Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: neurology

33 Managing Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure Disorder: The Benefits of Collaboration between Psychiatry and Neurology

Authors: Donald Kushon, Jyoti Pillai

Abstract:

Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizure Disorder (PNES) is a challenging clinical problem for the neurologist. This study explores the benefits of on-site collaboration between psychiatry and neurology in the management of PNES. A 3 month period at a university hospital seizure clinic is described detailing specific management approaches taken as a result of this collaboration. This study describes four areas of interest: (1. After the video EEG results confirm the diagnosis of PNES, the presentation of the diagnosis of PNES to the patient. (2. The identification of co-morbid psychiatric illness (3. Treatment with specific psychotherapeutic interventions (including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) and psychopharmacologic interventions (primarily SSRIs) and (4. Preliminary treatment outcomes.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychogenic non-epileptic seizure disorder (PNES), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), video electroencephalogram (VEEG)

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32 Use of a Symptom Scale Based on Degree of Functional Impairment for Acute Concussion

Authors: Matthew T. McCarthy, Sarah Janse, Natalie M. Pizzimenti, Anthony K. Savino, Brian Crosser, Sean C. Rose

Abstract:

Concussion is diagnosed clinically using a comprehensive history and exam, supported by ancillary testing. Frequently, symptom checklists are used as part of the evaluation of concussion. Existing symptom scales are based on a subjective Likert scale, without relation of symptoms to clinical or functional impairment. This is a retrospective review of 133 patients under age 30 seen in an outpatient neurology practice within 30 days of a probable or definite concussion. Each patient completed 2 symptom checklists at the initial visit – the SCAT-3 symptom evaluation (22 symptoms, 0-6 scale) and a scale based on the degree of clinical impairment for each symptom (22 symptoms, 0-3 scale related to functional impact of the symptom). Final clearance date was determined by the treating physician. 60.9% of patients were male with mean age 15.7 years (SD 2.3). Mean time from concussion to first visit was 6.9 days (SD 6.2), and 101 patients had definite concussions (75.9%), while 32 were diagnosed as probable (24.1%). 94 patients had a known clearance date (70.7%) with mean clearance time of 20.6 days (SD 18.6) and median clearance time of 19 days (95% CI 16-21). Mean total symptom score was 27.2 (SD 22.9) on the SCAT-3 and 14.7 (SD 11.9) for the functional impairment scale. Pearson’s correlation between the two scales was 0.98 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics, an equivalent increase in score on each scale was associated with longer time to clearance (SCAT-3 hazard ratio 0.885, 95%CI 0.835-0.938, p < 0.001; functional impairment scale hazard ratio 0.851, 95%CI 0.802-0.902, p < 0.001). A concussion symptom scale based on degree of functional impairment correlates strongly with the SCAT-3 scale and demonstrates a similar association with time to clearance. By assessing the degree of impact on clinical functioning, this symptom scale reflects a more intuitive approach to rating symptoms and can be used in the management of concussion.

Keywords: checklist, concussion, neurology, scale, sports, symptoms

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31 Amsan Syndrome in Emergency Department

Authors: Okan Cakir, Okan Tatli

Abstract:

Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) syndrome usually occurs following a postviral infection in two to four weeks and is a polyneuropathy characterized by axonal and sensorial degeneration as a rare variant of Gullian-Barre syndrome. In our case, we wanted to mention that a rare case of AMSAN Syndrome due to prior surgery. A 61-year-old male case admitted to emergency department with complaints of weakness in feet, numbness and incapability to walk. In his history, it was learned that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) had applied for abdominal aort aneurysm two weeks ago before admission, his complaints had been for a couple of days increasingly and bilaterally, and there had been no infection disease history for four weeks. In physical examination, general status was good, vital signs were stable, and there was a mild paresis in dorsal flexion of feet in bilaterally lower extremities. No nuchal rigidity was determined. Other system examinations were normal. Urea:52 mg/dL (normal range: 15-44 mg/dL), creatinine: 1,05 mg/dL (normal range: 0,81-1,4 mg/dL), potassium: 3,68 mmol/L (normal range: 3,5-5,5 mmol/L), glycaemia: 142 mg/dL, calcium: 9,71 mg/dL (normal range: 8,5-10,5 mg/dL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): 74 mm/h (normal range: 0-15 mm/h) were determined in biochemical tests. The case was consulted to neurology department and hospitalized. In performing electromyography, it was reported as a bilateral significant axonal degeneration with sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Normal ranges of glycaemia and protein levels were detected in lumbal punction. Viral markers and bucella, toxoplasma, and rubella markers were in normal range. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was applied as a treatment, physical treatment programme was planned and the case discharged from neurology department. In our case, we mentioned that it should be considered polyneuropathy as an alternative diagnosis in cases admitting symptoms like weakness and numbness had a history of prior surgery.

Keywords: AMSAN Syndrome, emergency department, prior surgery, weakness

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30 Discursive Psychology of Emotions in Mediation

Authors: Katarzyna Oberda

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The aim of this paper is to conceptual emotions in the process of mediation. Although human emotions have been approached from various disciplines and perspectives, e.g. philosophy, linguistics, psychology and neurology, this complex phenomenon still needs further investigation into its discursive character with the an open mind and heart. To attain this aim, the theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account both to contextualize the discursive psychology of emotions in mediation and show how cognitive and linguistic activity expressed in language may lead to the emotional turn in the process of mediation. The double directions of this research into the discursive psychology of emotions have been partially inspired by the evaluative components of mediation forms. In the conducted research, we apply the methodology of discursive psychology with the discourse analysis as a tool. The practical data come from the recorded mediations online. The major findings of the conducted research result in the reconstruction of the emotional transformation model in mediation.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive psychology, emotions, mediation

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29 Paralysis from an Ear Infection: A Severe Case of Otitis Externa Leading to Acute Complete Cervical Cord Syndrome

Authors: Rachael Collins, George Lafford

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We report a case of a generally fit and a well 54-year-old gentleman who presented with a two-day history of worsening left-sided otorrhea, headache, neck stiffness, vomiting and pyrexia on the background of a seven-week history of OE. His condition progressed dramatically as he developed symptoms consistent with acute complete cervical cord syndrome with radiological evidence of skull base osteomyelitis, parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal and paravertebral abscesses and sigmoid sinus thrombus. Ultimately he made a significant, although not complete, recovery. This case is unique in demonstrating how OE can develop into a potentially life-threatening condition. It emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of OE, the recognition of ‘red flag’ symptoms and highlights the importance of a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) approach when managing complex complications of OE.

