Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Kavita Saggar

12 MR Imaging Spectrum of Intracranial Infections: An Experience of 100 Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India

Authors: Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar

Abstract:

Infections of the nervous system and adjacent structures are often life-threatening conditions. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS disease remains a challenge. Our aim is to evaluate the typical and atypical neuro-imaging features of the various routinely encountered CNS infected patients so as to form guidelines for their imaging recognition and differentiation from tumoral, vascular and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), Cerebro Spinal Fluid (Csf), Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

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11 Application of Magnetic-Nano Photocatalyst for Removal of Xenobiotic Compounds

Authors: Prashant K. Sharma, Kavita Shah

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In recent years, the photochemistry of nanomagnetic particles is being utilized for the removal of various pollutants. In the current era where large quantities of various xenobiotic compounds are released in the environment some of which are highly toxic are being used routinely by industries and consumers. Extensive use of these chemicals provides greater risk to plants, animals and human population which has been reviewed from time to time. Apart from the biological degradation, photochemical removal holds considerable promise for the abatement of these pesticides in wastewaters. This paper reviews the photochemical removal of xenobiotic compounds. It is evident from the review that removal depends on several factors such as pH of the solution, catalysts loading, initial concentration, light intensity and so on and so forth. Since the xenobiotics are ubiquitously present in the wastewaters, photochemical technology seems imperative to alleviate the pollution problems associated with the xenobiotics. However, commercial application of this technology has to be clearly assessed.

Keywords: magnetic, nanoparticles, photocatalayst, xenobiotic compounds

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10 Investigation of the Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism of Tagetes erecta Extract for Mild Steel in Nitric Acid: Gravimetric Studies

Authors: Selvam Noyel Victoria, Kavita Yadav, Manivannan Ramachandran

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The extract of Tagetes erecta (marigold flower) was used as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (MS) in nitric acid medium. The weight loss measurements were performed to understand the inhibition mechanism. The effect of temperature on the behaviour of mild steel corrosion without and with inhibitor was studied. The temperature studies revealed that the activation energy increased from 12 kJ/mol to 28.8 kJ/mol with the addition of 500 ppm inhibitor concentration. The thermodynamic analysis and the adsorption isotherm studies revealed that the molecules of inhibitor show physical adsorption on the surface of mild steel. Based on weight loss measurements, adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel follows Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: Tagetes erecta, corrosion, adsorption, inhibitor

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9 Studies on Some Aspects of Sub Clinical Mastitis in Cattle

Authors: Kavita Jaidiya, Anju Chahar, Chitra Jaidiya

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The present study was conducted on 200 quarters from 50 apparently healthy cows. Samples are subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), cultural examination, and mPCR. Milk samples were also subjected to changes in composition Viz. fat, protein, and lactose. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis based on culture examination was 30(60/200), 36 (72/200), and 40 percent (93/200) based on CMT, culture examination, and mPCR on a quarterly basis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis on animal basis was 40 (20/50), 46 (23/50), and 52 percent (26/50) based on CMT, Culture examination, and mPCR. The highest prevalence was observed in IVth parity on a quarterly basis and in Vth parity on cow basis. On culture examination, Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism (50.56%), followed by Streptococcus dysaglactiae (11.33%), E. coli (7.8 %), Staphylococcus agalactiae (13.48 %), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.2 %), Streptococcus hyicus (6.94%), Streptococcus uberis (5.16%), Klebsiella pneumonia (6.74%). On isolation by bacterial mPCR, Staphylococcus spp. (42%) was the major pathogen. Organisms isolated in mixed infections are Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumonia, E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginous. The average mean value of fat, protein, and lactose content in subclinically affected milk samples were 3.40 ± 0.101, 3.009 ± 0.033, and 4.48 ± 0.03, and the mean value of fat, protein, and lactose content in normal milk were 4.13 ± 0.035, 3.39 ± 0.021, and 5.10 ± 0.016. The mean blood level of reduced glutathione in subclinical mastitis (30.44 ± 1.87 ng/ml) was lower than healthy cows (47.98 ± 4.04ng/ml). The concentration of malondialdehyde (10.026 ± 0.21mmol/L) in subclinical mastitis was significantly higher as compared to healthy group cows (2.19 ± 0.23mmol/L).

