Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 613

Search results for: restorative justice

613 Constitutional Transition and Criminal Justice: Proposals for Reform of Kenya’s Youth Justice System Based on Restorative Justice Principles

Authors: M. Wangai

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Following the promulgation of a new Constitution of Kenya in 2010, wide-ranging proposals for reform of the criminal justice system have been made. Proposed measures include a clear and separate system of dealing with juvenile offenders with a greater focus on rehabilitation and reintegration. As part of a broader constitutional transition, this article considers the contribution of restorative justice to reforming the youth justice system. The paper analyses Kenya’s juvenile justice legal framework measured against current international trends in youth justice. It identifies the first post-independence juvenile justice system as a remnant of the colonial period and notes that the post-2001 system is a marked improvement. More recent legal and institutional efforts to incorporate restorative justice are also examined. The paper advocates further development of the juvenile justice system by mainstreaming of restorative justice principles through national level legislative amendments. International and comparative perspectives are used to inform a diversion centered model of restorative justice. In addition, a case is made for the use of existing forms of alternative dispute resolution. Conscious of a tense political climate, the paper also proposes strategies to address challenges posed by a punitive penal environment, chiefly the linking of restorative justice to wider democratic goals and community spirit. The article concludes that restorative justice led juvenile justice reform will contribute to better treatment of young offenders under the criminal justice system and has the potential to set a new precedent for fair, sustainable and effective justice. Further, as part of far-reaching criminal justice reform, the proposed efforts may strengthen democratic progress in Kenya’s ensuing phase of political transition.

Keywords: constitutional transition, criminal justice, restorative justice, young offenders

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612 Restorative Justice Programmes in South African Prison Environment: A Qualitative Enquiry

Authors: Clarice Zimbili Zondi

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This study investigates the effect of restorative justice programmes offered to offenders in prison environment (Correctional Centres) during their rehabilitation. The study looks specifically to programmes offered by a Non-Profit Organisation (NPO), Phoenix Zululand (PZ) in twelve (12) different prisons in Zululand, South Africa. Document analysis, interviews and participant observation methods were used to test whether the work done by Phoenix Zululand is in line with the remarks made on restorative justice as encapsulated in the White Paper on Corrections 2005 in South Africa. Also tested was whether a better understanding of restorative justice programmes assists in coming up with better strategies to change the behaviour of offenders. The study findings discovered that the work that is done by PZ is not in line with the remarks made in the White Paper on Corrections. Also the importance of a full comprehension of what one is doing in order to be effective in rehabilitation. However, rehabilitation that is aimed at only changing the decision-making processes of offenders not to reoffend, does not serve as a total rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation is only successful if ex-offenders, whilst still in prison, have developed market-related skills and become employed or self-employed. Restorative Justice Programmes offered by PZ, although they play a critical role, appears to be lacking in equipping offenders with skills for effective reintegration into society and, subsequently, self-reliance.

Keywords: offender, rehabilitation, restorative justice, prison

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611 Understanding Staff Beliefs and Attitudes about Implementation of Restorative Justice Practices for Juvenile Justice Involved Youth

Authors: Lilian Ijomah

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Restorative justice practices continue to gain recognition globally in the criminal and juvenile justice systems and schools. Despite considerable research, little is known about how juvenile detention center staff members’ knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes affect implementation. As with many interventions, effective implementation relies on the staff members who must do the daily work. This phenomenological study aimed to add to the existing literature by examining staff knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on restorative justice practices, barriers to effective implementation, and potential differences in knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes between education staff and juvenile detention officers at the research site. The present study used semi-structured interviews and focus groups of both types of staff members who work with the youth in a juvenile justice facility to answer three research questions: (1) To what extent are staff members knowledgeable about the principles behind restorative approach to discipline and about how the approach should be carried out?; (2) What are staff member beliefs and attitudes toward the restorative justice program and its implementation in a juvenile justice setting?; and (3) What similarities and differences are there between (a) knowledge and (b) beliefs and attitudes of the educators and juvenile detention officers? A total of 28 staff members participated, nine educators, and 19 detention officers. The findings for the first research question indicated that both groups (educators and juvenile detention officers) were knowledgeable about two of the three principles of restorative justice: repairing the harm done by the offender and reducing risks for future occurrence; but did not show clear knowledge of one principle, active involvement from all stakeholders. For research question 2, staff beliefs and attitudes were categorized into two types, positive beliefs and attitudes (e.g., that restorative justice is more appropriate than the use of punitive measures) and negative beliefs and attitudes (e.g., that restorative justice is ‘just another program that creates extra work for staff’). When the two staff groups were compared to answer research question 3, both groups were found to have similar knowledge (showing knowledge of two of the three principles) and somewhat different beliefs and attitudes – both groups showed a mix of positive and negative, but the educators showed somewhat more on the positive side. Both groups also identified barriers to implementation such as the perception of restorative justice as ‘soft’, lack of knowledge and exposure to restorative justice, shortage of resources and staff, and difficulty sustaining the restorative justice approach. The findings of this study are largely consistent with current literature but also extend the literature by studying staff knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in a juvenile detention center and comparing the two staff groups. Recommendations include assessing staff knowledge and attitudes toward restorative justice during the hiring process, ensuring adequate staff training, communicating clearly to build positive attitudes and beliefs, providing adequate staffing, and building a sense of community.

