Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1232

Search results for: progressive muscle relaxation

1232 The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Sleep Hygiene Education to Change Sleep Quality Index Scores of Patient with Breast Cancer

Authors: Ika Wulansari, Yati Afiyanti, Indang Trihandini


Sleeping disorder experienced by patients with breast cancer can affect the physical, mental, health, and well-being. This study examines the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training and sleep hygiene education to change sleep quality scores of the patient with breast cancer. The study design using quasi-experiment with pre-post test within the control group, involving 62 breast cancer patients using consecutive sampling method in Jakarta. Statistical test results with independent t-test showed a significant difference in score of sleep quality between in intervention group and the control group (6,66±3,815; 9,30±3,334, p-value = 0,005). Progressive muscle relaxation exercise and sleep hygiene education proven to be affective to change the patients sleeping quality, so that it can be an alternative therapeutic option to overcome sleeping disorders.

Keywords: sleeping disorders, breast cancer, progressive muscle relaxation, sleep hygiene education

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1231 Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Postpartum Depression and General Comfort Levels

Authors: İlknur Gökşin, Sultan Ayaz Alkaya


Objective: Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) include the deliberate stretching and relaxation of the major muscle groups of the human body. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of PMR applied in women on the postpartum depression and general comfort level. Methods: The study population of this quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test and control group consisted of primipara women who had vaginal delivery in the obstetric service of a university hospital. The experimental and control groups consisted of 35 women each. The data were collected by questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ). The women were matched according to their age and education level and divided into the experimental and control groups by simple random selection. Postpartum depression risk and general comfort was evaluated at the 2nd and 5th days, 10th and 15th days, fourth week and eighth week after birth. The experimental group was visited at home and PMR was applied. After the first visit, women were asked to apply PMR regularly three times a week for eight weeks. During the application, the researcher called the participants twice a week to follow up the continuity of the application. No intervention was performed in the control group. For data analysis, descriptive statistics such as number, percentage, mean, standard deviation, significance test of difference between two means and ANOVA were used. Approval of the ethics committee and permission of the institution were obtained for the study. Results: There were no significant differences between the women in the experimental and control groups in terms of age, education status and employment status (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of EPDS pre-test, 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-up mean scores (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between EPDS pre-test and 3rd follow-up scores of the experimental group (p<0.05), whereas there was no such difference in the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of mean GCQ pre-test scores (p>0.05), whereas in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-ups there was a statistically significant difference between the mean GCQ scores (p<0.05). It was found that there was a significant increase in the GCQ physical, psychospiritual and sociocultural comfort sub-scales, relief and relaxation levels of the experimental group between the pre-test and 3rd follow-ups scores (p<0.05). And, a significant decrease was found between pre-test and 3rd follow-up GCQ psychospiritual, environmental and sociocultural comfort sub-scale, relief, relaxation and superiority levels (p<0.05). Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation was effective on reducing the postpartum depression risk and increasing general comfort. It is recommended to provide progressive muscle relaxation training to women in the postpartum period as well as ensuring the continuity of this practice.

Keywords: general comfort, postpartum depression, postpartum period, progressive muscle relaxation

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1230 Optimal Rest Interval between Sets in Robot-Based Upper-Arm Rehabilitation

Authors: Virgil Miranda, Gissele Mosqueda, Pablo Delgado, Yimesker Yihun


Muscular fatigue affects the muscle activation that is needed for producing the desired clinical outcome. Integrating optimal muscle relaxation periods into a variety of health care rehabilitation protocols is important to maximize the efficiency of the therapy. In this study, four muscle relaxation periods (30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds) and their effectiveness in producing consistent muscle activation of the muscle biceps brachii between sets of elbow flexion and extension task was investigated among a sample of 10 subjects with no disabilities. The same resting periods were then utilized in a controlled exoskeleton-based exercise for a sample size of 5 subjects and have shown similar results. On average, the muscle activity of the biceps brachii decreased by 0.3% when rested for 30 seconds, and it increased by 1.25%, 0.76%, and 0.82% when using muscle relaxation periods of 60, 90, and 120 seconds, respectively. The preliminary results suggest that a muscle relaxation period of about 60 seconds is needed for optimal continuous muscle activation within rehabilitation regimens. Robot-based rehabilitation is good to produce repetitive tasks with the right intensity, and knowing the optimal resting period will make the automation more effective.