Keywords: cow, subclinical mastitis, mPCR, California Mastitis test

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8 Spatial Pattern of Child Sex Ratio in Haryana 1991-2011

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Kavita Saini

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Haryana emerged as a state after the separation from Punjab since November, 1966. It had only 7 districts at that time but subsequently their number increased and presents their 21 districts in the state. Age and sex composition occupies very important positions in any discussion on characteristics of a population. Changes in sex ratio largely reflect the underlying socio-economic and cultural patterns of a society in different ways. Child sex ratio in Haryana is continuously decreasing and according to the census child sex ratio found lowest position in the state. Therefore, the aims of this study to examine the spatial- temporal pattern of Child sex ratio during the period 1991-2011 and identify the ‘epicenter’ or core areas of deficit of females in Haryana using tehsil level data during the period 2001-2011. This study is primarily based on the secondary sources and data were collected from the ‘Census of India’ and ‘Statistical Department’ of Haryana. The standard deviation method has been used to see the average value of child sex ratio in the study. The maximum child sex ratio declined is noticed in the district of Mahendergarh, Jhajjar, Rewari and Sonipat. However, the west and south-western part of the state marked with consistently better child sex ratio throughout the period. This is vast contiguous belt running in the north-west to south-east direction from Punjab border to NCT of Delhi and reported a very low child sex ratio. Tehsils which have reported lower child sex ratio than the state average has been called ‘Core Problem Area’ or ‘epicenter’.

Keywords: child sex ratio, core areas, epicenter, Haryana

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7 Identification and Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones of Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate) and Its Chemical Modification

Authors: Rosemary Anibogwu, Kavita Sharma, Karl De Jesus

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Sagebrush is an abundant and naturally occurring plant in the Intermountain West region of the United States. The plant contains an array of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols, and phenolic acids. It is important to identify and characterize these compounds because Native Americans use sagebrush as herbal medicine. These compounds are also utilized for preventing infection in wounds, treating headaches and colds, and possess antitumor properties. This research is an exploratory study on the sesquiterpene present in the leaves of sagebrush. The leaf foliage was extracted with 100 % chloroform and 100 % methanol. The percentage yield for the crude was considerably higher in chloroform. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis of the crude extracted unveiled a brown band at Rf = 0.25 and a dark brown band at Rf = 0.74, along with three unknown faint bands the 254 nm UV lamp. Furthermore, the two distinct brown (Achillin) and dark brown band (Hydroxyachillin) in TLC were further utilized in the isolation of pure compounds with column chromatography. The structures of Achillin and Hydroxyachillin were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including TLC, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), 1D- and 2D-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Mass Spectroscopy (MS). The antioxidant activities of crude extract and three pure compounds were evaluated in terms of their peroxyl radical scavenging by Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The crude extract showed the antioxidant activity of 18.99 ± 0.51 µmol TEg -1 FW for FRAP and 11.59 ± 0.38 µmol TEg -1 FW for DPPH. The activities of Achillin, Hydroxyachillin, and Quercetagetin trimethyl ether were 13.03, 15.90 and 14.02 µmol TEg -1 FW respectively for the FRAP assay. The three purified compounds have been submitted to the National Cancer Institute 60 cancer cell line for further study.

Keywords: HPLC, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, sagebrush, sesquiterpene lactones

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6 Algae for Wastewater Treatment and CO₂ Sequestration along with Recovery of Bio-Oil and Value Added Products

Authors: P. Kiran Kumar, S. Vijaya Krishna, Kavita Verma1, V. Himabindu

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Concern about global warming and energy security has led to increased biomass utilization as an alternative feedstock to fossil fuels. Biomass is a promising feedstock since it is abundant and cheap and can be transformed into fuels and chemical products. Microalgae biofuels are likely to have a much lower impact on the environment. Microalgae cultivation using sewage with industrial flue gases is a promising concept for integrated biodiesel production, CO₂ sequestration, and nutrients recovery. Autotrophic, Mixotrophic, and Heterotrophic are the three modes of cultivation for microalgae biomass. Several mechanical and chemical processes are available for the extraction of lipids/oily components from microalgae biomass. In organic solvent extraction methods, a prior drying of biomass and recovery of the solvent is required, which are energy-intensive. Thus, the hydrothermal process overcomes the drawbacks of conventional solvent extraction methods. In the hydrothermal process, the biomass is converted into oily components by processing in a hot, pressurized water environment. In this process, in addition to the lipid fraction of microalgae, other value-added products such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nutrients can also be recovered. In the present study was (Scenedesmus quadricauda) was isolated and cultivated in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophically using sewage wastewater and industrial flue gas in batch and continuous mode. The harvested algae biomass from S. quadricauda was used for the recovery of lipids and bio-oil. The lipids were extracted from the algal biomass using sonication as a cell disruption method followed by solvent (Hexane) extraction, and the lipid yield obtained was 8.3 wt% with Palmitic acid, Oleic acid, and Octadeonoic acid as fatty acids. The hydrothermal process was also carried out for extraction of bio-oil, and the yield obtained was 18wt%. The bio-oil compounds such as nitrogenous compounds, organic acids, and esters, phenolics, hydrocarbons, and alkanes were obtained by the hydrothermal process of algal biomass. Nutrients such as NO₃⁻ (68%) and PO₄⁻ (15%) were also recovered along with bio-oil in the hydrothermal process.