Keywords: juvenile justice, restorative justice, restorative practices, staff attitudes and beliefs

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610 Recidivism in Brazil: Exploring the Case of the Association of Protection and Assistance to Convicts Methodology

Authors: Robyn Heitzman

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The traditional method of punitive justice in Brazil has failed to prevent high levels of recidivism. Combined with overcrowding, a lack of resources, and human rights abuses, the conventional prison approach in Brazil is being questioned; one alternative approach is the association of protection and assistance to convicts (APAC) method. Justice -according to the principles of the APAC methodology- is served through education, reformation, and human development. The model has reported relatively low levels of recidivism and has been internationally recognised for its progress. Through qualitative research such as interviews and case studies, this paper explains why, applying the theory of restorative justice, the APAC methodology yields lower rates of recidivism compared to the traditional models of prisons in Brazil. 

Keywords: Brazil, justice, prisons, restorative

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609 Restorative Justice to the Victims of Terrorism in the Criminal Justice System of India

Authors: Sumanta Meher, Gaurav Shukla

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The torments of the victims of terrorism have not only confined to loss of life and limp but also includes the physiological trauma to the innocent victims. The physical wounds may heal, but the trauma remains in the mind and heart of the victims and their loved ones; however, one should not deny that these terrorist activities affect to a major extent to their livelihood. To protect their human rights and restore the shattered lives of the victims of terrorism all the Nations beyond their differences have to show solidarity and frame a comprehensive restorative policy with an effective implementing mechanism. The General Assembly of United Nations, through its several resolutions, has appealed Nations to show solidarity and also committed to helping the Members State to frame the law and policy to support the victims of terrorism. To achieve the objectives of the resolutions adopted by the United Nations, the Indian legislators in 2008 amended the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 and incorporated Section 357A to provide financial assistance to the victims of terrorism. In India, the contemporary developments in the victims’ oriented studies have increased the dimension of the traditional criminal justice systems to protect the rights of the victims. In this regard, the paper has ascertained the Indian legal framework in respect to the restorative justice to the victims of terrorism and also addressed the question as to whether the statutory provisions and enforcement mechanisms are efficient enough to protect the human rights of the victims of terrorism. For that purpose, the paper has analyzed the International instruments and the reports with regard to the compensation to the victims of terrorist attacks, with that, the article also evaluates the initiatives of United Nations to help Members State to frame the law and policies to support the victims of terrorism. The study also made an attempt to critically analyze the legal provisions of compensation and rehabilitation of the victims of terrorist attacks in India and whether they are in alignment with the International standards. While concluding, the paper has made an endeavor for a robust legal framework towards the restorative justice for the victims of terrorism in India.

Keywords: victims of terrorism, restorative justice, human rights, criminal justice system of India

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608 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng

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The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability

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607 Beyond Empathy: From Justice to Reconciliation

Authors: Nissim Avissar

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This paper aims to question the practice of bringing together people belonging to groups in conflict with the aim of bridging differences through universal empathy and interpersonal connections. It is argued that in cases where one group has the power, and the other is in a struggle to change the balance assuming universal equality between the groups and encouraging emphatic understanding is a non-emphatic practice. Accordingly, a new concept is posited–justice-sensitive empathy, conditioning empathy in such situations on the acknowledgement of an imbalance of power/injustice. With this reframing in mind, educational practices promoting social justice are discussed. In order to create conditions for justice-seeking or politically sensitive empathy, we need to go beyond the conventional definitions of empathy and offer other means and possibilities. Three possibilities are discussed. The first focuses on intra-group (as opposed to inter-group) processes within each group. It means temporary and tactical separation that may allow each group to focus on its own needs and values and perhaps to return to the dialogue more confidently. The second option emphasizes the notion of "constructive conflict," which means that each side still aspires to promote his own interests but without demolishing the other side (which is a rival but also an unwanted and forced partner). Here, alongside the "obligation to resist" and to act to promote justice as we view and understand it, we have to take into account the other side. The third and last option relates to the practice of Restorative Justice. This practice originated in the Truth and Reconciliation committees in South Africa, but it is now widely used in other contexts. Those committees had the authority to punish (or pardon) people; however, their main purpose was to seek truth and, from there, nourish reconciliation. This is the main idea of restorative justice; it seeks justice for the sake of restoring relationships. All the above options involve action and are aware of power relations (i.e., politics). They all seek justice. They may create conditions for the more conventional empathic practice to evolve, but no less than that, they are examples of justice-seeking and politically sensitive empathetic practice.