Keywords: rest intervals, muscle biceps brachii, robot rehabilitation, muscle fatigue

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1229 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose

Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra


The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70

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1228 MRI R2* of Liver in an Animal Model

Authors: Chiung-Yun Chang, Po-Chou Chen, Jiun-Shiang Tzeng, Ka-Wai Mac, Chia-Chi Hsiao, Jo-Chi Jao


This study aimed to measure R2* relaxation rates in the liver of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the composition of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterward, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) (2/4/6/8/10/12/14/16 ms) to acquire images for R2* calculations. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(SI) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8  10.9 s-1 and 37.4  9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, R2* is correlated with iron contents in tissue. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbit might be valuable for further exploration.

Keywords: liver, magnetic resonance imaging, muscle, R2* relaxation rate

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1227 Effect of Relaxation Techniques in Reducing Stress Level among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: R. N. Jay A. Ablog, M. N. Dyanne R. Del Carmen, Roma Rose A. Dela Cruz, Joselle Dara M. Estrada, Luke Clifferson M. Gagarin, Florence T. Lang-ay, Ma. Dayanara O. Mariñas, Maria Christina S. Nepa, Jahraine Chyle B. Ocampo, Mark Reynie Renz V. Silva, Jenny Lyn L. Soriano, Loreal Cloe M. Suva, Jackelyn R. Torres


Background: To date, there is dearth of literature as to the effect of relaxation techniques in lowering the stress level of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of 4-week relaxation techniques in stress level reduction of mothers of children with ASD. Methods: Quasi experimental design. It included 25 mothers (10-experimental, 15-control) who were chosen via purposive sampling. The mothers were recruited in the different SPED centers in Baguio City and La Trinidad and in the community. Statistics used were T-test and Related T-Test. Results: The overall weighted mean score after 4-week training is 2.3, indicating that the relaxation techniques introduced were moderately effective in lowering stress level. Statistical analysis (T-test; CV=4.51>TV=2.26) shown a significant difference in the stress level reduction of mothers in the experimental group pre and post interventions. There is also a significant difference in the stress level reduction in the control and the experimental group (Related T-test; CV=2.08 >TV=2.07). The relaxation techniques introduced were favorable, cost-effective, and easy to perform interventions to decrease stress level.

Keywords: relaxation techniques, mindful eating, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercise, autism spectrum disorder

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1226 Studying the Effects of Ruta Graveolens on Spontaneous Motor Activity, Skeletal Muscle Tone and Strychnine Induced Convulsions in Albino Mice and Rats

Authors: Shaban Saad, Syed Ahmed, Suher Aburawi, Isabel Fong


Ruta graveolens is a plant commonly found in north Africa and south Europe. It is reported that Ruta graveolens is used traditionally for epilepsy and some other illnesses. The acute and sub-acute effects of alcoholic extract residue were tested for possible anti-epileptic and skeletal muscle relaxation activity. The effect of extract on rat spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also investigated using open filed. We previously proved the anti convulsant activity of the plant against pentylenetetrazol and electrically induced convulsions. Therefore in this study strychnine was used to induce convulsions in order to explore the mechanism of anti-convulsant activity of the plant. The skeletal muscle relaxation activity of Ruta graveolens was studied using pull-up and rod hanging tests in rats. At concentration of 5%w/v the extract protected mice against strychnine induced myoclonic jerks and death. The pull-up and rod hanging tests pointed to a skeletal muscle relaxant activity at higher concentrations. Ruta graveolens extract also significantly decreased the number of squares visited by rats in open field apparatus at all tested concentrations (3.5-20%w/v). However, the significant decrease in number of rearings was only noticed at concentrations of (15 and 20%w/v). The results indicate that Ruta graveolens contains compound(s) capable to inhibit convulsions, decrease SMA and/or diminish skeletal muscle tone in animal models. This data and the previously generated data together point to a general depression trend of CNS produced by Ruta graveolens.

Keywords: Ruta graveolens, open field, skeletal muscle relaxation

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1225 Feature Extractions of EMG Signals during a Constant Workload Pedaling Exercise

Authors: Bing-Wen Chen, Alvin W. Y. Su, Yu-Lin Wang


Electromyography (EMG) is one of the important indicators during exercise, as it is closely related to the level of muscle activations. This work quantifies the muscle conditions of the lower limbs in a constant workload exercise. Surface EMG signals of the vastus laterals (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), gastrocnemius medianus (GM), gastrocnemius lateral (GL) and Soleus (SOL) were recorded from fourteen healthy males. The EMG signals were segmented in two phases: activation segment (AS) and relaxation segment (RS). Period entropy (PE), peak count (PC), zero crossing (ZC), wave length (WL), mean power frequency (MPF), median frequency (MDF) and root mean square (RMS) are calculated to provide the quantitative information of the measured EMG segments. The outcomes reveal that the PE, PC, ZC and RMS have significantly changed (p<.001); WL presents moderately changed (p<.01); MPF and MDF show no changed (p>.05) during exercise. The results also suggest that the RS is also preferred for performance evaluation, while the results of the extracted features in AS are usually affected directly by the amplitudes. It is further found that the VL exhibits the most significant changes within six muscles during pedaling exercise. The proposed work could be applied to quantify the stamina analysis and to predict the instant muscle status in athletes.

