident change in their beliefs regarding their role as mathematics teachers. However, while employing a different perspective for analyzing the data, the lens of Kurt Lewin's theory of re-education, we realized that this change of beliefs must be questioned. Therefore, it is suggested that analysis of educational processes should be carried out not only through common educational theories, but also on the basis of social and organizational theories. It is assumed that both the field of education and the fields of social studies and organizational consulting will benefit from the multifocal viewpoint

Keywords: educational theories, professional development, re-education, teachers' beliefs

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434 Progressive Collapse of Cooling Towers

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam

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Well documented records of the past failures of the structures reveals that the progressive collapse of structures is one of the major reasons for dramatic human loss and economical consequences. Progressive collapse is the failure mechanism in which the structure fails gradually due to the sudden removal of the structural elements. The sudden removal of some structural elements results in the excessive redistributed loads on the others. This sudden removal may be caused by any sudden loading resulted from local explosion, impact loading and terrorist attacks. Hyperbolic thin walled concrete shell structures being an important part of nuclear and thermal power plants are always prone to such terrorist attacks. In concrete structures, the gradual failure would take place by generation of initial cracks and its propagation in the supporting columns along with the tower shell leading to the collapse of the entire structure. In this study the mechanism of progressive collapse for such high raised towers would be simulated employing the finite element method. The aim of this study would be providing clear conceptual step-by-step descriptions of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis using commercially available finite element structural analysis software’s, with the aim that the explanations would be clear enough that they will be readily understandable and will be used by practicing engineers. The study would be carried out in the following procedures: 1. Provide explanations of modeling, simulation and analysis procedures including input screen snapshots; 2. Interpretation of the results and discussions; 3. Conclusions and recommendations.

Keywords: progressive collapse, cooling towers, finite element analysis, crack generation, reinforced concrete

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433 Principle of Progressive Implementation and Education Policy for Former Combatants in Colombia

Authors: Ximena Rincon Castellanos

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The research target was analyzed the education public policy of Colombia according to the content of the right to education. One problematic element of that content is the principle of progressive implementation of economic, social and cultural rights. The research included a complete study of public documents and other papers; as well as, one focus group with former combatants in a city where is located one of some 'hogares de paz', which hosts these people after leaving the illegal group. This paper presents a critical approach to the public policy strategies to guarantee education to former combatants and its tension with the right to a progressive implementation. Firstly, education is understood as a technology level without considering higher education. Former combatant attends to SENA and private institutions, which offer technology education and it is counted by the Colombian Government as higher education. Therefore, statistics report a high level of attendance of excombatant to that education level, but actually, they do not expect to study a university carrier. Secondly, the budget approved has been invested in private institutions, despite public institutions are able to include this population and they need more money to strengthen the public offer, which has been considered as a better strategy to ensure education as a human right but not a good, by the special rapporteur on the right to education. As a consequence, the progressive implementation should be a guide to change and improve current strategies, invest the budget available into the public system of education in order to give former combatants the chance to access to universities.

Keywords: higher education, progressive implementation, public service, private offering and technology education

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432 The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Sleep Hygiene Education to Change Sleep Quality Index Scores of Patient with Breast Cancer

Authors: Ika Wulansari, Yati Afiyanti, Indang Trihandini

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Sleeping disorder experienced by patients with breast cancer can affect the physical, mental, health, and well-being. This study examines the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training and sleep hygiene education to change sleep quality scores of the patient with breast cancer. The study design using quasi-experiment with pre-post test within the control group, involving 62 breast cancer patients using consecutive sampling method in Jakarta. Statistical test results with independent t-test showed a significant difference in score of sleep quality between in intervention group and the control group (6,66±3,815; 9,30±3,334, p-value = 0,005). Progressive muscle relaxation exercise and sleep hygiene education proven to be affective to change the patients sleeping quality, so that it can be an alternative therapeutic option to overcome sleeping disorders.

