Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15832

Search results for: central nervous system (CNS)

15832 MR Imaging Spectrum of Intracranial Infections: An Experience of 100 Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India

Authors: Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar


Infections of the nervous system and adjacent structures are often life-threatening conditions. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS disease remains a challenge. Our aim is to evaluate the typical and atypical neuro-imaging features of the various routinely encountered CNS infected patients so as to form guidelines for their imaging recognition and differentiation from tumoral, vascular and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), Cerebro Spinal Fluid (Csf), Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

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15831 Autoantibodies against Central Nervous System Antigens and the Serum Levels of IL-32 in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz


Background: Schizophrenia is a disease of the nervous system, and immune system disorders can affect its pathogenesis. Activation of microglia, proinflammatory cytokines, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to inflammation, activation of autoreactive B cells, and consequently the production of autoantibodies against system antigens are among the immune processes involved in neurological diseases. interleukin 32 (IL-32) a proinflammatory cytokine that important player in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to measure the serum level of IL-32 as well as the frequency of autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens in patients with schizophrenia. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy individuals in the control group. Serum IL-32 levels were measured by ELISA. The frequency of autoantibodies against Hu, Ri, Yo, Tr, CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Zic4, ITPR1, CARP, GAD, Recoverin, Titin, and Ganglioside antigens were measured by indirect immunofluorescence method. Results: Serum IL-32 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were positive in 8 patients for GAD antigen and 5 patients for Ri antigen, which showed a significant relationship compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were also positive in 2 patients for CV2, in 1 patient for Hu, and in 1 patient for CARP. Negative results were reported for other antigens. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated the serum IL-32 level and autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, microglia, autoantibodies, IL-32

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15830 Microglia Activity and Induction of Mechanical Allodynia after Mincle Receptor Ligand Injection in Rat Spinal Cord

Authors: Jihoon Yang, Jeong II Choi


Mincle is expressed in macrophages and is members of immunoreceptors induced after exposure to various stimuli and stresses. Mincle receptor activation promotes the production of these substances by increasing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines, which play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of such inflammatory pain diseases, have a significant effect on sensory neurons in addition to their enhancement and inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cells as mediators of cell interaction. Glial cells in the central nervous system play a critical role in development and maintenance of chronic pain states. Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and belong to a group of mononuclear phagocytes. In the central nervous system, mincle receptor is present in neurons and glial cells of the brain.This study was performed to identify the Mincle receptor in the spinal cord and to investigate the effect of Mincle receptor activation on nociception and the changes of microglia. Materials and Methods: C-type lectins(Mincle) was identified in spinal cord of Male Sprague–Dawley rats. Then, mincle receptor ligand (TDB), via an intrathecal catheter. Mechanical allodynia was measured using von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of TDB. Result: The present investigation shows that the intrathecal administration of TDB in the rat produces a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, The mechanical hyperalgesia after TDB injection gradually developed over time and remained until 10 days. Mincle receptor is identified in the spinal cord, mainly expressed in neuronal cells, but not in microglia or astrocyte. These results suggest that activation of mincle receptor pathway in neurons plays an important role in inducing activation of microglia and inducing mechanical allodynia.

Keywords: mincle, spinal cord, pain, microglia

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15829 Blindness and Deafness, the Outcomes of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in HIV Positive Patient

Authors: Hadiseh Hosamirudsari, Farhad Afsarikordehmahin, Pooria Sekhavatfar


Concomitant cortical blindness and deafness that follow varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is rare. We describe a case of ophthalmic zoster that caused cortical blindness and deafness after central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 42-year old, HIV infected woman has developed progressive blurry vision and deafness, 4 weeks after ophthalmic zoster. A physical examination and positive VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested VZV encephalitis. Complication of VZV encephalitis is considered as the cause of blindness and deafness. In neurological deficit patient especially with a history of herpes zoster, VZV infection should be regarded as the responsible agent in inflammatory disorders of nervous system. The immunocompromised state of patient (including HIV) is as important an agent as VZV infection in developing the disease.