Keywords: education, empathy, justice, reconciliation

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606 How Restorative Justice Can Inform and Assist the Provision of Effective Remedies to Hate Crime, Case Study: The Christchurch Terrorist Attack

Authors: Daniel O. Kleinsman

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The 2019 terrorist attack on two masjidain in Christchurch, New Zealand, was a shocking demonstration of the harm that can be caused by hate crime. As legal and governmental responses to the attack struggle to provide effective remedies to its victims, restorative justice has emerged as a tool that can assist, in terms of both meeting victims’ needs and discharging the obligations of the state under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), arts 2(3), 26, 27. Restorative justice is a model that emphasizes the repair of harm caused or revealed by unjust behavior. It also prioritises the facilitation of dialogue, the restoration of equitable relationships, and the prevention of future harm. Returning to the case study, in the remarks of the sentencing judge, the terrorist’s actions were described as a hate crime of vicious malevolence that the Court was required to decisively reject, as anathema to the values of acceptance, tolerance and mutual respect upon which New Zealand’s inclusive society is based and which the country strives to maintain. This was one of the reasons for which the terrorist received a life sentence with no possibility of parole. However, in the report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Attack, it was found that victims felt the attack occurred within the context of widespread racism, discrimination and Islamophobia, where hostile behaviors, including hate-based threats and attacks, were rarely recorded, analysed or acted on. It was also found that the Government had inappropriately concentrated intelligence resources on the risk of ‘Islamist’ terrorism and had failed to adequately respond to concerns raised about threats against the Muslim community. In this light, the remarks of the sentencing judge can be seen to reflect a criminal justice system that, in the absence of other remedies, denies systemic accountability and renders hate crime an isolated incident rather than an expression of more widespread discrimination and hate to be holistically addressed. One of the recommendations of the Royal Commission was to explore with victims the desirability and design of restorative justice processes. This presents an opportunity for victims to meet with state representatives and pursue effective remedies (ICCPR art 2(3)) not only for the harm caused by the terrorist but the harm revealed by a system that has exposed the minority Muslim community in New Zealand to hate in all forms, including but not limited to violent extremism. In this sense, restorative justice can also assist the state in discharging its wider obligations to protect all persons from discrimination (art 26) and allow ethnic and religious minorities to enjoy their own culture and profess and practice their own religion (art 27). It can also help give effect to the law and its purpose as a remedy to hate crime, as expressed in this case study by the sentencing judge.

Keywords: hate crime, restorative justice, minorities, victims' rights

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605 Juvenile Justice Reforms for the 21st Century: Promising Approaches in Bangladesh

Authors: Nahid Ferdousi

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Juvenile justice is a key component of the child rights to keep the best interest and completely different from criminal justice. After independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Children Act 1974 and the Children Rules 1976 were considered as the basic law for juvenile justice which written before many international instruments on children’s rights came into existence, did not align with the international mandate set by those instruments. These Acts were not really child rights-based and modern concept such as diversion, restorative justice and community-based rehabilitation has not developed accordingly. In this backdrop, government has enacted the new Children Act 2013 and introduced extensive reforms to the juvenile justice system in Bangladesh. The Act has been adopted with the provisions for child-friendly juvenile courts in each district and different kinds of child-oriented practices in a number of settings, such as, child affairs police officer, probation officer, national child welfare board, diversion, alternative preventive measures on the basis of international principles. Prior to the Act, there had been a number of High Court rulings which considered the international standards for juvenile justice. But the recent reforms to juvenile justice system hail a new commitment to the country’s international obligations to its children and a change in the philosophy guiding the treatment of offender children. This is high time to create an effective juvenile justice system for the 21st century in Bangladesh by the proper implementation of the Children Act 2013. Additionally, the new Children Rules should be enacted and juvenile courts along with correctional institutions should be established in each district in Bangladesh. This study assesses the juvenile justice reforms in Bangladesh over the five decades (1974-2014) and focuses on changes that will improve the system as a whole and enable us to better achieve the ends of fair juvenile justice.