Keywords: sleeping disorders, breast cancer, progressive muscle relaxation, sleep hygiene education

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431 Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis of Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Younger Middle Aged Patient

Authors: Robert Krause

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Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease similar to frontotemporal and semantic dementia, while having a different clinical image and anatomic pathology topography. Nonetheless, they are often included under an umbrella term: frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In the study, examples of diagnosing PPA are presented through the multidisciplinary lens of specialists from different fields (neurologists, psychiatrists, clinical speech therapists, clinical neuropsychologists and others) using a variety of diagnostic tools such as MR, PET/CT, genetic screening and neuropsychological and logopedic methods. Thanks to that, specialists can get a better and clearer understanding of PPA diagnosis. The study summarizes the concrete procedures and results of different specialists while diagnosing PPA in a patient of younger middle age and illustrates the importance of multidisciplinary approach to differential diagnosis of PPA.

Keywords: primary progressive aphasia, etiology, diagnosis, younger middle age

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430 Evaluation of Progressive Collapse of Transmission Tower

Authors: Jeong-Hwan Choi, Hyo-Sang Park, Tae-Hyung Lee

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The transmission tower is one of the crucial lifeline structures in a modern society, and it needs to be protected against extreme loading conditions. However, the transmission tower is a very complex structure and, therefore, it is very difficult to simulate the actual damage and the collapse behavior of the tower structure. In this study, the actual collapse behavior of the transmission tower due to lateral loading conditions such as wind load is evaluated through the computational simulation. For that, a progressive collapse procedure is applied to the simulation. In this procedure, after running the simulation, if a member of the tower structure fails, the failed member is removed and the simulation run again. The 154kV transmission tower is selected for this study. The simulation is performed by nonlinear static analysis procedure, namely pushover analysis, using OpenSEES, an earthquake simulation platform. Three-dimensional finite element models of those towers are developed.

Keywords: transmission tower, OpenSEES, pushover, progressive collapse

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429 Multiview Progressive Fashion Attribute Extraction

Authors: Sukhneer Singh, Mohit Chawla, Sandeep R., Vijay Kumar

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Fashion images on e-commerce websites generally have multiple images of articles(dresses, tshirts etc), but most often only one image of article is used to classify hard and subjective attributes(neck design, sleeves etc). Some of the attributes(like back zip, strap closure) are not present or not properly visible(like pattern detailing) in the single views used for training models. We propose an architecture for utilizing multiple views, along with improved progressive training (using attentions) approach compared to the previous paper. We branch networks for multiple views in starting layers and then branch network for each attribute so weights learnt from previous attribute are fine-tuned for another attribute. We also compare our approach with the single models for each attribute and demonstrate improvements over overall classification accuracies using our approach.

Keywords: multiview classification, progressive fashion attribute extraction, fashion attribute extraction, multiview multiclass approach

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428 Mathematical Model for Progressive Phase Distribution of Ku-band Reflectarray Antennas

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam, A. F. M. Zain, N. Misran

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Progressive phase distribution is an important consideration in reflect array antenna design which is required to form a planar wave in front of the reflect array aperture. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model in order to determine the required reflection phase values from individual element of a reflect array designed in Ku-band frequency range. The proposed technique of obtaining reflection phase can be applied for any geometrical design of elements and is independent of number of array elements. Moreover the model also deals with the solution of reflect array antenna design with both centre and off-set feed configurations. The theoretical modeling has also been implemented for reflect arrays constructed on 0.508 mm thickness of different dielectric substrates. The results show an increase in the slope of the phase curve from 4.61°/mm to 22.35°/mm by varying the material properties.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, progressive phase distribution, reflect array antenna, reflection phase

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427 Towards Sustainable Evolution of Bioeconomy: The Role of Technology and Innovation Management