Keywords: blindness, deafness, hiv, VZV encephalitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
15828 The Great Mimicker: A Case of Disseminated Tuberculosis

Authors: W. Ling, Mohamed Saufi Bin Awang


Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis post a major health problem worldwide. Central nervous system (CNS) infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis. Although with advancement in medical fields, we are yet to understand the pathophysiology of how mycobacterium tuberculosis was able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and infect the CNS. CNS TB may present with nonspecific clinical symptoms which can mimic other diseases/conditions; this is what makes the diagnosis relatively difficult and challenging. Public health has to be informed and educated about the spread of TB, and early identification of TB is important as it is a curable disease. Case Report: A young 21-year-old Malay gentleman was initially presented to us with symptoms of ear discharge, tinnitus, and right-sided headache for the past one year. Further history reveals that the symptoms have been mismanaged and neglected over the period of 1 year. Initial investigation reveals features of inflammation of the ear. Further imaging showed the feature of chronic inflammation of the otitis media and atypical right cerebral abscess, which has the same characteristic features and consistency. He further underwent a biopsy, and results reveal positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the otitis media. With the results and the available imaging, we were certain that this is likely a case of disseminated tuberculosis causing CNS TB. Conclusion: We aim to highlight the challenge and difficult face in our health care system and public health in early identification and treatment.

Keywords: central nervous system tuberculosis, intracranial tuberculosis, tuberculous encephalopathy, tuberculous meningitis

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15827 The Design and Construction of the PV-Wind Autonomous System for Greenhouse Plantations in Central Thailand

Authors: Napat Watjanatepin, Wikorn Wong-Satiean


The objective of this research is to design and construct the PV-Wind hybrid autonomous system for the greenhouse plantation, and analyze the technical performance of the PV-Wind energy system. This design depends on the water consumption in the greenhouse by using 24 of the fogging mist each with the capability of 24 liter/min. The operating time is 4 times per day, each round for 15 min. The fogging system is being driven by water pump with AC motor rating 0.5 hp. The load energy consumed is around 1.125 kWh/d. The designing results of the PV-Wind hybrid energy system is that sufficient energy could be generated by this system. The results of this study can be applied as a technical data reference for other areas in the central part of Thailand.

Keywords: PV-Wind hybrid autonomous system, greenhouse plantation, fogging system, central part of Thailand

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15826 Surface Enhanced Raman Substrate Detection on the Structure of γ-Aminobutyric Acid(GABA) Connected with Modified Gold-Chitosan Nanoparticles by Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA)

Authors: Bingjie Wang, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang


A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). As for the gold-chitosan nanoshell, it is made by using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) for the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. When the system formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: chitosan-gold nanoshell, mercaptopropionic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced Raman scattering

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15825 Fabrication of Modified Chitosan-Gold Nanoshell with Mercaptopropionic Acid(MPA) for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Detection as a Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate

Authors: Bi Wa, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang


Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In this case, the Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) is used to modified chitosan –gold nanoshell, which enhances the absorption between GABA and Chitosan-gold nanoshell. The sulfur end of the MPA is linked to gold which is the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles via the very strong S–Au bond, while a functional group (carboxyl group) attached to GABA. The controlling of particles’ size and the surface morphology are also the important factors during the whole experiment. The particle around 100nm is using to link to MPA, and the range of GABA from 1mM to 30mM was detected by the Raman Scattering to obtain the calibrate curve. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: chitosan-gold nanoshell, mercaptopropionic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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15824 Primary Melanocytic Tumors of the Central Nervous System: A Clinico-Pathological Study of Seven Cases

Authors: Sushila Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal


Background: Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are uncommon lesions and arise from the melanocytes located within the leptomeninges. Aim and objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical details, histomorphology of the primary melanocytic tumor of CNS. Method: The study was performed by the retrospective review of the case records of the primary melanocytic tumors of CNS diagnosed in our department. The formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks and tissue sections were retrieved and reviewed. Results: Seven cases (6 males, 1 female; age range- 16-40 years; mean age- 27 years) of primary melanocytic tumors of CNS were retrieved over last seven years. The tumor was intracranial (n=5; frontal – 1 case, parietal – 1 case, cerebello-pontine angle- 1 case, occipital -1 case, foramen magnum-1 case) and intra spinal (n=2; cervical – 2 cases). All patients presented with the neurological deficits related to the location of the tumor. Four cases were malignant melanoma; two were melanocytoma of intermediate grade and remaining one was melanocytoma. On histopathology, melanocytoma and melanoma both displayed sheets of well-differentiated melanocytes having round to oval nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin, occasional single eosinophilic nucleoli and a moderate amount of cytoplasm with abundant granular melanin pigment. The absence of mitosis and macronucleoli was noticed in melanocytoma while melanoma showed frequent mitosis and macronucleoli. On immunohistochemistry, both showed diffuse strong HMB45 and S-100 immunopositivity. Conclusion: Primary melanocytic tumors of CNS are rare and predominantly seen in males. It is important to differentiate melanoma from melanocytoma as prognosis of later is good.