Keywords: Juvenile justice reforms, international obligations, child-oriented practices, commitment of the state

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604 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Juvenile Justice in Rehabilitating the Youth in South Africa

Authors: Leah Gwatimba, Nanga Raymond Raselekoane

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The incidences of youth who engage in unlawful or criminal activities are of great concern for the criminal justice system and government in South Africa. In terms of the juvenile justice system in South Africa, under-age youth who have been found guilty and sentenced to serve a jail term cannot be sent to the same detention facility as adults. The juvenile justice system is meant to protect young offenders from physical, emotional and mental exploitation by adult prisoners. Under-age young offenders should be assisted and exposed to educational, entrepreneurial and behavioral programmes that can equip them with the much needed skills that will turn them into law-abiding and economically productive citizens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the justice system in South Africa in the rehabilitation young offenders. A qualitative method was used. The study used the non-probability purposive sampling to select the respondents. In-depth interviews, focus groups, observation and thematic coding were used to collect and analyse the data respectively. The study population consisted of social workers and offending youth. The sample comprised of 16 respondents (i.e. 4 social workers and twelve offending youth (6 males and 6 females). The study indicated that there is worrying recurrence of the anti-social behavior by some of the young offenders. According to this study, the effectiveness of the juvenile justice system in the rehabilitation of the offending youth can be achieved by paying serious attention to follow-up services, participation of families of the offending youth in the diversion programmes and by improving the socio-economic conditions in the homes and communities of the offending youth.

Keywords: juvenile delinquent, juvenile justice system, diversion programmes, rehabilitation, restorative justice

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603 Justice and the Juvenile: Changing Trends and Developments

Authors: Shikhar Shrivastava, Varun Khare

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Background: We are confronted by a society that is becoming more complex, more mobile, and more dysfunctional. Teen pregnancy, suicide, elopement, and the perusal of dangerous drugs have become commonplace. In addition, children do not settle their disputes as they once did. Guns and knives are quotidian. Therefore, it has been an exigent to have a "Juvenile Code" that would provide specific substantive and procedural rules for juveniles in the justice system. However, until the twentieth century, there was little difference between how the justice system treated adults and children. Age was considered only in terms of appropriate punishment and juveniles were eligible for the same punishment as adults. Findings: The increased prevalence and legislative support for specialized courts, Juvenile Justice Boards, including juvenile drug, mental health and truancy court programs, as well as diversion programs and evidence-based approaches into the fabric of juvenile justice are just a few examples of recent advances. In India, various measures were taken to prosecute young offenders who committed violent crimes as adults. But it was argued that equating juveniles with adult criminals was neither scientifically correct nor normatively defensible. It would defeat the very purpose of the justice system. Methodology and Conclusion: This paper attempts to bring forth the results of analytical and descriptive research that examined changing trends in juvenile justice legislation. It covers the investigative and inspective practices of police, the various administrative agencies who have roles in implementing the legislation, the courts, and the detention centers. In this paper we shall discuss about how the juvenile justice system is the dumping ground for many of a youths’ problem. The changing notions of justice, from retributive to restorative and rehabilitative shall be discussed. A comparative study of the Juvenile act in India and that of the U.S has been discussed. Specific social institutions and forces that explain juvenile delinquency are identified. In addition, various influences on juvenile delinquency are noted, such as families, schools, peer groups and communities. The text concludes by addressing socialization, deterrence, imprisonments, alternatives, restitution and preventions.

Keywords: juvenile, justice system, retributive, rehabilitative, delinquency

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602 The Role of Team Efficacy and Coaching on the Relationships between Distributive and Procedural Justice and Job Engagement

Authors: Yoonhee Cho, Gye-Hoon Hong

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This study focuses on the roles of distributive and procedural justice on job engagement. Additionally, the study focuses on whether situational factors such as team efficacy and team leaders’ coaching moderate the relationship between distributive and procedural justice and job engagement. Ordinary linear regression was used to analyze data from seven South Korean Companies (total N=346). Results confirmed the hypothesized model indicating that both distributive and procedural justices were positively related to job engagement of employees. Team efficacy and team leaders’ coaching moderated the relationship between distributive justice and job engagement whereas it brought non-significant result found for procedural justice. The facts that two types of justice and the interactive effects of two situational variables were different implied that different managerial strategies should be used when job engagement was to be enhanced.

Keywords: coaching, distributive justice, job engagement, procedural justice, team efficacy

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601 Can Sustainability Help Achieve Social Justice?

Authors: Maryam Davodi-Far

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Although sustainability offers a vision to preserve the earth’s resources while sustaining life on earth, there tends to be injustice and disparity in how resources are allocated across the globe. As such, the question that arises is whom will sustainability benefit? Will the rich grow richer and the poor become worse off? Is there a way to find balance between sustainability and still implement and achieve success with distributive justice theories? One of the facets of justice is distributive justice; the idea of balancing benefits and costs associated with the way in which we disseminate and consume goods. Social justice relies on how the cost and burdens of our resource allocation can be done reasonably and equitably and spread across a number of societies, and within each society spread across diverse groups and communities. In the end, the question is how to interact with the environment and diverse communities of today and of those communities of the future.