Authors: Ronald Orth, Johanna Haunschild, Sara Tsog

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The bioeconomy is an inter- and cross-disciplinary field covering a large number and wide scope of existing and emerging technologies. It has a great potential to contribute to the transformation process of industry landscape and ultimately drive the economy towards sustainability. However, bioeconomy per se is not necessarily sustainable and technology should be seen as an enabler rather than panacea to all our ecological, social and economic issues. Therefore, to draw and maximize benefits from bioeconomy in terms of sustainability, we propose that innovative activities should encompass not only novel technologies and bio-based new materials but also multifocal innovations. For multifocal innovation endeavors, innovation management plays a substantial role, as any innovation emerges in a complex iterative process where communication and knowledge exchange among relevant stake holders has a pivotal role. The knowledge generation and innovation are although at the core of transition towards a more sustainable bio-based economy, to date, there is a significant lack of concepts and models that approach bioeconomy from the innovation management approach. The aim of this paper is therefore two-fold. First, it inspects the role of transformative approach in the adaptation of bioeconomy that contributes to the environmental, ecological, social and economic sustainability. Second, it elaborates the importance of technology and innovation management as a tool for smooth, prompt and effective transition of firms to the bioeconomy. We conduct a qualitative literature study on the sustainability challenges that bioeconomy entails thus far using Science Citation Index and based on grey literature, as major economies e.g. EU, USA, China and Brazil have pledged to adopt bioeconomy and have released extensive publications on the topic. We will draw an example on the forest based business sector that is transforming towards the new green economy more rapidly as expected, although this sector has a long-established conventional business culture with consolidated and fully fledged industry. Based on our analysis we found that a successful transition to sustainable bioeconomy is conditioned on heterogenous and contested factors in terms of stakeholders , activities and modes of innovation. In addition, multifocal innovations occur when actors from interdisciplinary fields engage in intensive and continuous interaction where the focus of innovation is allocated to a field of mutually evolving socio-technical practices that correspond to the aims of the novel paradigm of transformative innovation policy. By adopting an integrated and systems approach as well as tapping into various innovation networks and joining global innovation clusters, firms have better chance of creating an entire new chain of value added products and services. This requires professionals that have certain capabilities and skills such as: foresight for future markets, ability to deal with complex issues, ability to guide responsible R&D, ability of strategic decision making, manage in-depth innovation systems analysis including value chain analysis. Policy makers, on the other hand, need to acknowledge the essential role of firms in the transformative innovation policy paradigm.

Keywords: bioeconomy, innovation and technology management, multifocal innovation, sustainability, transformative innovation policy

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426 Intrastromal Donor Limbal Segments Implantation as a Surgical Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus: Clinical and Functional Results

Authors: Mikhail Panes, Sergei Pozniak, Nikolai Pozniak

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Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intrastromal donor limbal segments implantation for treatment of progressive keratoconus considering on main characteristics of corneal endothelial cells. Setting: Outpatient ophthalmic clinic. Methods: Twenty patients (20 eyes) with progressive keratoconus II-III of Amsler classification were recruited. The worst eye was treated with the transplantation of donor limbal segments in the recipient corneal stroma, while the fellow eye was left untreated as a control of functional and morphological changes. Furthermore, twenty patients (20 eyes) without progressive keratoconus was used as a control of corneal endothelial cells changes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination including uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), slit lamp examination fundus examination, corneal topography and pachymetry, auto-keratometry, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Corneal Endothelial Specular Microscopy. Results: After two years, statistically significant improvement in the UDVA and CDVA (on the average on two lines for UDVA and three-four lines for CDVA) were noted. Besides corneal astigmatism decreased from 5.82 ± 2.64 to 1.92 ± 1.4 D. Moreover there were no statistically significant differences in the changes of mean spherical equivalent, keratometry and pachymetry indicators. It should be noted that after two years there were no significant differences in the changes of the number and form of corneal endothelial cells. It can be regarded as a process stabilization. In untreated control eyes, there was a general trend towards worsening of UDVA, CDVA and corneal thickness, while corneal astigmatism was increased. Conclusion: Intrastromal donor segments implantation is a safe technique for keratoconus treatment. Intrastromal donor segments implantation is an efficient procedure to stabilize and improve progressive keratoconus.

Keywords: corneal endothelial cells, intrastromal donor limbal segments, progressive keratoconus, surgical treatment of keratoconus

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425 Regenerative City Regions: Exploring the Connections between Regenerative Development, Collaborative Governance and Progressive Regionalism