Keywords: melanocytoma, melanoma, brain tumor, melanin

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15823 Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) Modifying Chitosan-Gold Nano Composite for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Analysis Using Raman Scattering

Authors: Bingjie Wang, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang


The goal of this experiment is to develop a sensor that can quickly check the concentration by using the nanoparticles made by chitosan and gold. Using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) is the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. As for the GABA, what is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability pass through the nervous system. A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). When the system is formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: mercaptopropionic acid, chitosan-gold nanoshell, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced raman scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
15822 Acupoint Injection of High Concentration of Glucose Attenuates Mice Chronic Pain and Depression Comorbidity

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Yi-Wen Lin


Inflammation causes changes of peripheral and central nervous system properties, affecting both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, resulting in inflammatory pain. Acupoint injection (AI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely used for relieving pain. It is an acupoint-stimulating technique that utilizes anatomically based meridians derived from Chinese medicine theory. AI has been accepted as an effective treatment and is thought to display superior results when compared to traditional acupuncture methods. However, the mechanism of AI needs to be ratified by more scientific evidence in order to support the theory and its therapeutic development. In this study, we explored the effect of AI on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. Mice hindpaw was injected by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce the condition of chronic pain. Measurements of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and depression-like behavior were analyzed. The results indicated a positive tendency to AI treatment. The comorbidity of chronic pain and depression was investigated with relation to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) mechanism through the use of TRPV1 gene deletion. The expression of nociceptors such as voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) or TRPV1, was significantly down-regulated by AI. The expression of inflammation-activated molecules: astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the microglial marker Iba-1, S100B, and related kinases, were reversed by AI in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Taken together, these data provided a detailed molecular mechanism of AI-induced analgesia and anti-inflammatory properties. This finding may be utilized for clinical practice to treat chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: inflammatory pain, acupoint injection, TRPV1, GFAP, S100B

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15821 Comparison of Effects over the Autonomic Nervous System When Using Force Training and Interval Training in Indoor Cycling with University Students

Authors: Daniel Botero, Oscar Rubiano, Pedro P. Barragan, Jaime Baron, Leonardo Rodriguez Perdomo, Jaime Rodriguez


In the last decade interval training (IT) has gained importance when is compare with strength training (ST). However, there are few studies analyzing the impact of these training over the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This work has aimed to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system, when is expose to an IT or ST indoor cycling mode. After approval by the ethics committee, a cross-over clinical trial with 22 healthy participants (age 21 ± 3 years) was implemented. The selection of participants for the groups with sequence force-interval (F-I) and interval-force (I-F) was made randomly with assignation of 11 participants for each group. The temporal series of heart rate was obtained before and after each training using the POLAR TEAM® heart monitor. The evaluation of the ANS was performed with spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) using the fast Fourier transform (Kubios software). A training of 8 weeks in each sequence (4 weeks with each training) with an intermediate period of two weeks of washout was implemented for each group. The power parameter of the HRV in the low frequency band (LF = 0.04-0.15Hz related to the sympathetic nervous system), high frequency (HF = 0.15-0.4Hz, related to the parasympathetic) and LF/HF (with reference to a modulation of parasympathetic over the sympathetic), were calculated. Afterward, the difference between the parameters before and after was realized. Then, to evaluate statistical differences between each training was implemented the method of Wellek (Wellek and Blettner, 2012, Medicine, 109 (15), 276-81). To determine the difference of effect over parasympathetic when FT and IT are used, the T test is implemented obtaining a T value of 0.73 with p-value ≤ 0.1. For the sympathetic was obtained a T of 0.33 with p ≤ 0.1 and for LF/HF the T was 1.44 with a p ≥ 0.1. Then, the carry over effect was evaluated and was not present. Significant changes over autonomic activity with strength or interval training were not observed. However, a modulation of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic can be observed. Probably, these findings should be explained because the sample is little and/or the time of training was insufficient to generate changes.