Keywords: ENT, neurology, otology, MDT

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28 Expression of ACSS2 Genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Burak Uz, Remzi Yiğiter

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The impairment of lipid metabolism in the central nervous system has been suggested as a critical factor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Homo sapiens acyl-coenyme A synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) gene encodes the enzyme acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase (AMP forming; AceCS) providing acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) for various physiological processes, such as cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, as well as the citric acid cycle. We investigated ACSS2, transcript variant 1 (ACSS2*1), mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with AD and compared them with the controls. The study group comprised 50 patients with the diagnosis of AD who have applied to Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Neurology. 49 healthy individuals without any neurodegenerative disease are included as controls. ACSS2 mRNA expression in PBMC of AD/control patients was 0.495 (95% confidence interval: 0.410-0.598), p= .000000001902). Further studies are needed to better clarify this association.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, ACSS2 Genes, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

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27 mRNA Expression of NFKB1 with Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Burak Uz, Remzi Yiğiter

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of homo sapiens nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1, transcript variant 1 (NFKB1*1) mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with Parkinson to elucidate the role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). The study group comprised 50 patients with the diagnosis of PD who have applied to Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Neurology. 50 healthy individuals without any neuro degenerative disease are included as controls. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was obtained from blood samples of patient and control groups. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) was obtained from RNA samples using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The gene expression of NFKB1*1 in patient/control groups were observed to decrease significantly, and the differences between groups with the Mann-Whitney method within 95% confidence interval (p<0.05) were analyzed. This salient finding provide a clue for our hypothesis that reduced activity of NFKB1*1 gene might play a role, at least partly, in the pathophysiology of PD.

Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease, NFKB1, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

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26 High-Throughput, Purification-Free, Multiplexed Profiling of Circulating miRNA for Discovery, Validation, and Diagnostics

Authors: J. Hidalgo de Quintana, I. Stoner, M. Tackett, G. Doran, C. Rafferty, A. Windemuth, J. Tytell, D. Pregibon

Abstract:

We have developed the Multiplexed Circulating microRNA assay that allows the detection of up to 68 microRNA targets per sample. The assay combines particle­based multiplexing, using patented Firefly hydrogel particles, with single­ step RT-PCR signal. Thus, the Circulating microRNA assay leverages PCR sensitivity while eliminating the need for separate reverse transcription reactions and mitigating amplification biases introduced by target­-specific qPCR. Furthermore, the ability to multiplex targets in each well eliminates the need to split valuable samples into multiple reactions. Results from the Circulating microRNA assay are interpreted using Firefly Analysis Workbench, which allows visualization, normalization, and export of experimental data. To aid discovery and validation of biomarkers, we have generated fixed panels for Oncology, Cardiology, Neurology, Immunology, and Liver Toxicology. Here we present the data from several studies investigating circulating and tumor microRNA, showcasing the ability of the technology to sensitively and specifically detect microRNA biomarker signatures from fluid specimens.

Keywords: biomarkers, biofluids, miRNA, photolithography, flowcytometry

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25 Predictive Factors of Prognosis in Acute Stroke Patients Receiving Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Shaoyi Lu

Abstract:

Background: Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat stroke, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is, however, no clear agreement about the optimal timing, population, efficacy, and predictive prognosis factors of traditional Chinese medicine supplemental therapy. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend. Key words: traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, Stroke, NIH stroke scale, Barthel index, predictive factor. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, stroke, acupuncture

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24 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan

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The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, HAM-A, HAM

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23 Role of DatScan in the Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Shraddha Gopal, Jayam Lazarus

Abstract:

Aims: To study the referral practice and impact of DAT-scan in the diagnosis or exclusion of Parkinson’s disease. Settings and Designs: A retrospective study Materials and methods: A retrospective study of the results of 60 patients who were referred for a DAT scan over a period of 2 years from the Department of Neurology at Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS trust. The reason for DAT scan referral was noted under 5 categories against Parkinson’s disease; drug-induced Parkinson’s, essential tremors, diagnostic dilemma, not responding to Parkinson’s treatment, and others. We assessed the number of patients who were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease against the number of patients in whom Parkinson’s disease was excluded or an alternative diagnosis was made. Statistical methods: Microsoft Excel was used for data collection and statistical analysis, Results: 30 of the 60 scans were performed to confirm the diagnosis of early Parkinson’s disease, 13 were done to differentiate essential tremors from Parkinsonism, 6 were performed to exclude drug-induced Parkinsonism, 5 were done to look for alternative diagnosis as the patients were not responding to anti-Parkinson medication and 6 indications were outside the recommended guidelines. 55% of cases were confirmed with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. 43.33% had Parkinson’s disease excluded. 33 of the 60 scans showed bilateral abnormalities and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conclusion: DAT scan provides valuable information in confirming Parkinson’s disease in 55% of patients along with excluding the diagnosis in 43.33% of patients aiding an alternative diagnosis.