Keywords: flue gas, hydrothermal process, microalgae, sewage wastewater, sonication

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5 Uterine Torsion: A Rare Differential Diagnosis for Acute Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy

Authors: Tin Yee Ling, Kavita Maravar, Ruzica Ardalic

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Background: Uterine torsion (UT) in pregnancy of more than 45-degree along the longitudinal axis is a rare occurrence, and the aetiology remains unclear. Case: A 34-year-old G2P1 woman with a history of one previous caesarean section presented at 36+2 weeks with sudden onset lower abdominal pain, syncopal episode, and tender abdomen on examination. She was otherwise haemodynamically stable. Cardiotocography showed a pathological trace with initial prolonged bradycardia followed by a subsequent tachycardia with reduced variability. An initial diagnosis of uterine dehiscence was made, given the history and clinical presentation. She underwent an emergency caesarean section which revealed a 180-degree UT along the longitudinal axis, with oedematous left round ligament lying transverse anterior to the uterus and a segment of large bowel inferior to the round ligament. Detorsion of uterus was performed prior to delivery of the foetus, and anterior uterine wall was intact with no signs of rupture. There were no anatomical uterine abnormalities found other than stretched left ovarian and round ligaments, which were repaired. Delivery was otherwise uneventful, and she was discharged on day 2 postpartum. Discussion: UT is rare as the number of reported cases is within the few hundreds worldwide. Generally, the uterus is supported in place by uterine ligaments, which limit the mobility of the structure. The causes of UT are unknown, but risk factors such as uterine abnormalities, increased uterine ligaments’ flexibility in pregnancy, and foetal malposition has been identified. UT causes occlusion of uterine vessels, which can lead to ischaemic injury of the placenta causing premature separation of the placenta, preterm labour, and foetal morbidity and mortality if delivery is delayed. Diagnosing UT clinically is difficult as most women present with symptoms similar to placenta abruption or uterine rupture (abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shock), and one-third are asymptomatic. The management of UT involves surgical detorsion of the uterus and delivery of foetus via caesarean section. Extra vigilance should be taken to identify the anatomy of the uterus experiencing torsion prior to hysterotomy. There have been a few cases reported with hysterotomy on posterior uterine wall for delivery of foetus as it may be difficult to identify and reverse a gravid UT when foetal well-being is at stake. Conclusion: UT should be considered a differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in pregnancy. It is crucial that the torsion is addressed immediately as it is associated with maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: uterine torsion, pregnancy complication, abdominal pain, torted uterus

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4 Pregnancy Outcome in Women with HIV Infection from a Tertiary Care Centre of India

Authors: Kavita Khoiwal, Vatsla Dadhwal, K. Aparna Sharma, Dipika Deka, Plabani Sarkar