Keywords: electromyographic feature extraction, muscle status, pedaling exercise, relaxation segment

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1224 Puereria mirifica Replacement Improves Skeletal Muscle Performance Associated with Increasing Parvalbumin Levels in Ovariectomized Rat

Authors: Uraporn Vongvatcharanon, Kochakorn Sukjan, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Surapong Vongvatcharanon


Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass, and strength frequently found in menopause. Estrogen replacement has been shown to improve such a loss of muscle functions. However, there is an increased risk of cancer that has to be considered because of the estrogen replacement therapy. Thus, phytoestrogen supplementation has been suggested as an alternative therapy. Pueraria mirifica (PM) is a plant in the family Leguminosae, that is known to be phytoestrogen-rich and has been traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It contains isoflavones and other compounds such as miroestrol and its derivatives. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium binding protein and functions as a relaxing factor in fast twitch muscle fibers. A decrease of the PV level results in a reduction of the speed of the twitch relaxation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract from Pueraria mirifica on the estrogen levels, skeletal muscle functions and PV levels in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius of ovariectomized rats. Twelve-week old female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 6 groups: SHAM (un-ovariectomized rats, that received double distilled water), PM-0 (ovariectomized rats, OVX, receiving double distilled water), E (OVX, receiving an estradiol benzoate dose of 0.04 mg/kg), PM-50 (OVX receiving PM 50 mg/kg), PM-500 (OVX receiving PM 500 mg/kg), PM-1000 (OVX receiving PM 1000 mg/kg) all for 90 days. The PM-0 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation and parvalbumin levels of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly reduced compared to those of the SHAM group (p<0.05). Also the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and the parvalbumin immunoreactivities of both EDL and gastrocnemius were decreased in the PM-0 group. In contrast the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly increased compared with PM-0 group (p<0.05). In addition, the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and parvalbumin immunoreactivity of both the EDL and gastrocnemius were increased in the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group. In addition the extract of Pueraria mirifica replacement group at 50 and 500 mg/kg had significantly increased parvalbumin levels in the EDL muscle but in the gastrocnemius, only the dose of 500 mg/kg increased the parvalbumin levels (p<0.05). These results have demonstrated that the use of the Pueraria mirifica extract as a replacement therapy for estrogen produced estrogenic activity that was similar to that produced by the estradiol benzoate replacement. It seems that the phytoestrogens could bind with the estrogen receptors and stimulate the transcriptional activity to synthesise muscle protein that caused an increase in muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. Thus, muscle synthesis may restore parvalbumin levels resulting in an enhanced relaxation efficiency that would lead to a shortened latent period before the next contraction.

Keywords: Puereria mirifica, Parvalbumin, estrogen, ovariectomized rats

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1223 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem


Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

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1222 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical αc-Relaxation of Isotactic-Polypropylene: A Study from the Intermediate Phase Perspective

Authors: Baobao Chang, Konrad Schneider, Vogel Roland, Gert Heinrich


In this work, the influence of annealing on the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated. The results suggest that the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior depends strongly on the confinement force on the polymer chains in the intermediate phase and the thickness of the intermediate phase. After quenching at 10°C, abundant crystallites with a wide size distribution are formed. The polymer chains in the intermediate phase are constrained by the crystallites, giving rise to one broad αc-relaxation peak. With an annealing temperature between 60°C~105°C, imperfect lamellae melting releases part of the constraint force, which reduces the conformational ordering of the polymer chains neighboring the amorphous phase. Consequently, two separate αc-relaxation peaks could be observed which are labeled as αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation. αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation describe the relaxation behavior of polymer chains in the region close to the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase, respectively. Both relaxation peaks shift to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. With an annealing temperature higher than 105°C, the new crystalline phase is formed in the intermediate phase, which enhances the constraint force on the polymer chains. αc1-relaxation peak is broadened obviously and its position shifts to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. Moreover, αc2-relaxation is undetectable because that the polymer chains in the region between the initial crystalline phase and the newly formed crystalline phase are strongly confined.