Keywords: autonomic nervous, force training, indoor cycling, interval training

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15820 A Study on Design for Parallel Test Based on Embedded System

Authors: Zheng Sun, Weiwei Cui, Xiaodong Ma, Hongxin Jin, Dongpao Hong, Jinsong Yang, Jingyi Sun


With the improvement of the performance and complexity of modern equipment, automatic test system (ATS) becomes widely used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the conventional ATS mainly works in a serial mode, and lacks the ability of testing several equipments at the same time. That leads to low test efficiency and ATS redundancy. Especially for a large majority of equipment under test, the conventional ATS cannot meet the requirement of efficient testing. To reduce the support resource and increase test efficiency, we propose a method of design for the parallel test based on the embedded system in this paper. Firstly, we put forward the general framework of the parallel test system, and the system contains a central management system (CMS) and several distributed test subsystems (DTS). Then we give a detailed design of the system. For the hardware of the system, we use embedded architecture to design DTS. For the software of the system, we use test program set to improve the test adaption. By deploying the parallel test system, the time to test five devices is now equal to the time to test one device in the past. Compared with the conventional test system, the proposed test system reduces the size and improves testing efficiency. This is of great significance for equipment to be put into operation swiftly. Finally, we take an industrial control system as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that the method is reasonable, and the efficiency is improved up to 500%.

Keywords: parallel test, embedded system, automatic test system, automatic test system (ATS), central management system, central management system (CMS), distributed test subsystems, distributed test subsystems (DTS)

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15819 Fluorescence-Based Biosensor for Dopamine Detection Using Quantum Dots

Authors: Sylwia Krawiec, Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha


Nowadays, progress in the field of the analytical methods is of great interest for reliable biological research and medical diagnostics. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements. Chemical sensors have displaced the conventional analytical methods - sensors combine precision, sensitivity, fast response and the possibility of continuous-monitoring. Biosensor is a chemical sensor, which except of conventer also possess a biologically active material, which is the basis for the detection of specific chemicals in the sample. Each biosensor device mainly consists of two elements: a sensitive element, where is recognition of receptor-analyte, and a transducer element which receives the signal and converts it into a measurable signal. Through these two elements biosensors can be divided in two categories: due to the recognition element (e.g immunosensor) and due to the transducer (e.g optical sensor). Working of optical sensor is based on measurements of quantitative changes of parameters characterizing light radiation. The most often analyzed parameters include: amplitude (intensity), frequency or polarization. Changes in the optical properties one of the compound which reacts with biological material coated on the sensor is analyzed by a direct method, in an indirect method indicators are used, which changes the optical properties due to the transformation of the testing species. The most commonly used dyes in this method are: small molecules with an aromatic ring, like rhodamine, fluorescent proteins, for example green fluorescent protein (GFP), or nanoparticles such as quantum dots (QDs). Quantum dots have, in comparison with organic dyes, much better photoluminescent properties, better bioavailability and chemical inertness. These are semiconductor nanocrystals size of 2-10 nm. This very limited number of atoms and the ‘nano’-size gives QDs these highly fluorescent properties. Rapid and sensitive detection of dopamine is extremely important in modern medicine. Dopamine is very important neurotransmitter, which mainly occurs in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Dopamine is responsible for the transmission information of moving through the nervous system and plays an important role in processes of learning or memory. Detection of dopamine is significant for diseases associated with the central nervous system such as Parkinson or schizophrenia. In developed optical biosensor for detection of dopamine, are used graphene quantum dots (GQDs). In such sensor dopamine molecules coats the GQD surface - in result occurs quenching of fluorescence due to Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Changes in fluorescence correspond to specific concentrations of the neurotransmitter in tested sample, so it is possible to accurately determine the concentration of dopamine in the sample.