Keywords: DATSCAN, Parkinson's disease, diagnosis, essential tremors

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22 An In-Depth Definition of the 24 Levels of Consciousness and Its Relationship to Buddhism and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: James V. Luisi

Abstract:

Understanding consciousness requires a synthesis of ideas from multiple disciplines, including obvious ones like psychology, biology, evolution, neurology, and neuroscience, as well as less obvious ones like protozoology, botany, entomology, carcinology, herpetology, mammalogy, and computer sciences. Furthermore, to incorporate the necessary backdrop, it is best presented in a theme of Eastern philosophy, specifically leveraging the teachings of Buddhism for its relevance to early thought on consciousness. These ideas are presented as a multi-level framework that illustrates the various aspects of consciousness within a tapestry of foundational and dependent building blocks as to how living organisms evolved to understand elements of their reality sufficiently to survive, and in the case of Homo sapiens, eventually move beyond meeting the basic needs of survival, but to also achieve survival of the species beyond the eventual fate of our planet. This is not a complete system of thought, but just a framework of consciousness gathering some of the key elements regarding the evolution of consciousness and the advent of free will, and presenting them in a unique way that encourages readers to continue the dialog and thought process as an experience to enjoy long after reading the last page. Readers are encouraged to think for themselves about the issues raised herein and to question every facet presented, as much further exploration is needed. Needless to say, this subject will remain a rapidly evolving one for quite some time to come, and it is probably in the interests of everyone to at least consider attaining both an ability and willingness to participate in the dialog.

Keywords: consciousness, sentience, intelligence, artificial intelligence, Buddhism

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21 Phenotypic and Genotypic Diagnosis of Gaucher Disease in Algeria

Authors: S. Hallal, Z. Chami, A. Hadji-Lehtihet, S. Sokhal-Boudella, A. Berhoune, L. Yargui

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Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage in our population, it is due to a deficiency of β –glucosidase acid. The enzyme deficiency causes a pathological accumulation of undegraded substrate in lysosomes. This metabolic overload is responsible for a multisystemic disease with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bone involvement. Neurological involvement is rare. The laboratory diagnosis of Gaucher disease consists of phenotypic diagnosis by determining the enzymatic activity of β - glucosidase by fluorimetric method, a study by genotypic diagnosis in the GBA gene, limiting the search recurrent mutations (N370S, L444P, 84 GG); PCR followed by an enzymatic digestion. Abnormal profiles were verified by sequencing. Monitoring of treated patients is provided by the determination of chitotriosidase. Our experience spaning a period of 6 years (2007-2014) has enabled us to diagnose 78 patients out of a total of 328 requests from the various departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, neurology. Genotypic diagnosis focused on the entire family of 9 children treated at pediatric CHU Mustapha, which help define the clinical form; or 5 of them had type III disease, carrying the L444P mutation in the homozygous state. Three others were composite (N370/L444P) (N370S/other unintended mutation in our study), and only in one family no recurrent mutation has been found. This molecular study permits screening of heterozygous essential for genetic counseling.

Keywords: Gaucher disease, mutations, N370S, L444P

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20 In vivo Inhibition and Restoration of Acetyl Cholinesterase Activities in Induced Clarias Gariepinus

Authors: T. O. Ikpesu, I. Tongo, A. Ariyo

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This study was conducted to assess the effects of an organophosphate pesticide glyphosate formulation on neurological enzymes in the brain, liver and serum of juvenile Clarias gariepinus, and also to examine the antidotal prospect of Garcinia kola seeds extract. The fish divided into five groups were exposed to different treatments of glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seeds extract. Acetyl cholinesterase activities in the brain, liver and serum of the fish were estimated in the experimental and control fishes on day -7, 14, 21 and of 28 by spectrophotometrical methods. The enzyme was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited in glyphosate formulation test. The inhibition percentages of AChE ranged for the brain, liver and serum between 40.7–59.4%, 50-57% and 27.5–51.3%, respectively. The aberrated parameters were recovered in G. kola seeds extract treated aquaria, and was dose and time dependent. The present study demonstrated that in vivo glyphosate formulation exposure caused AChE inhibition in the brain, liver and the serum. The brain tissue, however, might be suggested as a good indicator tissue for aquatic pollutants exposure in the fish and G. kola seeds extract has shown to be a good remedy for neurology restoration in a noxious circumstance. The findings has shown that xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms, especially fish, and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poison in sea food. Hence, formulation of this plant extracts into capsule should be encouraged and supported.

Keywords: glyphosate, Clarias gariepinus, brain, Garcinia kola, acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes

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19 Effect of Nitrogen-Based Cryotherapy on the Calf Muscle Spasticity in Stroke Patients

Authors: Engi E. I. Sarhan, Usama M. Rashad, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Mohammed K. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: This study aimed to know the effect of nitrogen-based cryotherapy on the spasticity of calf muscle in stroke patients. Patients were selected from the outpatient clinic of Neurology, Al-Mansoura general hospital, Al-Mansoura University. Subjects and methods: Thirty Stroke Patients of both sexes ranged from 45 to 60 years old were divided randomly into two equal groups, a study group (A) received a nitrogen-based cryotherapy, a selective physical therapy program and ankle foot orthosis (AFO), while as patients in control group (B) received the same program and AFO only. The treatment duration was three times per week for four weeks for both groups. We assessed spasticity of calf muscle before and after treatment subjectively using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and objectively via measuring H / M ratio on electromyography machine. We also assessed ankle dorsiflexion ROM objectively using two dimensions motion analysis (2D). Results: After treatment, there was a highly significant improvement in the study group compared to the control group regarding the score of MAS, no significant difference in the study group compared to the control group regarding the readings of H / M ratio, highly significant improvement in the study group compared to the control group regarding the 2D motion analysis findings. Conclusion: This modality considers effective in reducing spasticity in the calf muscle and improving ankle dorsiflexion of the affected limb.