Keywords: annealing, αc-relaxation, isotactic-polypropylene, intermediate phase

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1221 Relaxation Behavior of Biorenewable Waterborne Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane-Lignin Thin Films

Authors: Samy Madbouly


The relaxation behavior of biorenewable castor oil-based polyurethane-lignin thin films synthesized in homogenous waterborne dispersions was investigated as a function of concentration at different temperatures and frequencies using broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (BDRS). The molecular dynamics of the glass relaxation process and the local relaxation process of the PU-LS thin films were studied over a wide range of temperatures (-70 to 30 ℃) and frequencies (5 × 10−2 to 0.5 × 107 Hz) for different lignin concentration. Four relaxation processes have been observed namely; ?-, β-, γ-relaxations and ionic conductivity for pure castor oil-based PU and castor oil-lignin-based PU thin films at different temperatures and frequencies ranges. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation was found to be well described the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation times of the ?-relaxation process. However, on the other hand, the molecular dynamics of both β- and γ-relaxation processes were given by the Arrhenius equation. The incorporation of lignin into the castor oil-based PU significantly increased the glass transition temperature and primitivity of the thin films. In addition, the broadness, intensity, and molecular dynamics of the only observed ?-relaxation process were found to be strongly dependent on lignin concentration.

Keywords: castor oil, lignin, polyurethane, dielectric, dispersions

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1220 The Effect of Benson Relaxation Method on Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients in 2012-2013, Kermanshah, Iran

Authors: Fateme Hadadian, Behnam Khaledi Paveh, Hosein Feizi


Background: High number of patients with end-stage renal disease worldwide, and Iran and the patients required hemodialysis, As well as symptoms and treatment process and its impact on quality of life The researcher had to take a step towards solving these problems. Methods: In randomized clinical trial in 60 hemodialysis patients admitted to hospital hemodialysis Imam Reza (AS) were studied. Using questionnaires dialysis patients' QOL, quality of life was measured in patients and controls were divided randomly into two groups. Benson's relaxation method for the experimental group and two months at home, once per day, respectively and the control group received no special action. Immediately after the end of the period with was used for evaluating the quality of life in both the experimental and control groups were survey and data using independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The general dimensions of quality of life scores before and after intervention, there was significant difference (P=0/001). But this difference was not significant after QOL (P=0/2). Between QOL scores before and after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0/02). Conclusion: Benson relaxation has the desired effect on quality of life in hemodialysis patients and can be used as a useful method to enhance the quality of life in hemodialysis patients, implementation and training will be given.

Keywords: hemodialysis, quality of life, Benson muscle relaxation, biomedicine

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1219 Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Study of Diethanolamine with Triethanolamine from 10 MHz-20 GHz

Authors: A. V. Patil


The microwave dielectric relaxation study of diethanolamine with triethanolamine binary mixture have been determined over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz, at various temperatures using time domain reflectometry (TDR) method for 11 concentrations of the system. The present work reveals molecular interaction between same multi-functional groups [−OH and –NH2] of the alkanolamines (diethanolamine and triethanolamine) using different models such as Debye model, Excess model, and Kirkwood model. The dielectric parameters viz. static dielectric constant (ε0) and relaxation time (τ) have been obtained with Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution by the least squares fit method.

Keywords: diethanolamine, excess properties, kirkwood properties, time domain reflectometry, triethanolamine

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1218 Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions

Authors: Mohamed M. M. Elnasharty, Azhar M. Elwan


Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system’s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.

Keywords: activation energy, DC conductivity, dielectric relaxation, enthalpy change, Moringa leaves extract, relaxation time

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1217 Developing a Methodology to Examine Psychophysiological Responses during Stress Exposure and Relaxation: An Experimental Paradigm