Keywords: consumerism, sustainability, sustainable development, social justice, social equity, distributive justice

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600 Integrating Environmental and Ecological Justice for the Sustainable Development of Smart Cities: A Normative Eco Framework

Authors: Thomas Benson

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This paper leverages theoretical insights into two different justice approaches – environmental justice and ecological justice – to examine the effectiveness of sustainable development within smart cities and related smart city technology initiatives. Through theoretical development, the author seeks to establish an Eco Framework for smart cities and urban sustainable development. In turn, this paper aims to proffer the notion that there are ecologically sustainable ways in which smart cities can get smarter, and that such strategies can be compatible with ecological justice and environmental justice. Ultimately, a single conceptual framework is put forward to integrate the above approaches and concepts with normative prescriptions, which can serve researchers in the continued examination of smart cities and policymakers in their sustainable development of smart cities.

Keywords: ecological justice, environmental justice, normative framework, smart cities, sustainable development

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599 The Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace, a Transitional Justice Mechanism That Prioritizes Reconciliation over Punishment: A Content Analysis of the Colombian Peace Agreement

Authors: Laura Mendez

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Tribunals for the prosecution of crimes against humanity have been implemented in recent history via international intervention or imposed by one side of the conflict, as in the cases of Rwanda, Iraq, Argentina, and Chile. However, the creation of a criminal tribunal as the result of a peace agreement between formerly warring parties has been unique to the Colombian peace process. As such, the Colombian Jurisdiction for Peace (SJP), or JEP for its Spanish acronym, is viewed as a site of social contestation where actors shape its design and implementation. This study contributes to the literature of transitional justice by analyzing how the framing of the creation of the Colombian tribunal reveals the parties' interests. The analysis frames the interests of the power-brokers, i.e., the government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the victims in light of the tribunal’s functions. The purpose of this analysis is to understand how the interests of the parties are embedded in the designing of the SJP. This paper argues that the creation of the SJP rests on restorative justice, for which the victim, not the perpetrator, is at the center of prosecution. The SJP’s approach to justice moves from prosecution as punishment to prosecution as sanctions. SJP’s alternative sanctions focused on truth, reparation, and restoration are designed to humanize both the victim and the perpetrator in order to achieve reconciliation. The findings also show that requiring the perpetrator to perform labor to repair the victim as an alternative form of sanction aims to foster relations of reintegration and social learning between victims and perpetrators.

Keywords: transitional justice mechanisms, criminal tribunals, Colombia, Colombian Jurisdiction for Peace, JEP

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598 Tax Criminal Case Settlement Through Obligative Justice Approach to Increase the State Revenue

Authors: Pujiyono, Reda Manthovani, Deny Tri Ardianto, Rabani Halawa, Isharyanto

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This research has background that the taxpayer (defendant) who has paid off the tax payable and the tax penalty payable after the tax case file has been transferred to the court, while the legality of stopping the prosecution of tax cases on the grounds that in the interest of state revenue is not regulated in the provisions of Law Number 8 of 1981 concerning The Criminal Procedure Code and Law Number 28 of 2007 concerning the Third Amendment to Law Number 6 of 1983 concerning General Provisions and Tax Procedures as amended several times, most recently by Law Number 16 of 2009 concerning Stipulation of Government Regulation in Lieu of Law Number 5 of 2008 concerning Fourth Amendment to Law Number 6 0f 1983 concerning General Provisions and Tax Procedures to become Law, even though at the investigation stage it regulates the mechanism for stopping the investigation for the sake of the interest of acceptance ne this is because before the case file is transferred to the court where at the request of the Minister of Finance of The Republic of Indonesia can stop the investigation in the interest of state revenue so that based on this phenomenon a legal vacuum is found. Therefore, a non-penal policy is needed from the public prosecutor to resolve tax crime cases without going through litigation in court through the penal mediation method using the Plea Bargaining System which adheres to the principles of restorative justice and obligative justice based on the ultimum remedium principle and the principle of opportunity in order to realize the principle of fast, simple and low cost justice (content principle). This research is a normative legal research, using a statutory approach, conceptual approach, and comparative law approach. Regulations that is used in many countries, include America, The Netherlands and Singapore. The results of this study indicate that there is a reformulation of the tax criminal justice system which regulates the mechanism, qualifications and authority to terminate the prosecution of tax cases in the interest of state revenues in order to achieve legal goals which are not only for legal certainty but more that, namely providing benefits and legal justice for people seeking justice.