Keywords: ankle foot orthosis, nitrogen-based cryotherapy, stroke, spasticity

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18 Mesenteric Vasculitis Causing Perforated Diverticulitis Mimicking Abdominal Sepsis

Authors: Christopher Leung, Assad Zahid

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Mesenteric vasculitis can often mimic abdominal sepsis in a postoperative setting leading to a predicament where steroids could improve mesenteric vasculitis whilst worsening abdominal sepsis. Here this study presents a unique and rare case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis secondary to systemic vasculitis. A 68-year-old gentleman presented with perforated sigmoid diverticulitis requiring an emergency Hartmann’s procedure. Early in his postoperative course, he had painful and asymmetrical neuropathy that, after a careful history and examination, revealed a patient with mono neuritis multiplex on a background history of longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. On day seven of his postoperative course, he had rising inflammatory markers and a CT abdomen and pelvis showing fluid around the mesentery. Whilst contamination from sigmoid perforation was somewhat congruent with these signs, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, a common cause of mononeuritis multiplex, is also possible, although involvement of the large bowel in polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare. The histopathology from the initial Hartmann’s procedure was re-examined, showing medium vessel disease vasculitis. Given his lack of fevers, absence of abdominal pain, and worsening neurology, he was given a provisional diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa and was treated successfully, not on IV antibiotics but on steroids. Large bowel involvement of polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare and this is the first case of polyarteritis nodosa causing perforated diverticulitis. The learning point here is to obtain a good clinical picture of a patient to identify mesenteric vasculitis as compared to abdominal sepsis as the treatment of one worsens the other.

Keywords: abdominal sepsis, diverticulitis, mesenteric vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

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17 A Rare Form of Rapidly Progressive Parkinsonism Associated with Dementia

Authors: Murat Emre, Zeynep Tufekcioglu

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Objective: We describe a patient with late onset phenylketonuria which presented with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism that were reversible after management. Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxlase gene. It normally presents in childhood, in rare cases, however, it may have its onset in adulthood and may mimic other neurological disorders. Case description: A previously normal functioning, 59 year old man was admitted for blurred vision, cognitive impairment and gait difficulty which emerged over the past eight months. In neurological examination he had brisk reflexes, slow gait and left-dominant parkinsonism. Mini-mental state examination score was 25/30, neuropsychological testing revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with constructional apraxia and simultanagnosia. In cranial MRI there were bilateral diffuse hyper-intense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter with no significant atrophy. Electroencephalography showed diffuse slowing with predominance of teta waves. In cerebrospinal fluid examination protein level was slightly elevated (61mg/dL), oligoclonal bands were negative. Electromyography was normal. Routine laboratory examinations for rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism were also normal. Serum amino acid levels were determined to explore metabolic leukodystrophies and phenylalanine level was found to be highly elevated (1075 µmol/L) with normal tyrosine (61,20 µmol/L). His cognitive impairment and parkinsonian symptoms improved following three months of phenylalanine restricted diet. Conclusions: Late onset phenylketonuria is a rare, potentially reversible cause of rapidly progressive parkinsonism with dementia. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspicious features.

Keywords: dementia, neurology, Phenylketonuria, rapidly progressive parkinsonism

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16 Vascular Crossed Aphasia in Dextrals: A Study on Bengali-Speaking Population in Eastern India

Authors: Durjoy Lahiri, Vishal Madhukar Sawale, Ashwani Bhat, Souvik Dubey, Gautam Das, Biman Kanti Roy, Suparna Chatterjee, Goutam Gangopadhyay

Abstract:

Crossed aphasia has been an area of considerable interest for cognitive researchers as it offers a fascinating insight into cerebral lateralization for language function. We conducted an observational study in the stroke unit of a tertiary care neurology teaching hospital in eastern India on subjects with crossed aphasia over a period of four years. During the study period, we detected twelve cases of crossed aphasia in strongly right-handed patients, caused by ischemic stroke. The age, gender, vernacular language and educational status of the patients were noted. Aphasia type and severity were assessed using Bengali version of Western Aphasia Battery (validated). Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography were used to evaluate the location and extent of the ischemic lesion in brain. Our series of 12 cases of crossed aphasia included 7 male and 5 female with mean age being 58.6 years. Eight patients were found to have Broca’s aphasia, 3 had trans-cortical motor aphasia and 1 patient suffered from global aphasia. Nine patients were having very severe aphasia and 3 suffered from mild aphasia. Mirror-image type of crossed aphasia was found in 3 patients, whereas 9 had anomalous variety. In our study crossed aphasia was found to be more frequent in males. Anomalous pattern was more common than mirror-image. Majority of the patients had motor-type aphasia and no patient was found to have pure comprehension deficit. We hypothesize that in Bengali-speaking right-handed population, lexical-semantic system of the language network remains loyal to the left hemisphere even if the phonological output system is anomalously located in the right hemisphere.

Keywords: aphasia, crossed, lateralization, language function, vascular

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15 Transorbital Craniectomy for Treatment of Frontal Lobe and Olfactory Bulb Neoplasia in Two Canids

Authors: Kathryn L. Duncan, Charles A. Kuntz, James O. Simcock

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A surgical approach to the cranium for treatment of frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia in dogs is described in this report, which provided excellent access for visualisation and removal of gross neoplastic tissue. An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu crossbreed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Fox Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated for removal of neoplasms involving both the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb. Both dogs presented with abnormal neurological clinical signs, decreased menace responses, and behavioural changes. Additionally, dog 2 presented with compulsive circling and generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity. Computed tomography was performed in both dogs, and MRI was also performed in dog 1. Imaging was consistent with frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia. A transorbital frontal bone craniectomy, with orbital ligament desmotomy and ventrolateral retraction of the globe, was performed in both cases without complication. Dog 1 had a focal area of lysis in the frontal bone adjacent to the neoplasm in the frontal lobe. The presence of the bone defect provided part of the impetus for this approach, as it would permit resection of the lytic bone. In addition, the neoplasms would be surgically accessible without encountering interposed brain parenchyma, reducing the risk of iatrogenic injury. Both dogs were discharged from the hospital within 72 hours post-operatively, both with normal mentation. Case 1 had a histopathologic diagnosis of malignant anaplastic neoplasm. The tumour recurred 101d postoperatively, and the patient was euthanized. Case 2 was diagnosed with a meningioma and was neurologically normal at 294d postoperatively. This transorbital surgical approach allowed successful removal of the intracranial frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms in 2 dogs. This approach should be considered for dogs with lateralized frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms that are closely associated with the suborbital region of the frontal bone.