Authors: M. Velana, G. Rinkenauer


Nowadays, nurses are facing unprecedented amounts of pressure due to the ongoing global health demands. Work-related stress can cause a high physical and psychological workload, which can lead, in turn, to burnout. On the physiological level, stress triggers an initial activation of the sympathetic nervous and adrenomedullary systems resulting in increases in cardiac activity. Furthermore, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis provokes endocrine and immune changes leading to the release of cortisol and cytokines in an effort to re-establish body balance. Based on the current state of the literature, it has been identified that resilience and mindfulness exercises among nurses can effectively decrease stress and improve mood. However, it is still unknown what relaxation techniques would be suitable for and to what extent would be effective to decrease psychophysiological arousal deriving from either a physiological or a psychological stressor. Moreover, although cardiac activity and cortisol are promising candidates to examine the effectiveness of relaxation to reduce stress, it still remains to shed light on the role of cytokines in this process so as to thoroughly understand the body’s response to stress and to relaxation. Therefore, the main aim of the present study is to develop a comprehensive experimental paradigm and assess different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation and a mindfulness exercise originating from cognitive therapy by means of biofeedback, under highly controlled laboratory conditions. An experimental between-subject design will be employed, where 120 participants will be randomized either to a physiological or a psychological stress-related experiment. Particularly, the cold pressor test refers to a procedure in which the participants have to immerse their non-dominant hands into ice water (2-3 °C) for 3 min. The participants are requested to keep their hands in the water throughout the whole duration. However, they can immediately terminate the test in case it would be barely tolerable. A pre-test anticipation phase and a post-stress period of 3 min, respectively, are planned. The Trier Social Stress Test will be employed to induce psychological stress. During this laboratory stressor, the participants are instructed to give a 5-min speech in front of a committee of communication specialists. Before the main task, there is a 10-min anticipation period. Subsequently, participants are requested to perform an unexpected arithmetic task. After stress exposure, the participants will perform one of the relaxation exercises (treatment condition) or watch a neutral video (control condition). Electrocardiography, salivary samples, and self-report will be collected at different time points. The preliminary results deriving from the pilot study showed that the aforementioned paradigm could effectively induce stress reactions and that relaxation might decrease the impact of stress exposure. It is of utmost importance to assess how the human body responds under different stressors and relaxation exercises so that an evidence-based intervention could be transferred in a clinical setting to improve nurses’ general health. Based on suggestive future laboratory findings, the research group plans to conduct a pilot-level randomized study to decrease stress and promote well-being among nurses who work in the stress-riddled environment of a hospital located in Northern Germany.

Keywords: nurses, psychophysiology, relaxation, stress

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1216 Landscape Factors Eliciting the Sense of Relaxation in Urban Green Space

Authors: Kaowen Grace Chang


Urban green spaces play an important role in promoting wellbeing through the sense of relaxation for urban residents. Among many designing factors, what the principal ones that could effectively influence people’s sense of relaxation? And, what are the relationship between the sense of relaxation and those factors? Regarding those questions, there is still little evidence for sufficient support. Therefore, the purpose of this study, based on individual responses to environmental information, is to investigate the landscape factors that relate to well-being through the sense of relaxation in mixed-use urban environments. We conducted the experimental design and model construction utilizing choice-based conjoint analysis to test the factors of plant arrangement pattern, plant trimming condition, the distance to visible automobile, the number of landmark objects, and the depth of view. Through the operation of balanced fractional orthogonal design, the goal is to know the relationship between the sense of relaxation and different designs. In a result, the three factors of plant trimming condition, the distance to visible automobile, and the depth of view shed are significantly effective to the sense of relaxation. The stronger magnitude of maintenance and trimming, the further distance to visible automobiles, and deeper view shed that allow the users to see further scenes could significantly promote green space users’ sense of relaxation in urban green spaces.

Keywords: urban green space, landscape planning and design, sense of relaxation, choice model

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1215 The Effect of Relaxing Exercises in Water on Endorphin Hormone for the Beginner in Swimming

Authors: Yasmin Hussein Embaby


Introduction: Athletic Training has its essentials, rules, and methods that help individual in reaching the maximum possible athletic level during the exercised physical activity, therefore; it is important for those working in athletic field to recognize and understand what is going on inside our bodies. This will show the close relationship between physiology and athletic training as the science that explains the various changes that happen to respond to the practice of physical activities. Swimming is one of the water sports that play a major role in influencing the full compatibility of body parts and its systems during the practice of different swimming methods, which uses aqueous to move. It is the initial nucleus in swimming learning and through which the beginner gain a sense of security, safety and the ability to move in aqueous by learning basic skills. Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental methodology by using pre and post measurement on two equal groups (experimental – control) because it is appropriate for the research. Conclusions: Through the results and information found by the researcher, and in light of the related studies, theoretical readings and the statistical treatments of data; the researcher reached the following conclusions: 1. Muscle relaxation exercises have a positive effect on performance level in crawl swimming and on endorphin hormone as it helps in increasing its normal rater in body, the improvement percentage for experimental group in the relaxation ability, level of endorphin hormone exceeds those of control group. 2. The validity of muscle relaxation exercises proposed for the application, which achieved its objectives, namely increasing the level of endorphin hormone in the body; where research results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of endorphin hormone in favor of the experimental sample.