Keywords: obligative justice, regulation, state reveneus, tax criminal

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597 Educational Justice as the Basis for Social Justice

Authors: Baratali Monfaredraz

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The concept of justice has been able to occupy a lot of people’s minds and speeches for a long time. Justice has various dimensions such as economic justice, judicial justice, political justice, educational justice, ethnical justice and etc. Educational justice as one of the most basic dimensions of justice can alter our education in every field and it can flourish the talents and capabilities on macro level. One of the most efficient ways for social justice realization is to provide equal opportunities for all people in the society to be able to access equally to education as their human rights since today how progress occurs in education is regarded as the index of social development. On this basis, especially developing countries try to provide equal opportunities for all people in terms of access to education, specifically in higher education. At present, private education system violates the principles of conducting effort, meeting the needs and in part realizing the capabilities and so it cannot be justified to be a fair conductance. It seems that providing higher quality education in public schools and lowering role of teacher and educational facilities in educational achievement can be considered as a proper way to remove the discrimination in terms of unequal distribution of educational facilities. In addition, higher education development in deprived regions can initialize social activities among the inhabitants of these regions. Justice in educational field can result in access of all people to economic and social situations and job opportunities in future.

Keywords: educational justice, deprivation, private schools, higher education, job opportunities

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596 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

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China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: China, history, juvenile justice, legal traditions

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595 A Review of the Fundamental Aspects and Dimensions of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) as Important Components in the Promotion of Social Justice in Nigeria

Authors: Odoh Ben Uruchi

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Access to Justice implies access to social and distributive Justice. Access to social justice in Nigeria remains an illusion where cases last in courts for unduly long period of time, as is currently the situation in the country. As the popular saying goes– justice delayed is justice denied. It is, however, important to underscore the point that these perspectives are not necessarily disconnected since the extent to which one can have distributive justice in any system is largely determined by the level and effectiveness of social justice in the country. Generally, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Processes are increasingly being accepted in Nigeria as appropriate mechanisms for resolving disputes. While some jurisdictions have institutionalized ADR through the concept of a Multidoor Courthouse, many other are at different stages of doing same. With these developments, it is obvious that stakeholders in the administration of justice in Nigeria, can no longer be indifferent about understanding and fully mainstreaming ADR into their various activities and professional practice. Any framework for promoting social justice in Nigeria should therefore of necessity include provision of avenues for use of ADR in the protection and enforcement of citizen’s rights. The constitutional and other legal provisions that guarantee various rights of citizens cannot of itself ensure the enjoyment of the rights in the absence of an effective framework for dispute resolution. Excessive reliance on litigation and other adversarial approaches will also fail to ensure a sound regime of social justice. There should be structured mainstreaming of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms in justice delivery if the society must provide and guarantee social justice to the citizens. This paper seeks to address some of the fundamental issues affecting the perception, knowledge and skills of ADR in the provision of social justice. In doing this, the paper proposes to unlock the full enormous potentials of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in promoting access to justice in Nigeria.

Keywords: aspects, dimensions, alternative dispute resolution, social justice

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594 Procedural Justice and Work Outcomes in Kuwait Business Organizations

Authors: Ali Muhammad

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The purpose of this study is to develop and test a theoretical framework which demonstrates the effect of procedural justice on four work outcomes: effective organizational commitmentو organizational trust, organizational citizenship behaviour, and adherence to rules. The new model attempts to explain how procedural justice effects work outcomes. Data were collected from 267 employees working in nine Kuwaiti business organizations. Structural equation modelling was used to analysis the data. A discussion of issues related to procedural justice is presented, as well as recommendations for future research.

Keywords: procedural justice, affective organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour, organizational trust, adherence to rules

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593 Access to Justice for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in Indonesia: Case and Problem in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Fines Fatimah, SH. MH.

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Indonesia is one of the countries that has ratified the UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). The ratification of this convention brings consequences on the adjustment of national legislation with the UNCRPD convention, where this ratification at the same time is a measure in the eyes of the international community that a state party could be consistent with the issues and problems of disability. Persons with disabilities often have little access to justice when they are forced to deal with the criminal justice system. Pursuit of justice through litigation are often not in their favor, therefore without any awareness of law enforcement/awareness of disability will further complicate access to justice for persons with disabilities. Under Article 13 of the UNCRPD, it appeared that the convention requires ratifying states to guarantee equal opportunity and treatment in justice for persons with disabilities. The States should also ensure that any judicial rules must be adapted to the circumstances of persons with disabilities so that people with disabilities can fully participate in all stages of the trial court and, for example, as a witness. Finally, the state must provide training to understand these persons with disabilities (for those who work in the judiciary institution such as police or prison officials). Further, this paper aims to describe problem faced by persons with intellectual disabilities to access justice in Indonesian Criminal Justice System. This paper tries to find and propose the alternative solutions to promote the quality of law enforcement in Indonesia, especially for persons with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: access to justice, Indonesian criminal justice system, intellectual disability, ratifying states