Authors: Lorena F. Axinte

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Territorial rescaling is a universal practice in the UK, following a logic of agglomeration and competition as the only chance for cities to thrive. Cardiff Capital Region is one of the latest examples, and its governance structures and developmental narratives are currently being shaped. Its evolution must be compatible with the Wellbeing of Future Generations Act, a Welsh legislation that requires public bodies to put sustainability at the core of all actions. Departing from this case study, the project follows the evolution of Cardiff Capital Region and assesses it based on a new a conceptual framework that connects the notions of regenerative development, collaborative governance, and progressive regionalism. The hypothetical synergies between these different theoretical perspectives are demonstrated, inferring that if regenerative development is aimed at, it must necessarily start with collaborative modes of governance. The objective is to explore (a) whether expanding the network of active stakeholders who get to intervene in the governance structure can contribute to a more progressive definition and development of the city region and (b) whether this can be considered a pathway towards regenerative development. The exploratory fieldwork conducted during the initial phase of the project used qualitative methods, which will be complemented next by different participatory research approaches, as well as a quantitative analysis. Despite being in its early days, the study is showing that a wider range of voices can indeed change priorities, reconcile and balance between the economic drivers and the wider social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects.

Keywords: Cardiff Capital Region, collaborative governance, progressive regionalism, regenerative development

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424 Analysis of Exponential Distribution under Step Stress Partially Accelerated Life Testing Plan Using Adaptive Type-I Hybrid Progressive Censoring Schemes with Competing Risks Data

Authors: Ahmadur Rahman, Showkat Ahmad Lone, Ariful Islam

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In this article, we have estimated the parameters for the failure times of units based on the sampling technique adaptive type-I progressive hybrid censoring under the step-stress partially accelerated life tests for competing risk. The failure times of the units are assumed to follow an exponential distribution. Maximum likelihood estimation technique is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the distribution and tampered coefficient. Confidence interval also obtained for the parameters. A simulation study is performed by using Monte Carlo Simulation method to check the authenticity of the model and its assumptions.

Keywords: adaptive type-I hybrid progressive censoring, competing risks, exponential distribution, simulation, step-stress partially accelerated life tests

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423 Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods on a Two-Parameter Rayleigh Distribution under Progressive Type-Ii Censoring

Authors: Daniel Fundi Murithi

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Data from economic, social, clinical, and industrial studies are in some way incomplete or incorrect due to censoring. Such data may have adverse effects if used in the estimation problem. We propose the use of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) under a progressive type-II censoring scheme to remedy this problem. In particular, maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) for the location (µ) and scale (λ) parameters of two Parameter Rayleigh distribution are realized under a progressive type-II censoring scheme using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and the Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithms. These algorithms are used comparatively because they iteratively produce satisfactory results in the estimation problem. The progressively type-II censoring scheme is used because it allows the removal of test units before the termination of the experiment. Approximate asymptotic variances and confidence intervals for the location and scale parameters are derived/constructed. The efficiency of EM and the NR algorithms is compared given root mean squared error (RMSE), bias, and the coverage rate. The simulation study showed that in most sets of simulation cases, the estimates obtained using the Expectation-maximization algorithm had small biases, small variances, narrower/small confidence intervals width, and small root of mean squared error compared to those generated via the Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithm. Further, the analysis of a real-life data set (data from simple experimental trials) showed that the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm performs better compared to Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithm in all simulation cases under the progressive type-II censoring scheme.

Keywords: expectation-maximization algorithm, maximum likelihood estimation, Newton-Raphson method, two-parameter Rayleigh distribution, progressive type-II censoring

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422 A Rare Form of Rapidly Progressive Parkinsonism Associated with Dementia

Authors: Murat Emre, Zeynep Tufekcioglu

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Objective: We describe a patient with late onset phenylketonuria which presented with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism that were reversible after management. Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxlase gene. It normally presents in childhood, in rare cases, however, it may have its onset in adulthood and may mimic other neurological disorders. Case description: A previously normal functioning, 59 year old man was admitted for blurred vision, cognitive impairment and gait difficulty which emerged over the past eight months. In neurological examination he had brisk reflexes, slow gait and left-dominant parkinsonism. Mini-mental state examination score was 25/30, neuropsychological testing revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with constructional apraxia and simultanagnosia. In cranial MRI there were bilateral diffuse hyper-intense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter with no significant atrophy. Electroencephalography showed diffuse slowing with predominance of teta waves. In cerebrospinal fluid examination protein level was slightly elevated (61mg/dL), oligoclonal bands were negative. Electromyography was normal. Routine laboratory examinations for rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism were also normal. Serum amino acid levels were determined to explore metabolic leukodystrophies and phenylalanine level was found to be highly elevated (1075 µmol/L) with normal tyrosine (61,20 µmol/L). His cognitive impairment and parkinsonian symptoms improved following three months of phenylalanine restricted diet. Conclusions: Late onset phenylketonuria is a rare, potentially reversible cause of rapidly progressive parkinsonism with dementia. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspicious features.