Keywords: neurosurgery, small animal surgery, surgical oncology, veterinary neurology

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14 Relevance Of Cognitive Rehabilitation Amongst Children Having Chronic Illnesses – A Theoretical Analysis

Authors: Pulari C. Milu Maria Anto

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Background: Cognitive Rehabilitation/Retraining has been variously used in the research literature to represent non-pharmacological interventions that target the cognitive impairments with the goal of ameliorating cognitive function and functional behaviors to optimize the quality of life. Along with adult’s cognitive impairments, the need to address acquired cognitive impairments (due to any chronic illnesses like CHD - congenital heart diseases or ALL - Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) among child populations is inevitable. Also, it has to be emphasized as same we consider the cognitive impairments seen in the children having neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: All published brain image studies (Hermann, B. et al,2002, Khalil, A. et al., 2004, Follin, C. et al, 2016, etc.) and studies emphasizing cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and/or executive function and behavioral aspects (Henkin, Y. et al,2007, Bellinger, D. C., & Newburger, J. W. (2010), Cheung, Y. T., et al,2016, that could be identified were reviewed. Based on a systematic review of the literature from (2000 -2021) different brain imaging studies, increased risk of neuropsychological and psychosocial impairments are briefly described. Clinical and research gap in the area is discussed. Results:30 papers, both Indian studies and foreign publications (Sage journals, Delhi psychiatry journal, Wiley Online Library, APA PsyNet, Springer, Elsevier, Developmental medicine, and child neurology), were identified. Conclusions: In India, a very limited number of brain imaging studies and neuropsychological studies have done by indicating the cognitive deficits of a child having or undergone chronic illness. None of the studies have emphasized the relevance nor the need of implementingCR among such children, even though its high time to address but still not established yet. The review of the current evidence is to bring out an insight among rehabilitation professionals in establishing a child specific CR and to publish new findings regarding the implementation of CR among such children. Also, this study will be an awareness on considering cognitive aspects of a child having acquired cognitive deficit (due to chronic illness), especially during their critical developmental period.

Keywords: cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological impairments, congenital heart diseases, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, epilepsy, and neuroplasticity

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13 A Novel Machine Learning Approach to Aid Agrammatism in Non-fluent Aphasia

Authors: Rohan Bhasin

Abstract:

Agrammatism in non-fluent Aphasia Cases can be defined as a language disorder wherein a patient can only use content words ( nouns, verbs and adjectives ) for communication and their speech is devoid of functional word types like conjunctions and articles, generating speech of with extremely rudimentary grammar . Past approaches involve Speech Therapy of some order with conversation analysis used to analyse pre-therapy speech patterns and qualitative changes in conversational behaviour after therapy. We describe this approach as a novel method to generate functional words (prepositions, articles, ) around content words ( nouns, verbs and adjectives ) using a combination of Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning algorithms. The applications of this approach can be used to assist communication. The approach the paper investigates is : LSTMs or Seq2Seq: A sequence2sequence approach (seq2seq) or LSTM would take in a sequence of inputs and output sequence. This approach needs a significant amount of training data, with each training data containing pairs such as (content words, complete sentence). We generate such data by starting with complete sentences from a text source, removing functional words to get just the content words. However, this approach would require a lot of training data to get a coherent input. The assumptions of this approach is that the content words received in the inputs of both text models are to be preserved, i.e, won't alter after the functional grammar is slotted in. This is a potential limit to cases of severe Agrammatism where such order might not be inherently correct. The applications of this approach can be used to assist communication mild Agrammatism in non-fluent Aphasia Cases. Thus by generating these function words around the content words, we can provide meaningful sentence options to the patient for articulate conversations. Thus our project translates the use case of generating sentences from content-specific words into an assistive technology for non-Fluent Aphasia Patients.

Keywords: aphasia, expressive aphasia, assistive algorithms, neurology, machine learning, natural language processing, language disorder, behaviour disorder, sequence to sequence, LSTM

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12 Carl Wernicke and the Origin of Neurolinguistics in Breslau: A Case Study in the Domain of the History of Linguistics

Authors: Aneta Daniel

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The subject of the study is the exploration of the origins and dynamics of the development of language studies, which have been labelled as neurolinguistics. It is worth mentioning that the origins of neurolinguistics are to be found in the research conducted by German scientists before the Second World War in Breslau Universität (presently Wroclaw). The dominant figure in these studies was professor Carl Wernicke, whose students continued and creatively developed projects of their master within this area. Professor Carl Wernicke, a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist, and neuropathologist, is primarily known for his influential research on aphasia. His research, as well as those conducted by professor Paul Broca, has led to breakthroughs in the location of brain functions, particularly speech. Years later the theses of the pioneers of cognitive neurology (Carl Wernicke and Paul Broca) were developed by other neurolinguists. The main objective of the investigation is the reconstruction of the group of scientists –the students of Carl Wernicke– who contributed to the development of neurolinguistics. The scholars were mainly neurologists and psychiatrists and dealt with the branch of science that had not been named neurolinguistics at that time. The profiles of the scholars will be analysed and presented as the members of the group of researchers who have contributed to the breakthroughs in psychology and neuroscience. The research material consists of archival records documenting the research of professor Carl Wernicke and the researchers from Breslau (presently Wroclaw) which is one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. In 1870, when Carl Wernicke became the medical doctor, Breslau was full of cultural events: festivals and circus shows were held in the city center. Today we can come back to these events due to 'Breslauer Zeitung (1870)', which precisely describes all the events that took place on particular days. It is worth noting that those were the beginnings of antisemitism in Breslau. Many theses and articles that have survived in the libraries in Wroclaw and all over the world contribute to the development of neuroscience. The history of research on the brain and speech analysis, including the history of psychology and neuroscience, areas from which neurolinguistics is derived, will be presented.