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592 Voices from Inside and the Power of Art to Transform and Restore

Authors: Karen Miner-Romanoff

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Few art programs for incarcerated juveniles exist; however, evaluation results indicate decreased recidivism and behavior problems. This paper reports on an on-going study of a promising art program for incarcerated adolescents with community exhibits and charitable sale of their work. Voices from Inside, a partnership between Franklin University and the Ohio Department of Youth Services, sponsored three exhibits in 2012, 2013, and 2014. In 2013, youth exhibitor survey results (response rate 47%, 16 of 34) showed that 81% cited as benefits cooperation with others, task completion, and increased self-esteem from public recognition and art sales. Community attendee survey results (response rate 29.5%, 59 of 200) showed positive attitude changes toward juvenile offenders, from 40% to 53%. Qualitative responses were similarly positive. The 2014 youth exhibitor sample was larger (response rate 58%, 29 of 50) and showed that 93% cited positive benefits including increase in self-esteem, decrease in stress, pride or recognition of the ability to reach a goal from completing, exhibiting and selling their art to benefit a charity for at-risk youth. This year, the research was able to conduct ten one-on-one interviews inside of the youth facilities, and qualitative responses were even more positive with one youth explaining, “This art represents my joy, my tears, my pain and my hope.” Community attendee survey results (response rate 50%, 86 of 170) were transformative in that that they indicated significant impression on attitudes toward juvenile offenders and their rehabilitative needs with one attendee stating that the event had an, “Immense impact for me bringing into focus the humanity and value these youth still have for us and society.” Future research indicates a need for a correlation study to determine the extent to which these art programs reduce behavioral incidents inside of the facility and long-term reduction in reoffending rates. Generally, further study of juvenile offenders’ art for rehabilitation and restorative justice, the power of art to transform, and university-community partnerships implementing art programs for juvenile offenders should continue.

Keywords: art, juvenile, incarcerated, restorative justice

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591 Interrogating Western Political Perspectives of Social Justice in Canadian Social Work

Authors: Samantha Clarke

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The term social justice is central to social work; however, the meaning behind this term is not as simple as defining the term itself. This is because the meaning of social justice is relative since its origin and development is based on evolving political perspectives. Political perspectives provide numerous lenses to view social justice in social work; however, the realities of changing society have meant that social justice has assumed different values, definitions, and understandings over time and in different geopolitical and cultural contexts. There are many competing and convincing theories of social justice that are relevant to social work practice. Exploring the term is not an idle preoccupation because the meaning of the term is not as crucial as the meaning of the worldview, as it is the worldview that positions social justice as crucial in the emancipation of people marginalized from oppression. The many political assumptions that underlie the term social justice are explored and connected to the contemporary discussions about social justice in social work. These connections are then interrogated in the Canadian Social Works Code of Ethics, and in micro, mezzo, and macro approaches. To be remiss in interrogating the underlying political assumptions of the worldview of social justice is to entrench oppression and to preserve oppressive structures in contemporary Canadian social work. The concept of social justice is unable to withstand closer scrutiny about its emancipatory qualities in Canadian social work when we interrogate the many political assumptions that frame its understanding. In order to authenticate social justice as an emancipatory central organizing principle, Canadian social workers must engage in deeper discussions about the political implications of social justice in their everyday practices based on diverse worldviews and geopolitical contexts. Social workers are well positioned to develop an understanding of social justice that is emancipatory based on their everyday practices because as social and political actors they are positioned to work for and with individuals and toward the greater good of those who are marginalized from oppression.

Keywords: Canadian social work, political analysis, social justice, social work practice

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590 Did Nature of Job Matters - Impact of Perceived Job Autonomy on Turnover Intention in Sales and Marketing Managers: Moderating Effect of Procedural and Distributive Justice

Authors: Muhammad Babar Shahzad

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The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention in sales & marketing staff. Perceived job autonomy is considered one of most studied dimension of Job Characteristic Model. But still there is a confusion in scholars about predictive role of perceived job autonomy in turnover intention. In line of more complex research on this relation, we investigated the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Did nature of job have any impact on this relationship. On the call of different authors we take interactive effect of perceived job autonomy and procedural justice on turnover intention. Predictive role of distributive justice to employee outcomes is not deniable. But predictive role of distributive justice will be prone in different contextual influences. Interactive role of distributive justice and perceived job autonomy is also not tested before. We collected date from 279 marketing and sales managers working in financial institution, FMCG industries, Pharamesutical Industry & Bank. Strong and direct negative relation was found in perceived job autonomy, distributive justice & procedural justice on turnover intention. Distributive and procedural justice is also amplifying the negative relationship of perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Limitation and future direction for research is also discussed.