Keywords: beginners, endorphin hormone, relaxing exercises, swimming

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1214 Dermatomyositis: It is Not Always an Allergic Reaction

Authors: Irfan Abdulrahman Sheth, Sohil Pothiawala


Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, traditionally characterized by a progressive, symmetrical proximal muscle weakness and pathognomonic or characteristic cutaneous manifestations. We report a case of a 60-year old Chinese female who was referred from polyclinic for allergic rash over the body after applying hair dye 3 weeks ago. It was associated with puffiness of face, shortness of breath and hoarse voice since last 2 weeks with decrease effort tolerance. She also complained of dysphagia/ myalgia with progressive weakness of proximal muscles and palpitations. She denied chest pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, orthopnea or fever. She had stable vital signs and appeared cushingoid. She was noted to have rash over the scalp/ face and ecchymosis over the right arm with puffiness of face and periorbital oedema. There was symmetrical muscle weakness and other neurological examination was normal. Initial impression was of allergic reaction and underlying nephrotic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome from TCM use. Diagnostic tests showed high Creatinine kinase (CK) of 1463 u/l, CK–MB of 18.7 ug/l and Troponin –T of 0.09 ug/l. The Full blood count and renal panel was normal. EMG showed inflammatory myositis. Patient was managed by rheumatologist and discharged on oral prednisolone with methotrexate/ ergocalciferol capsule and calcium carb, vitamin D tablets and outpatient follow up. In some patients, cutaneous disease exists in the absence of objective evidence of muscle inflammation. Management of dermatomyositis begins with careful investigation for the presence of muscle disease or of additional systemic involvement, particularly of the pulmonary, cardiac or gastrointestinal systems, and for the possibility of an accompanying malignancy. Muscle disease and systemic involvement can be refractory and may require multiple sequential therapeutic interventions or, at times, combinations of therapies. Thus, we want to highlight to the physicians that the cutaneous disease of dermatomyositis should not be confused with allergic reaction. It can be particularly challenging to diagnose. Early recognition aids appropriate management of this group of patients.

Keywords: dermatomyositis, myopathy, allergy, cutaneous disease

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1213 Dry Relaxation Shrinkage Prediction of Bordeaux Fiber Using a Feed Forward Neural

Authors: Baeza S. Roberto


The knitted fabric suffers a deformation in its dimensions due to stretching and tension factors, transverse and longitudinal respectively, during the process in rectilinear knitting machines so it performs a dry relaxation shrinkage procedure and thermal action of prefixed to obtain stable conditions in the knitting. This paper presents a dry relaxation shrinkage prediction of Bordeaux fiber using a feed forward neural network and linear regression models. Six operational alternatives of shrinkage were predicted. A comparison of the results was performed finding neural network models with higher levels of explanation of the variability and prediction. The presence of different reposes are included. The models were obtained through a neural toolbox of Matlab and Minitab software with real data in a knitting company of Southern Guanajuato. The results allow predicting dry relaxation shrinkage of each alternative operation.

Keywords: neural network, dry relaxation, knitting, linear regression

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1212 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar, jr., G. N. Shinde


The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

Keywords: excess properties, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, and time domain reflectometry technique

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1211 Investigation of the Progressive Collapse Potential in Steel Buildings with Composite Floor System

Authors: Pouya Kaafi, Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri


Abnormal loads due to natural events, implementation errors and some other issues can lead to occurrence of progressive collapse in structures. Most of the past researches consist of 2- Dimensional (2D) models of steel frames without consideration of the floor system effects, which reduces the accuracy of the modeling. While employing a 3-Dimensional (3D) model and modeling the concrete slab system for the floors have a crucial role in the progressive collapse evaluation. In this research, a 3D finite element model of a 5-story steel building is modeled by the ABAQUS software once with modeling the slabs, and the next time without considering them. Then, the progressive collapse potential is evaluated. The results of the analyses indicate that the lack of the consideration of the slabs during the analyses, can lead to inaccuracy in assessing the progressive failure potential of the structure.

Keywords: abnormal loads, composite floor system, intermediate steel moment resisting frame system, progressive collapse

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1210 Effect of Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise on Knee Flexors Changes in Muscle-Tendon Lengths

Authors: Shang-Hen Wu, Yung-Chen Lin, Wei-Song Chang, Ming-Ju Lin


This study investigated whether the repeated bout effect (RBE) of knee flexors (KF) eccentric exercise would be changed in muscle-tendon lengths. Eight healthy university male students used their KF of non-dominant leg and performed a bout of 60 maximal isokinetic (30°/s) eccentric contractions (MaxECC1). A week after MaxECC1, all subjects used the same KF to perform a subsequent bout of MaxECC2. Changes in maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque (MVC-CON), muscle soreness (SOR), relaxed knee joint angle (RANG), leg circumference (CIR), and ultrasound images (UI; muscle-tendon length and muscle angle) were measured before, immediately after, 1-5 days after each bout. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all the dependent variables. After MaxECC1, all the dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON: ↓30%, muscle-tendon length: ↑24%, muscle angle: ↑15%) showed significantly change. Following MaxECC2, all the above dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON:↓21%, tendon length: ↑16%, muscle angle: ↑6%) were significantly smaller than those of MaxECC1. These results of this study found that protective effect conferred by MaxECC1 against MaxECC2, and changes in muscle damage indicators, muscle-tendon length and muscle angle following MaxECC2 were smaller than MaxECC1. Thus, the amount of shift of muscle-tendon length and muscle angle was related to the RBE.