Keywords: Aphasia, brain injury, Carl Wernicke, language, neurolinguistics

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11 Serum Vitamin D and Carboxy-Terminal TelopeptideType I Collagen Levels: As Markers for Bone Health Affection in Patients Treated with Different Antiepileptic Drugs

Authors: Moetazza M. Al-Shafei, Hala Abdel Karim, Eitedal M. Daoud, Hassan Zaki Hassuna

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Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting all age groups. It is one of the world's most prevalent non-communicable diseases. Increased evidence suggesting that long term usage of anti-epileptic drugs can have adverse effects on bone mineralization and bone molding .Aiming to study these effects and to give guide lines to support bone health through early intervention. From Neurology Out-Patient Clinic kaser Elaini University Hospital, 60 Patients were enrolled, 40 patients on antiepileptic drugs for at least two years and 20 controls matched with age and sex, epileptic but before starting treatment both chosen under specific criteria. Patients were divided into four groups, three groups with monotherapy treated with either Phynetoin, Valporic acid or Carbamazipine and fourth group treated with both Valporic acid and Carbamazipine. Estimation of serum Carboxy-Terminal Telopeptide of Type I- Collagen(ICTP) bone resorption marker, serum 25(OH )vit D3, calcium ,magnesium and phosphorus were done .Results showed that all patients on AED had significant low levels of 25(OH) vit D3 (p<0.001) ,with significant elevation of ICTP (P<0.05) versus controls. In group treated with Phynotoin highly significant elevation of (ICTP) marker and decrease of both serum 25(OH) vit D3 (P<0, 0001) and serum calcium(P<0.05)versus control. Double drug group showed significant decrease of serum 25(OH) vit D3 (P<0.0001) and decrease in Phosphorus (P<0.05) versus controls. Serum magnesium showed no significant differences between studied groups. We concluded that Anti- epileptic drugs appears to be an aggravating factor on bone mineralization ,so therapeutically it can be worth wile to supplement calcium and vitamin D even before initiation of antiepileptic therapy. ICTP marker can be used to evaluate change in bone resorption before and during AED therapy.

Keywords: antiepileptic drugs, bone minerals, carboxy teminal telopeptidetype-1-collagen bone resorption marker, vitamin D

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10 Rare Diagnosis in Emergency Room: Moyamoya Disease

Authors: Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu

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Moyamoya disease is a unique chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis with prominent arterial collateral circulation. The occurrence of Moyamoya disease is related to immune, genetic and other factors. There is no curative treatment for Moyamoya disease. Secondary prevention for patients with symptomatic Moyamoya disease is largely centered on surgical revascularization techniques. We present here a 62-year old male presented with headache and vision loss for 2 days. He was previously diagnosed with hypertension and glaucoma. On physical examination, left eye movements were restricted medially, both eyes were hyperemic and their movements were painful. Other neurological and physical examination were normal. His vital signs and laboratory results were within normal limits. Computed tomography (CT) showed dilated vascular structures around both lateral ventricles and atherosclerotic changes inside the walls of internal carotid artery (ICA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) revealed dilated venous vascular structures around lateral ventricles and hyper-intense gliosis in periventricular white matter. Ischemic gliosis around the lateral ventricles were present in the Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA). After the neurology, ophthalmology and neurosurgery consultation, the patient was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease, pulse steroid therapy was started for vision loss, and super-selective DSA was planned for further investigation. Moyamoya disease is a rare condition, but it can be an important cause of stroke in both children and adults. It generally affects anterior circulation, but posterior cerebral circulation may also be affected, as well. In the differential diagnosis of acute vision loss, occipital stroke related to Moyamoya disease should be considered. Direct and indirect surgical revascularization surgeries may be used to effectively revascularize affected brain areas, and have been shown to reduce risk of stroke.

Keywords: headache, Moyamoya disease, stroke, visual loss

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9 Health Psychology Intervention: Identifying Early Symptoms in Neurological Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

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Early indicator of neurological disease has been proposed by the expanded Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis which suggests that yawning is linked to rises in cortisol levels. Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and pathological yawning is a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved – extended or flexed; and yawning has been shown to be highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. It is likely that these elevated cortisol levels are also seen in people with MS. The possible link between EMG in the jaw muscles and rises in saliva cortisol levels during yawning were investigated in a randomized controlled trial of 60 volunteers aged 18-69 years who were exposed to conditions that were designed to elicit the yawning response. Saliva samples were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, and EMG data was additionally collected during rest and yawning phases. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, and health details were collected and the following exclusion criteria were adopted: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. There were also significant differences between yawners and non-yawners for the EMG potentials with the yawners having higher rest and post-yawning potentials. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with the yawning response. Further research is underway to explore the use of cortisol as a potential diagnostic tool as an assist to the early diagnosis of symptoms related to neurological disorders. Bournemouth University Research & Ethics approval granted: JC28/1/13-KA6/9/13. Professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues have been addressed and approved in the Ethics submission. Trials identification number: ISRCTN61942768. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/