Keywords: biosensor, dopamine, fluorescence, quantum dots

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15818 The Role of Arousal in Time Perception: Implications for Emotional Driving

Authors: Ewa Siedlecka


Emotional stress is an important risk factor in the rate and severity of traffic accidents. Moreover, incorrect time perception is implicated in the increase of traffic violations, such as running red lights or collisions. While the role of emotional arousal on perceived time is well-established, the role of physiological arousal in time perception remains unexamined. Specific emotions can be, however, associated with distinct physiological responses. In the current research, two studies examined the role of physiological arousal in time perception. In the first experiment, 41 participants engaged in a cold pressor task and had their time perception measured throughout the experiment. In the second study, 138 participants engaged in either isometric or deep breathing exercises. These activities were designed to simulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, respectively. Participants completed a bisection task to measure time perception in both studies, as well as a physiological response via an Electrocardiography (ECG). Results found that activation of the parasympathetic nervous system is associated with greater time perception. These findings are discussed with reference to models of time perception, as well as implications for emotional driving and misperceptions of speed. It is important to consider the role of physiology in the misperception of time, as these factors can lead to increases in driving accidents.

Keywords: emotions, nervous system, physiology, time perception

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15817 Rapid and Sensitive Detection: Biosensors as an Innovative Analytical Tools

Authors: Sylwia Baluta, Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha


The evolution of biosensors was driven by the need for faster and more versatile analytical methods for application in important areas including clinical, diagnostics, food analysis or environmental monitoring, with minimum sample pretreatment. Rapid and sensitive neurotransmitters detection is extremely important in modern medicine. These compounds mainly occur in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Any changes in the neurotransmitters concentration may lead to many diseases, such as Parkinson’s or schizophrenia. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements.

Keywords: adrenaline, biosensor, dopamine, laccase, tyrosinase

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15816 Generalized Central Paths for Convex Programming

Authors: Li-Zhi Liao


The central path has played the key role in the interior point method. However, the convergence of the central path may not be true even in some convex programming problems with linear constraints. In this paper, the generalized central paths are introduced for convex programming. One advantage of the generalized central paths is that the paths will always converge to some optimal solutions of the convex programming problem for any initial interior point. Some additional theoretical properties for the generalized central paths will be also reported.

Keywords: central path, convex programming, generalized central path, interior point method

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15815 SAP: A Smart Amusement Park System for Tourist Services

Authors: Pei-Chun Lee, Sheng-Shih Wang, Pei-Hsuan Ku


Many existing amusement parks have been operated with assistance of a variety of information and communications technologies to design friendly and efficient service systems for tourists. However, these systems leave various levels of decisions to tourists to make by themselves. This incurs pressure on tourists and thereby bringing negative experience in their tour. This paper proposes a smart amusement park system to offer each tourist the GPS-based customized plan without tourists making decisions by themselves. The proposed system consists of the mobile app subsystem, the central subsystem, and the detecting/counting subsystem. The mobile app subsystem interacts with the central subsystem. The central subsystem performs the necessary computing and database management of the proposed system. The detecting/counting subsystem aims to detect and compute the number of visitors to an attraction. Experimental results show that the proposed system can not only work well, but also provide an innovative business operating model for owners of amusement parks.

Keywords: amusement park, location-based service, LBS, mobile app, tourist service

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15814 Distribution of Putative Dopaminergic Neurons and Identification of D2 Receptors in the Brain of Fish

Authors: Shweta Dhindhwal


Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of all vertebrates and plays an important role in many processes such as motor function, learning and behavior, and sensory activity. One of the important functions of dopamine is release of pituitary hormones. It is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Two types of dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like, have been reported in fish. The dopamine containing neurons are located in the olfactory bulbs, the ventral regions of the pre-optic area and tuberal hypothalamus. Distribution of the dopaminergic system has not been studied in the murrel, Channa punctatus. The present study deals with identification of D2 receptors in the brain of murrel. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using partial sequence of D2 receptor. Distribution of putative dopaminergic neurons in the brain has been investigated. Also, formalin induced hypertrophy of neurosecretory cells in murrel has been studied.

Keywords: dopamine, fish, pre-optic area, murrel

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15813 Investigation of the Excitotoxicity Pathways in Neuroblastoma Cells

Authors: Merve Colak, Gizem Donmez Yalcin


Glutamate has many neurological functions in the central nervous system and is found at high concentrations in the brain. Increased levels of glutamate in the neuronal space are toxic, causing neuron damage and death. This is called glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity is among the causes of many neurological diseases such as trauma, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease. Since neuroblastoma cells are known to be excitotoxic, we propose that excitotoxicity can be studied in neuroblastoma cells. Excitotoxicity can be induced using kainic acid in neuroblastoma cells. Measuring the secretion of glutamate, excitotoxicity can be analyzed in neuroblastoma cells.