Keywords: eccentric exercise, maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque, repeated bout effect, ultrasound

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1209 Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon

Authors: Khachatur V. Nerkararyan, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi


We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, localized surface plasmon, quantum dipole emitter, relaxation dynamics

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1208 Sulforaphane Attenuates Muscle Inflammation in Dystrophin-Deficient Mdx Mice via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Dejia Li


Backgrounds: Inflammation is widely distributed in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and ultimately leads to progressive deterioration of muscle function with the co-effects of chronic muscle damage, oxidative stress, and reduced oxidative capacity. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a critical role in defending against inflammation in different tissues via activation of phase II enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, whether Nrf2/HO-1 pathway can attenuate muscle inflammation on DMD remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Sulforaphane (SFN) on DMD. Methods: 4-week-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 4 weeks. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Immune cell infiltration in skeletal muscles was analyzed by H&E staining and immuno-histochemistry. Moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines,pro-inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes HO-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Inflammation in mdx skeletal muscles was reduced by SFN treatment as indicated by decreased immune cell infiltration and lower expressions of the inflammatory cytokines CD45, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle inflammation in mdx mice by Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which indicates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic target for DMD.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Nrf2, HO-1, inflammation

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1207 Probing Multiple Relaxation Process in Zr-Cu Base Alloy Using Mechanical Spectroscopy

Authors: A. P. Srivastava, D. Srivastava, D. J. Browne


Relaxation dynamics of Zr44Cu40Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been probed using dynamic mechanical analyzer. The BMG sample was casted in the form of a plate of dimension 55 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm using tilt casting technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope have been used for the microstructural characterization of as-cast BMG. For the mechanical spectroscopy study, samples in the form of a bar of size 55 mm X 2 mm X 3 mm were machined from the BMG plate. The mechanical spectroscopy was performed on dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) by 50 mm 3-point bending method in a nitrogen atmosphere. It was observed that two glass transition process were competing in supercooled liquid region around temperature 390°C and 430°C. The supercooled liquid state was completely characterized using DMA and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition to the main α-relaxation process, presence of β relaxation process around temperature 360°C; below the glass transition temperature was also observed. The β relaxation process could be described by Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 160 kJ/mole. The volume of the flow unit associated with this relaxation process has been estimated. The results from DMA study has been used to characterize the shear transformation zone in terms of activation volume and size. High fragility parameter value of 34 and higher activation volume indicates that this alloy could show good plasticity in supercooled liquid region. The possible mechanism for the relaxation processes has been discussed.

Keywords: DMA, glass transition, metallic glass, thermoplastic forming

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1206 Kinematic Gait Analysis Is a Non-Invasive, More Objective and Earlier Measurement of Impairment in the Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: P. J. Sweeney, T. Ahtoniemi, J. Puoliväli, T. Laitinen, K. Lehtimäki, A. Nurmi, D. Wells


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by an X linked mutation in the dystrophin gene; lack of dystrophin causes a progressive muscle necrosis which leads to a progressive decrease in mobility in those suffering from the disease. The MDX mouse, a mutant mouse model which displays a frank dystrophinopathy, is currently widely employed in pre clinical efficacy models for treatments and therapies aimed at DMD. In general the end-points examined within this model have been based on invasive histopathology of muscles and serum biochemical measures like measurement of serum creatine kinase (sCK). It is established that a “critical period” between 4 and 6 weeks exists in the MDX mouse when there is extensive muscle damage that is largely sub clinical but evident with sCK measurements and histopathological staining. However, a full characterization of the MDX model remains largely incomplete especially with respect to the ability to aggravate of the muscle damage beyond the critical period. The purpose of this study was to attempt to aggravate the muscle damage in the MDX mouse and to create a wider, more readily translatable and discernible, therapeutic window for the testing of potential therapies for DMD. The study consisted of subjecting 15 male mutant MDX mice and 15 male wild-type mice to an intense chronic exercise regime that consisted of bi-weekly (two times per week) treadmill sessions over a 12 month period. Each session was 30 minutes in duration and the treadmill speed was gradually built up to 14m/min for the entire session. Baseline plasma creatine kinase (pCK), treadmill training performance and locomotor activity were measured after the “critical period” at around 10 weeks of age and again at 14 weeks of age, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months of age. In addition, kinematic gait analysis was employed using a novel analysis algorithm in order to compare changes in gait and fine motor skills in diseased exercised MDX mice compared to exercised wild type mice and non exercised MDX mice. In addition, a morphological and metabolic profile (including lipid profile), from the muscles most severely affected, the gastrocnemius muscle and the tibialis anterior muscle, was also measured at the same time intervals. Results indicate that by aggravating or exacerbating the underlying muscle damage in the MDX mouse by exercise a more pronounced and severe phenotype in comes to light and this can be picked up earlier by kinematic gait analysis. A reduction in mobility as measured by open field is not apparent at younger ages nor during the critical period, but changes in gait are apparent in the mutant MDX mice. These gait changes coincide with pronounced morphological and metabolic changes by non-invasive anatomical MRI and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) we have reported elsewhere. Evidence of a progressive asymmetric pathology in imaging parameters as well as in the kinematic gait analysis was found. Taken together, the data show that chronic exercise regime exacerbates the muscle damage beyond the critical period and the ability to measure through non-invasive means are important factors to consider when performing preclinical efficacy studies in the MDX mouse.