Keywords: cortisol, electromyography, neurology, yawning

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8 Melaninic Discrimination among Primary School Children

Authors: Margherita Cardellini

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To our knowledge, dark skinned children are often victims of discrimination from adults and society, but few studies specifically focus on skin color discrimination on children coming from the same children. Even today, the 'color blind children' ideology is widespread among adults, teachers, and educators and maybe also among scholars, which seem really careful about study expressions of racism in childhood. This social and cultural belief let people think that all the children, because of their age and their brief experience in the world, are disinterested in skin color. Sometimes adults think that children are even incapable of perceiving skin colors and that it could be dangerous to talk about melaninic differences with them because they finally could notice this difference, producing prejudices and racism. Psychology and neurology research projects are showing for many years that even the newborns are already capable of perceiving skin color and ethnic differences by the age of 3 months. Starting from this theoretical framework we conducted a research project to understand if and how primary school children talk about skin colors, picking up any stereotypes or prejudices. Choosing to use the focus group as a methodology to stimulate the group dimension and interaction, several stories about skin color discrimination's episodes within their classroom or school have emerged. Using the photo elicitation technique we chose to stimulate talk about the research object, which is the skin color, asking the children what was ‘the first two things that come into your mind’ when they look the photographs presented during the focus group, which represented dark and light skinned women and men. So, this paper will present some of these stories about episodes of discrimination with an escalation grade of proximity related to the discriminatory act. It will be presented a story of discrimination happened within the school, in an after-school daycare, in the classroom and even episode of discrimination that children tell during the focus groups in the presence of the discriminated child. If it is true that the Declaration of the Right of the Child state that every child should be discrimination free, it’s also true that every adult should protect children from every form of discrimination. How, as adults, can we defend children against discrimination if we cannot admit that even children are potential discrimination’s actors? Without awareness, we risk to devalue these episodes, implicitly confident that the only way to fight against discrimination is to keep her quiet. The right not to be discriminated goes through the right to talk about its own experiences of discrimination and the right to perceive the unfairness of the constant depreciation about skin color or any element of physical diversity. Intercultural education could act as spokesperson for this mission in the belief that difference and plurality could really become elements of potential enrichment for humanity, starting from children.

Keywords: colorism, experiences of discrimination, primary school children, skin color discrimination

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7 Intensive Neurophysiological Rehabilitation System: New Approach for Treatment of Children with Autism

Authors: V. I. Kozyavkin, L. F. Shestopalova, T. B. Voloshyn

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Introduction: Rehabilitation of children with Autism is the issue of the day in psychiatry and neurology. It is attributed to constantly increasing quantity of autistic children - Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Existing rehabilitation approaches in treatment of children with Autism improve their medico- social and social- psychological adjustment. Experience of treatment for different kinds of Autistic disorders in International Clinic of Rehabilitation (ICR) reveals the necessity of complex intensive approach for healing this malady and wider implementation of a Kozyavkin method for treatment of children with ASD. Methods: 19 children aged from 3 to 14 years were examined. They were diagnosed ‘Autism’ (F84.0) with comorbid neurological pathology (from pyramidal insufficiency to para- and tetraplegia). All patients underwent rehabilitation in ICR during two weeks, where INRS approach was used. INRS included methods like biomechanical correction of the spine, massage, physical therapy, joint mobilization, wax-paraffin applications. They were supplemented by art- therapy, ergotherapy, rhythmical group exercises, computer game therapy, team Olympic games and other methods for improvement of motivation and social integration of the child. Estimation of efficacy was conducted using parent’s questioning and done twice- on the onset of INRS rehabilitation course and two weeks afterward. For efficacy assessment of rehabilitation of autistic children in ICR standardized tool was used, namely Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). This scale was selected because any rehabilitation approaches for the child with Autism can be assessed using it. Results: Before the onset of INRS treatment mean score according to ATEC scale was 64,75±9,23, it reveals occurrence in examined children severe communication, speech, socialization and behavioral impairments. After the end of the rehabilitation course, the mean score was 56,5±6,7, what indicates positive dynamics in comparison to the onset of rehabilitation. Generally, improvement of psychoemotional state occurred in 90% of cases. Most significant changes occurred in the scope of speech (16,5 before and 14,5 after the treatment), socialization (15.1 before and 12,5 after) and behavior (20,1 before and 17.4 after). Conclusion: As a result of INRS rehabilitation course reduction of autistic symptoms was noted. Particularly improvements in speech were observed (children began to spell out new syllables, words), there was some decrease in signs of destructiveness, quality of contact with the surrounding people improved, new skills of self-service appeared. The prospect of the study is further, according to evidence- based medicine standards, deeper examination of INRS and assessment of its usefulness in treatment for Autism and ASD.

Keywords: intensive neurophysiological rehabilitation system (INRS), international clinic od rehabilitation, ASD, rehabilitation

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6 Challenging Weak Central Coherence: An Exploration of Neurological Evidence from Visual Processing and Linguistic Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Jessica Scher Lisa, Eric Shyman

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction (i.e. deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors, and establishing/maintaining social relationships), as well as by the presence of repetitive behaviors and perseverative areas of interest (i.e. stereotyped or receptive motor movements, use of objects, or speech, rigidity, restricted interests, and hypo or hyperactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment). Additionally, diagnoses of ASD require the presentation of symptoms in the early developmental period, marked impairments in adaptive functioning, and a lack of explanation by general intellectual impairment or global developmental delay (although these conditions may be co-occurring). Over the past several decades, many theories have been developed in an effort to explain the root cause of ASD in terms of atypical central cognitive processes. The field of neuroscience is increasingly finding structural and functional differences between autistic and neurotypical individuals using neuro-imaging technology. One main area this research has focused upon is in visuospatial processing, with specific attention to the notion of ‘weak central coherence’ (WCC). This paper offers an analysis of findings from selected studies in order to explore research that challenges the ‘deficit’ characterization of a weak central coherence theory as opposed to a ‘superiority’ characterization of strong local coherence. The weak central coherence theory has long been both supported and refuted in the ASD literature and has most recently been increasingly challenged by advances in neuroscience. The selected studies lend evidence to the notion of amplified localized perception rather than deficient global perception. In other words, WCC may represent superiority in ‘local processing’ rather than a deficit in global processing. Additionally, the right hemisphere and the specific area of the extrastriate appear to be key in both the visual and lexicosemantic process. Overactivity in the striate region seems to suggest inaccuracy in semantic language, which lends itself to support for the link between the striate region and the atypical organization of the lexicosemantic system in ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, neurology, visual processing, weak coherence