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Introduction: About 2.4 million (1.93 - 3.04 million) people are living with HIV/AIDS in India. Of all HIV infections, 39% (9,30,000) are among women. 5.4% of infections are from mother to child transmission (MTCT), 25,000 infected children are born every year. Besides the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV, these women are at risk of the higher adverse pregnancy outcome. The objectives of the study were to compare the obstetric and neonatal outcome in women who are HIV positive with low-risk HIV negative women and effect of antiretroviral drugs on preterm birth and IUGR. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case record analysis of 212 HIV-positive women delivering between 2002 to 2015, in a tertiary health care centre which was compared with 238 HIV-negative controls. Women who underwent medical termination of pregnancy and abortion were excluded from the study. Obstetric outcome analyzed were pregnancy induced hypertension, HIV positive intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, anemia, gestational diabetes and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Neonatal outcome analysed were birth weight, apgar score, NICU admission and perinatal transmission.HIV-positiveOut of 212 women, 204 received antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent MTCT, 27 women received single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) or sdNVP tailed with 7 days of zidovudine and lamivudine (ZDV + 3TC), 15 received ZDV, 82 women received duovir and 80 women received triple drug therapy depending upon the time period of presentation. Results: Mean age of 212 HIV positive women was 25.72+3.6 years, 101 women (47.6 %) were primigravida. HIV positive status was diagnosed during pregnancy in 200 women while 12 women were diagnosed prior to conception. Among 212 HIV positive women, 20 (9.4 %) women had preterm delivery (< 37 weeks), 194 women (91.5 %) delivered by cesarean section and 18 women (8.5 %) delivered vaginally. 178 neonates (83.9 %) received exclusive top feeding and 34 neonates (16.03 %) received exclusive breast feeding. When compared to low risk HIV negative women (n=238), HIV positive women were more likely to deliver preterm (OR 1.27), have anemia (OR 1.39) and intrauterine growth restriction (OR 2.07). Incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ICP was not increased. Mean birth weight was significantly lower in HIV positive women (2593.60+499 gm) when compared to HIV negative women (2919+459 gm). Complete follow up is available for 148 neonates till date, rest are under evaluation. Out of these 7 neonates found to have HIV positive status. Risk of preterm birth (P value = 0.039) and IUGR (P value = 0.739) was higher in HIV positive women who did not receive any ART during pregnancy than women who received ART. Conclusion: HIV positive pregnant women are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Multidisciplinary team approach and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy can optimize the maternal and perinatal outcome.

Keywords: antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection, IUGR, preterm birth

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3 Examining the Design of a Scaled Audio Tactile Model for Enhancing Interpretation of Visually Impaired Visitors in Heritage Sites

Authors: A. Kavita Murugkar, B. Anurag Kashyap

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With the Rights for Persons with Disabilities Act (RPWD Act) 2016, the Indian government has made it mandatory for all establishments, including Heritage Sites, to be accessible for People with Disabilities. However, recent access audit surveys done under the Accessible India Campaign by Ministry of Culture indicate that there are very few accessibility measures provided in the Heritage sites for people with disabilities. Though there are some measures for the mobility impaired, surveys brought out that there are almost no provisions for people with vision impairment (PwVI) in heritage sites thus depriving them of a reasonable physical & intellectual access that facilitates an enjoyable experience and enriching interpretation of the Heritage Site. There is a growing need to develop multisensory interpretative tools that can help the PwVI in perceiving heritage sites in the absence of vision. The purpose of this research was to examine the usability of an audio-tactile model as a haptic and sound-based strategy for augmenting the perception and experience of PwVI in a heritage site. The first phase of the project was a multi-stage phenomenological experimental study with visually impaired users to investigate the design parameters for developing an audio-tactile model for PwVI. The findings from this phase included user preferences related to the physical design of the model such as the size, scale, materials, details, etc., and the information that it will carry such as braille, audio output, tactile text, etc. This was followed by the second phase in which a working prototype of an audio-tactile model is designed and developed for a heritage site based on the findings from the first phase of the study. A nationally listed heritage site from the author’s city was selected for making the model. The model was lastly tested by visually impaired users for final refinements and validation. The prototype developed empowers People with Vision Impairment to navigate independently in heritage sites. Such a model if installed in every heritage site, can serve as a technological guide for the Person with Vision Impairment, giving information of the architecture, details, planning & scale of the buildings, the entrances, location of important features, lifts, staircases, and available, accessible facilities. The model was constructed using 3D modeling and digital printing technology. Though designed for the Indian context, this assistive technology for the blind can be explored for wider applications across the globe. Such an accessible solution can change the otherwise “incomplete’’ perception of the disabled visitor, in this case, a visually impaired visitor and augment the quality of their experience in heritage sites.

Keywords: accessibility, architectural perception, audio tactile model , inclusive heritage, multi-sensory perception, visual impairment, visitor experience

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2 Developing and Standardizing Individual Care Plan for Children in Conflict with Law in the State of Kerala