Keywords: Gait, muscular dystrophy, Kinematic analysis, neuromuscular disease

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1205 Effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on Isometric Strength of Shoulder Extensor and Abductor Muscles in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbasi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. H. Jalaei


Background: Rehabilitation treatments have significant role in reducing the disabilities of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Due to great role of upper limb in the function of individuals particularly in Activity of Daily Living and the effect of stability of shoulder girdle on hand function, the aim of this study was to study the effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 17 adult hemiplegics patients (50-70 yrs., mean 60/52, SD7/22); with RT side dominancy and 6 months after stroke, participated in this study. All procedures were approved by ethical committee of TUMS and written consents were also taken. Patients were familiarized with the procedure and shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths were measured by dynamometer. Results: according to result to our study, shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths showed Significant differences between mean scores of pre and post intervention (P<0/05). Progressive Resistive Exercise improved 34% shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength and 27% shoulder abductor muscle isometric strength. Conclusion: Results of our research showed that progressive resistive exercise approach is a useful method for increasing the isometric strength of shoulder extensor and abductor muscles. Therefore, it might be concluded that improvement of strength of shoulder muscles could result in stability in shoulder girdle and consequently might effect on hand function in hemiplegic patients.

Keywords: shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength, shoulder abductor muscles isometric strength, hemiplegic, physical therapy

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1204 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: I. Ramirez D. Edgar, J. Angeles H. José, Ruiz C. Osvaldo, H. Jacobo A. Victor, Ortiz P. Armando


Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties

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1203 Creatine Associated with Resistance Training Increases Muscle Mass in the Elderly

Authors: Camila Lemos Pinto, Juliana Alves Carneiro, Patrícia Borges Botelho, João Felipe Mota


Sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, currently affects over 50 million people and increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life and death. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on muscle mass in the elderly. A 12-week, double blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the following groups: placebo with resistance training (PL+RT, n=14) and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR + RT, n=13). The subjects from CR+RT group received 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate and the subjects from the PL+RT group were given the same dose of maltodextrin. Participants were instructed to ingest the supplement on non-training days immediately after lunch and on training days immediately after resistance training sessions dissolved in a beverage comprising 100 g of maltodextrin lemon flavored. Participants of both groups undertook a supervised exercise training program for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcome was muscle mass, assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The secondary outcome included diagnose participants with one of the three stages of sarcopenia (presarcopenia, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia) by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), handgrip strength and gait speed. CR+RT group had a significant increase in SMI and muscle (p<0.0001), a significant decrease in android and gynoid fat (p = 0.028 and p=0.035, respectively) and a tendency of decreasing in body fat (p=0.053) after the intervention. PL+RT only had a significant increase in SMI (p=0.007). The main finding of this clinical trial indicated that creatine supplementation combined with resistance training was capable of increasing muscle mass in our elderly cohort (p=0.02). In addition, the number of subjects diagnosed with one of the three stages of sarcopenia at baseline decreased in the creatine supplemented group in comparison with the placebo group (CR+RT, n=-3; PL+RT, n=0). In summary, 12 weeks of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training resulted in increases in muscle mass. This is the first research with elderly of both sexes that show the same increase in muscle mass with a minor quantity of creatine supplementation in a short period. Future long-term research should investigate the effects of these interventions in sarcopenic elderly.

Keywords: creatine, dietetic supplement, elderly, resistance training

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