Keywords: dementia, neurology, Phenylketonuria, rapidly progressive parkinsonism

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421 Effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on Isometric Strength of Shoulder Extensor and Abductor Muscles in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbasi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. H. Jalaei

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Background: Rehabilitation treatments have significant role in reducing the disabilities of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Due to great role of upper limb in the function of individuals particularly in Activity of Daily Living and the effect of stability of shoulder girdle on hand function, the aim of this study was to study the effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 17 adult hemiplegics patients (50-70 yrs., mean 60/52, SD7/22); with RT side dominancy and 6 months after stroke, participated in this study. All procedures were approved by ethical committee of TUMS and written consents were also taken. Patients were familiarized with the procedure and shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths were measured by dynamometer. Results: according to result to our study, shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths showed Significant differences between mean scores of pre and post intervention (P<0/05). Progressive Resistive Exercise improved 34% shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength and 27% shoulder abductor muscle isometric strength. Conclusion: Results of our research showed that progressive resistive exercise approach is a useful method for increasing the isometric strength of shoulder extensor and abductor muscles. Therefore, it might be concluded that improvement of strength of shoulder muscles could result in stability in shoulder girdle and consequently might effect on hand function in hemiplegic patients.

Keywords: shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength, shoulder abductor muscles isometric strength, hemiplegic, physical therapy

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420 Successful Treatment of Multifocal XDR Tuberculosis Osteomyelitis

Authors: Abeer N. Alshukairi, Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi, Abdulfattah W. Alamri, Adel F. Alothman

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We described the nosocomial transmission of a pre-XDR or an MDR case of pulmonary tuberculosis in a HIV negative health care worker in an area endemic for MDR & XDR tuberculosis. With inadequate therapy and non-compliance, his strain developed acquired resistance and he presented with extra-pulmonary XDR tuberculosis in the form of multi-focal osteomyelitis and encysted pleural effusion. He was cured after 2 years of therapy with various anti-tuberculous drugs in addition to interferon gamma.

Keywords: osteomyelitis, treatment, XDR tuberculosis, successful treatment

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419 Percentage Change in the Selected Skinfold Measurements of Male Students of University of Delhi Due to Progressive and Constant Load of Physical Training

Authors: Seema Kaushik

Abstract:

Skinfold measurements provide considerably meaningful and consistent information about subcutaneous fat and its distribution. Physical activities in the form of conditioning and/or training leads to various structural, functional and mechanical changes and numerous training programmes exist for the improvement of physical fitness, however, most of the studies are conducted on foreign soil with foreign population as sample, which may/may not be applicable to the Indian conditions. Moreover, there is not even a single training/ conditioning programme that caters to the need of male students of University of Delhi with regard to various skinfold thickness measurements. Hence, the present study aimed at studying the effect of progressive and constant load training on selected skinfold measurements of male students of University of Delhi in form of percentage change. The sample size for the study was 90 having three groups of male; 30 samples in each group (mean age = 20.04±0.49 years). The variables included triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and calf skinfolds. The experimental design adopted for the study was multi-group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times repeatedly at an interval of 6 weeks, on completion of each of the three meso-cycles. Standard landmarks and protocols were followed to measure the selected variables. Mean, standard deviation and percentage were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the skinfold thickness measurements of male students of University of Delhi.

Keywords: constant load, progressive load, physical training, skinfold measurements

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418 Progressive View on Quality Management and Research on Improving Services in Railway Transport

Authors: Eva Nedeliakova, Michal Panak

Abstract:

This article describes the results of research focused on progressive view on quality management. It characterizes a research of improving services in railway transport. Improvement of these services has a strong importance in customer considering on the future use of railway transport. The research provides quality characteristics of transportation, defines critical points of technological processes and specifies the quality model supported by software solution. Main principles and results of the research have a significant importance and belong to numerous initiatives aimed to develop and support railway transport.