Authors: Kavitha Puthanveedu, Kasi Sekar, Preeti Jacob, Kavita Jangam

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In India, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the law related to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law, proposes to address to the rehabilitation of children in conflict with law by catering to the basic rights by providing care and protection, development, treatment, and social re-integration. A major concern in addressing the issues of children in conflict with law in Kerala the southernmost state in India identified were: 1. Lack of psychological assessment for children in conflict with law, 2. Poor psychosocial intervention for children in conflict with law on bail, 3. Lack of psychosocial intervention or proper care and protection of CCL residing at observation and special home, 4. Lack convergence with systems related with mental health care. Aim: To develop individual care plan for children in conflict with law. Methodology: NIMHANS a premier Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, collaborated with Social Justice Department, Govt. of Kerala to address this issue by developing a participatory methodology to implement psychosocial care in the existing services by integrating the activities through multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach as per the Sec. 18 of JJAct 2015. Developing individual care plan: Key informant interviews, focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders consisting of legal officers, police, child protection officials, counselors, and home staff were conducted. Case studies were conducted among children in conflict with law. A checklist on 80 psychosocial problems among children in conflict with law was prepared with eight major issues identified through the quantitative process such as family and parental characteristic, family interactions and relationships, stressful life event, social and environmental factors, child’s individual characteristics, education, child labour and high-risk behavior. Standardised scales were used to identify the anxiety, caseness, suicidality and substance use among the children. This provided a background data understand the psychosocial problems experienced by children in conflict with law. In the second stage, a detailed plan of action was developed involving multiple stakeholders that include Special juvenile police unit, DCPO, JJB, and NGOs. The individual care plan was reviewed by a panel of 4 experts working in the area of children, followed by the review by multiple stakeholders in juvenile justice system such as Magistrates, JJB members, legal cum probation officers, district child protection officers, social workers and counselors. Necessary changes were made in the individual care plan in each stage which was pilot tested with 45 children for a period of one month and standardized for administering among children in conflict with law. Result: The individual care plan developed through scientific process was standardized and currently administered among children in conflict with law in the state of Kerala in the 3 districts that will be further implemented in other 14 districts. The program was successful in developing a systematic approach for the psychosocial intervention of children in conflict with law that can be a forerunner for other states in India.

Keywords: psychosocial care, individual care plan, multidisciplinary, multisectoral

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1 A Comparative Evaluation of Cognitive Load Management: Case Study of Postgraduate Business Students

Authors: Kavita Goel, Donald Winchester

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In a world of information overload and work complexities, academics often struggle to create an online instructional environment enabling efficient and effective student learning. Research has established that students’ learning styles are different, some learn faster when taught using audio and visual methods. Attributes like prior knowledge and mental effort affect their learning. ‘Cognitive load theory’, opines learners have limited processing capacity. Cognitive load depends on the learner’s prior knowledge, the complexity of content and tasks, and instructional environment. Hence, the proper allocation of cognitive resources is critical for students’ learning. Consequently, a lecturer needs to understand the limits and strengths of the human learning processes, various learning styles of students, and accommodate these requirements while designing online assessments. As acknowledged in the cognitive load theory literature, visual and auditory explanations of worked examples potentially lead to a reduction of cognitive load (effort) and increased facilitation of learning when compared to conventional sequential text problem solving. This will help learner to utilize both subcomponents of their working memory. Instructional design changes were introduced at the case site for the delivery of the postgraduate business subjects. To make effective use of auditory and visual modalities, video recorded lectures, and key concept webinars were delivered to students. Videos were prepared to free up student limited working memory from irrelevant mental effort as all elements in a visual screening can be viewed simultaneously, processed quickly, and facilitates greater psychological processing efficiency. Most case study students in the postgraduate programs are adults, working full-time at higher management levels, and studying part-time. Their learning style and needs are different from other tertiary students. The purpose of the audio and visual interventions was to lower the students cognitive load and provide an online environment supportive to their efficient learning. These changes were expected to impact the student’s learning experience, their academic performance and retention favourably. This paper posits that these changes to instruction design facilitates students to integrate new knowledge into their long-term memory. A mixed methods case study methodology was used in this investigation. Primary data were collected from interviews and survey(s) of students and academics. Secondary data were collected from the organisation’s databases and reports. Some evidence was found that the academic performance of students does improve when new instructional design changes are introduced although not statistically significant. However, the overall grade distribution of student’s academic performance has changed and skewed higher which shows deeper understanding of the content. It was identified from feedback received from students that recorded webinars served as better learning aids than material with text alone, especially with more complex content. The recorded webinars on the subject content and assessments provides flexibility to students to access this material any time from repositories, many times, and this enhances students learning style. Visual and audio information enters student’s working memory more effectively. Also as each assessment included the application of the concepts, conceptual knowledge interacted with the pre-existing schema in the long-term memory and lowered student’s cognitive load.

Keywords: cognitive load theory, learning style, instructional environment, working memory

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