Keywords: glutamate, excitotoxicity, kainic acid, Sirt4

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15812 Functional Electrical Stimulator and Neuromuscular Electro Stimulator System Analysis for Foot Drop

Authors: Gül Fatma Türker, Hatice Akman


Portable muscle stimulators for real-time applications has first introduced by Liberson in 1961. Now these systems has been advanced. In this study, FES (Functional Electrical Stimulator) and NMES (Neuromuscular Electrostimulator) systems are analyzed through their hardware and their quality of life improvements for foot drop patients. FES and NMES systems are used for people whose leg muscles and leg neural connections are healty but not able to walk properly because of their injured central nervous system like spinal cord injuries. These systems are used to stimulate neurons or muscles by getting information from other movements and programming these stimulations to get natural walk and it is accepted as a rehabilitation method for the correction of drop foot. This systems support person to approach natural form of walking. Foot drop is characterized by steppage gait. It is a gait abnormality. This systems helps to person for plantar and dorse reflection movements which are hard to done for foot drop patients.

Keywords: FES, foot drop, NMES, stimulator

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15811 E-Survey: Cancer Treatment with Proton Beam Therapy in USA

Authors: Auj-E Taqaddas


The use of proton beam therapy is increasing globally. It seems to offer dosimetric advantages, especially in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) and brain tumours. A short E-survey was conducted to assess the clinical, technical, and educational resources and strategies employed in the state of the art proton beam therapy (PBT) centres in the USA to determine the current status of proton beam therapy. The study also aimed at finding out which PBT skills are in demand as well as what improvements are needed to ensure efficient treatment planning, delivery, and dosimetry. The study resulted in identifying areas for future research and development and in identifying cancers for which PBT is most suitable compared to other modalities to facilitate the implementation and use of PBT in clinical settings for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, intensity modulated proton therapy, proton beam therapy, single field uniform scanning

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15810 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Carbamate, Carvacrol

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15809 Exploring the Contribution of Linguistic, Cognitive and Cultural Factors to the Didactics and Knowledge Building of Science with a Focus on Mathematics and Computer Science

Authors: Magdalini Kritikou, Dimitris Tsolis


The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship of language with sciences as well as cognitive and cultural factors, regarding the difficulties faced by children with or without Learning Difficulties. Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders, which are manifested by significant difficulties in acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or math skills. "These disorders are inherent in the individual, are attributed to dysfunction of the central nervous system, and can exist throughout their life." More simply, learning disability is usually defined as a child's difficulty in understanding or using language, performing mathematical calculations, maintaining concentration and even coordinating body movements.

Keywords: special education, mathematics, computer science, dyslexia

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15808 Chemical Study and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts from Erythroxylum Genus against HeLa Cells

Authors: Richele P. Severino, Maria M. F. Alchaar, Lorena R. F. De Sousa, Patrik S. Vital, Ana G. Silva, Rosy I. M. A. Ribeiro


Recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot, the Cerrado (Brazil) presents an extreme abundance of endemic species and it is considered to be one of the biologically richest tropical savanna regions in the world. Erythroxylum genus is found in Cerrado and chemically is characterized by the presence of tropane alkaloids, among them cocaine, a natural alkaloid produced by Erythroxylum coca Lam., which was used as a local anesthetic in small surgeries. However, cocaine gained notoriety due to its psychoactive activity in the Central Nervous System (CNS), becoming one of the major problems of public health today. Some species of Erythroxylum are referred to in the literature as having pharmacological potential, which provide alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. E. vacciniifolium Mart., commonly known as 'catuaba', is used as a central nervous system stimulant and has aphrodisiac properties and E. pelleterianum A. St.-Hil. in the treatment of stomach pains. Already E. myrsinites Mart. and E. suberosum A. St.-Hil. are used in the tannery industry. Species of Erythroxylum are also used in folk medicine for various diseases, against diabetes, antiviral, fungicidal, cytotoxicity, among others. The Cerrado is recognized as the richer savannah in the world in biodiversity but little explored from the chemical view. In our on-going study of the chemistry of Erythroxylum genus, we have investigated four specimens collected in central Cerrado of Brazil: E. campestre (EC), E. deciduum (ED), E. suberosum (ES) and E. tortuosum (ET). The cytotoxic activity of extracts was evaluated using HeLa cells, in vitro assays. The chemical investigation was performed preparing the extracts using n-hexane (H), dichloromethane (D), ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of extracts (50, 75 and 100 μg/mL) diluted in DMSO (1%) and DMEM (0.5% FBS and 1% P/S). The IC₅₀ values were determined measured spectrophotometrically at 570 nm, after incubation of HeLa cell line for 48 hours using the MTT (SIGMA M5655), and calculated by nonlinear regression analysis using GraphPad Prism software. All the assays were done in triplicate and repeated at least two times. The cytotoxic assays showed some promising results with IC₅₀ values less than 100 μg/mL (ETD = 38.5 μg/mL; ETM = 92.3 μg/mL; ESM = 67.8 μg/mL; ECD = 24.0 μg/mL; ECM = 32.9; EDA = 44.2 μg/mL). The chemical profile study of ethyl acetate (E) and methanolic (M) extracts of E. tortuosum leaves was performed by LC-MS, and the structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of ¹H, HSQC and HMBC spectra, and confirmed by comparison with the literature data. The investigation led to six substances: α-amyrin, β-amyrin, campesterol, stigmastan-3,5-diene, β-sitosterol and 7,4’-di-O-methylquercetin-3-O-β-rutinoside, with flavonoid the major compound of extracts. By alkaline extraction of the methanolic extract, it was possible to identify three alkaloids: tropacocaine, cocaine and 6-methoxy-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol. The results obtained are important for the chemical knowledge of the Cerrado biodiversity and brought a contribution to the chemistry of Erythroxylum genus.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, Erythroxylum, chemical profile, secondary metabolites

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15807 The Influence of Atmospheric Air on the Health of the Population Living in Oil and Gas Production Area in Aktobe Region, Kazakhstan

Authors: Perizat Aitmaganbet, Kerbez Kimatova, Gulmira Umarova


As a result of medical check-up conducted in the framework of this research study an evaluation of the health status of the population living in the oil-producing regions, namely Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages in Aktobe was examined. With the help of the Spearman correlation, the connection between the level of hazard chemical elements in the atmosphere and the health of population living in the regions of oil and gas industry was estimated. Background & Objective. The oil and gas resource-extraction industries play an important role in improving the economic conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, especially for the oil-producing administrative regions. However, environmental problems may adversely affect the health of people living in that area. Thus, the aim of the study is to evaluate the exposure to negative environmental factors of the adult population living in Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages, the oil and gas producing areas in the Aktobe region. Methods. After conducting medical check-up among the population of Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages. A single cross-sectional study was conducted. The population consisted of randomly sampled 372 adults (181 males and 191 females). Also, atmospheric air probes were taken to measure the level of hazardous chemical elements in the air. The nonparametric method of the Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the mean concentration of substances exceeding the Maximum Permissible Concentration and the classes of newly diagnosed diseases. Selection and analysis of air samples were carried out according to the developed research protocol; the qualitative-quantitative analysis was carried out on the Gas analyzer HANK-4 apparatus. Findings. The medical examination of the population identified the following diseases: the first two dominant were diseases of the circulatory and digestive systems, in the 3rd place - diseases of the genitourinary system, and the nervous system and diseases of the ear and mastoid process were on the fourth and fifth places. Moreover, significant pollution of atmospheric air by carbon monoxide (MPC-5,0 mg/m3), benzapyrene (MPC-1mg/m3), dust (MPC-0,5 mg/m3) and phenol (МРС-0,035mg/m3) were identified in places. Correlation dependencies between these pollutants of air and the diseases of the population were established, as a result of diseases of the circulatory system (r = 0,7), ear and mastoid process (r = 0,7), nervous system (r = 0,6) and digestive organs(r = 0,6 ); between the concentration of carbon monoxide and diseases of the circulatory system (r = 0.6), the digestive system(r = 0.6), the genitourinary system (r = 0.6) and the musculoskeletal system; between nitric oxide and diseases of the digestive system (r = 0,7) and the circulatory system (r = 0,6); between benzopyrene and diseases of the digestive system (r = 0,6), the genitourinary system (r = 0,6) and the nervous system (r = 0,4). Conclusion. The positive correlation was found between air pollution and the health of the population living in Sarkul and Kenkiyak villages. To enhance the reliability of the results we are going to continue this study further.