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5 Caregivers Burden: Risk and Related Psychological Factors in Caregivers of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Pellecchia M.T., Savarese G. , Carpinelli L., Calabrese M.

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Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive loss of autonomy which undoubtedly has a significant impact on the quality of life of caregivers, and parents are the main informal caregivers. Caring for a person with PD is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity and persistent anxiety-depressive distress. The aim of the study is to investigate the burden on caregivers of patients with PD, through the use of multidimensional scales and to identify their personological and environmental determinants. Methods: The study has been approved by the Ethic Committee of the University of Salerno and informed consent for participation to the study was obtained from patients and their caregivers. The study was conducted at the Neurology Department of the A.O.U. "San Giovanni di Dio and Ruggi D’Aragona" of Salerno between September 2020 and May 2021. Materials: The questionnaires used were: a) Caregiver Burden Inventory - CBI a questionnaire of 24 items that allow identifying five sub-categories of burden (objective, psychological, physical, social, emotional); b) Depression Anxiety Stress Scales Short Version - DASS-21 questionnaire consisting of 21 items and valid in examining three distinct but interrelated areas (depression, anxiety and stress); c) Family Strain Questionnaire Short Form - FSQ-SF is a questionnaire of 30 items grouped in areas of increasing psychological risk (OK, R, SR, U); d) Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory - ZBI, consisting of 22 items based on the analysis of two main factors: personal stress and pressure related to his role; e) Life Satisfaction, a single item that aims to evaluate the degree of life satisfaction in a global way using a 0-100 Likert scale. Findings: N ° 29 caregivers (M age = 55.14, SD = 9.859; 69% F) participated in the study. 20.6% of the sample had severe and severe burden (CBI score = M = 26.31; SD = 22.43) and 13.8% of participants had moderate to severe burden (ZBI). The FSQ-SF highlighted a minority of caregivers who need psychological support, in some cases urgent (Area SR and Area U). The DASS-21 results show a prevalence of stress-related symptoms (M = 10.90, SD = 10.712) compared to anxiety (M = 7.52, SD = 10.752) and depression (M = 8, SD = 10.876). There are significant correlations between some specific variables and mean test scores: retired caregivers report higher ZBI scores (p = 0.423) and lower Life Satisfaction levels (p = -0.460) than working caregivers; years of schooling show a negative linear correlation with the ZBI score (p = -0.491). The T-Test indicates that caregivers of patients with cognitive impairment are at greater risk than those of patients without cognitive impairment. Conclusions: It knows the factors that affect the burden the most would allow for early recognition of risky situations and caregivers who would need adequate support.

Keywords: anxious-depressive axis, caregivers’ burden, Parkinson’ disease, psychological risks

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4 Determinants of Quality of Life in Patients with Atypical Prarkinsonian Syndromes: 1-Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Tatjana Pekmezovic, Milica Jecmenica-Lukic, Igor Petrovic, Vladimir Kostic

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Background: A group of atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) includes a variety of rare neurodegenerative disorders characterized by reduced life expectancy, increasing disability, and considerable impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aim: In this study we wanted to answer two questions: a) which demographic and clinical factors are main contributors of HRQoL in our cohort of patients with APS, and b) how does quality of life of these patients change over 1-year follow-up period. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in hospital settings. The initial study comprised all consecutive patients who were referred to the Department of Movement Disorders, Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade (Serbia), from January 31, 2000 to July 31, 2013, with the initial diagnoses of ‘Parkinson’s disease’, ‘parkinsonism’, ‘atypical parkinsonism’ and ‘parkinsonism plus’ during the first 8 months from the appearance of first symptom(s). The patients were afterwards regularly followed in 4-6 month intervals and eventually the diagnoses were established for 46 patients fulfilling the criteria for clinically probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 36 patients for probable multiple system atrophy (MSA). The health-related quality of life was assessed by using the SF-36 questionnaire (Serbian translation). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of composite scores of SF-36. The importance of changes in quality of life scores of patients with APS between baseline and follow-up time-point were quantified using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. The magnitude of any differences for the quality of life changes was calculated as an effect size (ES). Results: The final models of hierarchical regression analysis showed that apathy measured by the Apathy evaluation scale (AES) score accounted for 59% of the variance in the Physical Health Composite Score of SF-36 and 14% of the variance in the Mental Health Composite Score of SF-36 (p<0.01). The changes in HRQoL were assessed in 52 patients with APS who completed 1-year follow-up period. The analysis of magnitude for changes in HRQoL during one-year follow-up period have shown sustained medium ES (0.50-0.79) for both Physical and Mental health composite scores, total quality of life as well as for the Physical Health, Vitality, Role Emotional and Social Functioning. Conclusion: This study provides insight into new potential predictors of HRQoL and its changes over time in patients with APS. Additionally, identification of both prognostic markers of a poor HRQoL and magnitude of its changes should be considered when developing comprehensive treatment-related strategies and health care programs aimed at improving HRQoL and well-being in patients with APS.

Keywords: atypical parkinsonian syndromes, follow-up study, quality of life, APS

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