Keywords: quality, service, software solution, railway transport

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417 Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties

Authors: Sonal Budhiraja, Biswabrata Pradhan

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This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.

Keywords: asymptotic normality, consistency, regularity conditions, simulation study, tolerance interval

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416 The Educational Philosophies and Teaching Style Preferences of College Faculty at Selected Universities in the South of Metro Manila

Authors: Grace D. Severo, Lopita U. Jung

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the educational philosophies and teaching styles of the college faculty of the University of Perpetual Help System DALTA in the campuses of Las-Piñas, Molino, and Calamba, south of Metro Manila. It sought to determine the relationships of educational philosophy and teaching styles of the college faculty vis-à-vis the university system’s educational philosophies and teaching style preferences. A hundred and five faculty members from the Colleges of Education, Arts and Sciences responded to the survey during the academic year 2014-2015. The Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory measured the faculty’s preferred educational philosophies. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale measured the faculty’s teaching style preference. Findings show that there is a similarity between the university system and the faculty members in using the progressive educational philosophy, however both contrasted in the preferred teaching style. Majority of the faculty held progressive educational philosophy but their preference for teacher-centered teaching style did not match. This implies that the majority are certain of having progressive educational philosophy but are not utilizing the learner-centered teaching styles; a high degree of support and commitment to practice a progressive and humanist philosophical orientation in education; and a high degree of support on teacher-centered teaching style promotion from the institution can strengthen a high degree of commitment for the faculty to enunciate their values and practice through these educational philosophies and teaching styles.

Keywords: educational philosophies, teaching styles, philosophy of adult education inventory, principles of adult learning scale

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415 Design and Analysis of Adaptive Type-I Progressive Hybrid Censoring Plan under Step Stress Partially Accelerated Life Testing Using Competing Risk

Authors: Ariful Islam, Showkat Ahmad Lone

Abstract:

Statistical distributions have long been employed in the assessment of semiconductor devices and product reliability. The power function-distribution is one of the most important distributions in the modern reliability practice and can be frequently preferred over mathematically more complex distributions, such as the Weibull and the lognormal, because of its simplicity. Moreover, it may exhibit a better fit for failure data and provide more appropriate information about reliability and hazard rates in some circumstances. This study deals with estimating information about failure times of items under step-stress partially accelerated life tests for competing risk based on adoptive type-I progressive hybrid censoring criteria. The life data of the units under test is assumed to follow Mukherjee-Islam distribution. The point and interval maximum-likelihood estimations are obtained for distribution parameters and tampering coefficient. The performances of the resulting estimators of the developed model parameters are evaluated and investigated by using a simulation algorithm.

Keywords: adoptive progressive hybrid censoring, competing risk, mukherjee-islam distribution, partially accelerated life testing, simulation study

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414 A Comparative Study of Cognitive Functions in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients, Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Normal People

Authors: Alireza Pirkhaefi

Abstract:

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Given the importance of cognitive disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, the present study was in order to compare cognitive functions (Working memory, Attention and Centralization, and Visual-spatial perception) in patients with relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Method: Present study was performed as a retrospective study. This research was conducted with Ex-Post Facto method. The samples of research consisted of 60 patients with multiple sclerosis (30 patients relapsing-retrograde and 30 patients secondary progressive), who were selected from Tehran Community of MS Patients Supported as convenience sampling. 30 normal persons were also selected as a comparison group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) was used to assess cognitive functions. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences among cognitive functioning in patients with RRMS, SPMS, and normal individuals. There were not significant differences in working memory between two groups of patients with RRMS and SPMS; while significant differences in these variables were seen between the two groups and normal individuals. Also, results showed significant differences in attention and centralization and visual-spatial perception among three groups. Conclusions: Results showed that there are differences between cognitive functions of RRMS and SPMS patients so that the functions of RRMS patients are better than SPMS patients. These results have a critical role in improvement of cognitive functions; reduce the factors causing disability due to cognitive impairment, and especially overall health of society.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, secondary-progressive, normal subjects

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