Keywords: atmospheric air, chemical substances, oil and gas, public health

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15806 Designing Stochastic Non-Invasively Applied DC Pulses to Suppress Tremors in Multiple Sclerosis by Computational Modeling

Authors: Aamna Lawrence, Ashutosh Mishra


Tremors occur in 60% of the patients who have Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the most common demyelinating disease that affects the central and peripheral nervous system, and are the primary cause of disability in young adults. While pharmacological agents provide minimal benefits, surgical interventions like Deep Brain Stimulation and Thalamotomy are riddled with dangerous complications which make non-invasive electrical stimulation an appealing treatment of choice for dealing with tremors. Hence, we hypothesized that if the non-invasive electrical stimulation parameters (mainly frequency) can be computed by mathematically modeling the nerve fibre to take into consideration the minutest details of the axon morphologies, tremors due to demyelination can be optimally alleviated. In this computational study, we have modeled the random demyelination pattern in a nerve fibre that typically manifests in MS using the High-Density Hodgkin-Huxley model with suitable modifications to account for the myelin. The internode of the nerve fibre in our model could have up to ten demyelinated regions each having random length and myelin thickness. The arrival time of action potentials traveling the demyelinated and the normally myelinated nerve fibre between two fixed points in space was noted, and its relationship with the nerve fibre radius ranging from 5µm to 12µm was analyzed. It was interesting to note that there were no overlaps between the arrival time for action potentials traversing the demyelinated and normally myelinated nerve fibres even when a single internode of the nerve fibre was demyelinated. The study gave us an opportunity to design DC pulses whose frequency of application would be a function of the random demyelination pattern to block only the delayed tremor-causing action potentials. The DC pulses could be delivered to the peripheral nervous system non-invasively by an electrode bracelet that would suppress any shakiness beyond it thus paving the way for wearable neuro-rehabilitative technologies.

Keywords: demyelination, Hodgkin-Huxley model, non-invasive electrical stimulation, tremor

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15805 Dynamic Shock Bank Liquidity Analysis

Authors: C. Recommandé, J. C. Blind, A. Clavel, R. Gourichon, V. Le Gal


Simulations are developed in this paper with usual DSGE model equations. The model is based on simplified version of Smets-Wouters equations in use at European Central Bank which implies 10 macro-economic variables: consumption, investment, wages, inflation, capital stock, interest rates, production, capital accumulation, labour and credit rate, and allows take into consideration the banking system. Throughout the simulations, this model will be used to evaluate the impact of rate shocks recounting the actions of the European Central Bank during 2008.

Keywords: CC-LM, Central Bank, DSGE, liquidity shock, non-standard intervention

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15804 Malignancy Assessment of Brain Tumors Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Chung-Ming Lo, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh


The central nervous system in the World Health Organization defines grade 2, 3, 4 gliomas according to the aggressiveness. For brain tumors, using image examination would have a lower risk than biopsy. Besides, it is a challenge to extract relevant tissues from biopsy operation. Observing the whole tumor structure and composition can provide a more objective assessment. This study further proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a convolutional neural network to quantitatively evaluate a tumor's malignancy from brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 30 grade 2, 43 grade 3, and 57 grade 4 gliomas were collected in the experiment. Transferred parameters from AlexNet were fine-tuned to classify the target brain tumors and achieved an accuracy of 98% and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) of 0.99. Without pre-trained features, only 61% of accuracy was obtained. The proposed convolutional neural network can accurately and efficiently classify grade 2, 3, and 4 gliomas. The promising accuracy can provide diagnostic suggestions to radiologists in the clinic.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, computer-aided diagnosis, glioblastoma, magnetic resonance imaging

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15803 Modeling of Bioelectric Activity of Nerve Cells Using Bond Graph Method

Authors: M. Ghasemi, F. Eskandari, B. Hamzehei, A. R. Arshi


Bioelectric activity of nervous cells might be changed causing by various factors. This alteration can lead to unforeseen circumstances in other organs of the body. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to model a single neuron and its behavior under an initial stimulation. This study was developed based on cable theory by means of the Bond Graph method. The numerical values of the parameters were derived from empirical studies of cellular electrophysiology experiments. Initial excitation was applied through square current functions, and the resulted action potential was estimated along the neuron. The results revealed that the model was developed in this research adapted with the results of experimental studies and demonstrated the electrical behavior of nervous cells properly.

Keywords: bond graph, stimulation, nervous cells, modeling

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