Keywords: perceived job autonomy, turnover intention, procedural justice, distributive job

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589 Punishment In Athenian Forensic Oratory

Authors: Eleni Volonaki

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In Athenian forensic speeches, the argumentation on punishment of the wrongdoers constitutes a fundamental ideal of exacting justice in court. The present paper explores the variation of approaches to punishment as a means of reformation, revenge, correction, education, example, chance to restoration of justice. As it will be shown, all these approaches reflect the social and political ideology of Athenian justice in the classical period and enhances the role of the courts and the importance of rhetoric in the process of decision-making. Punishment entails a wide range of penalties but also of ideological principles related to the Athenian constitution of democracy.

Keywords: punishment, athenian forensic speeches, justice, athenian democracy

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588 An Empirical Examination on the Relationships between Organizational Justice, Affective Commitment and Absenteeism

Authors: Emine Öğüt, Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt

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Affective commitment is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values. Organizational justice is an antecedent of the organizational commitment and it has the potential to create powerful benefits for organizations and employees alike. When perceived unfairness among employees increases, affective commitment decreases and absenteeism increases accordingly. In this research, relationships between organizational justice perception, affective commitment and absenteeism is analysed. In this regard, a field study has been conducted over the physicians working in the hospitals of the Health Ministry and University Hospitals in the province of Konya. The partial least squares (PLS) method is used to analyse the survey data. The findings of the research shows that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational justice perception and affective commitment while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational justice and absenteeism.

Keywords: organizational justice, affective commitment, absenteeism, healthcare management

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587 The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Citizens’ Perceptions of Social Justice in China

Authors: Yan Liu

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The Gini coefficient indicates that the inequality of income distribution is rising in China. How individuals viewing the equality of current society is an important predicator of social turbulence. Perceptions of social justice may vary according to the social stratification. People usually use socioeconomic status to identify divisions between social stratifications. The objective of this study is to explore the potential influence of socioeconomic status on citizens’ perceptions of social justice in China. Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually reflected by either an SES indicator or a composite of three core dimensions: education, income and occupation. With data collected in the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), this study uses OLS regression analyses to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and citizens’ perceptions of social justice. This study finds that most Chinese citizens believe that the current society is fair or more than fair. Socioeconomic status (SES) has a positive impact on citizens’ perceptions of social justice, which means individuals with higher indicator of socioeconomic status prefer to believe current society is fair. However, the three core dimensions which are used to measure socioeconomic status (SES) have different influences on perceptions of social justice: First, income helps enhance citizens’ sense of social justice. Second, education weakens citizens’ sense of social justice. Third, compared to the middle occupational status, people of both higher occupational status and lower occupational status have higher levels of perceptions of social justice. Though education creates a negative influence on perceptions of social justice, its effect is much weaker than that of income, which indicates income is a determining factor for enhancing people’s perceptions of social justice in China’s market society. Policy implications are discussed.

Keywords: education, income, occupation, perceptions of social justice, social stratification, socioeconomic status

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586 Crystallization of the US Supreme Court’s Role as an Arbiter of Constitutionality of Laws

Authors: Fethia Braik

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This paper summarizes the history of the US Supreme Court. It did not enjoy today’s status. It did neither control legislation nor the executive power. It was until 1803, during Marshall’s term, that it gained the pride of ruling over the constitutionality of acts be they federal or local, congressional or presidential. The Chief Justice, whether intended or not, vested such power in the supreme judicial institution via the case of Marbury v. Madison. Such power, nevertheless, had not been exercised for many years, till the Dred Scott case.

Keywords: Judiciary Acts 1789, 1801, chief justice, associate justice, justice of peace, review of constitutionality of acts, Jay court, Ellsworth court, Marshall court

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585 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

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The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

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584 Vision of Justice in the Future of Humanity

Authors: Morteza Khorrami

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The idea of final triumph of peace and justice on evil force, conflict and global spread of the religious faith, the full deployment of human values, constitute a utopia and the ideal society is discussed by many of religions. Thus, mankind has always been waiting for a savior and has received good tidings for coming of Great Savior at the end of Time. Of course, various persons were introduced as the Promised Saviors by different religions, but all of the religions share in this fact that the future of humanity is very bright and promising and the future will belong to the righteous and justice. In this article which is written with a descriptive and analytic method, the author tries to show the vision of global justice at the end of time. The opinion of various religions such as Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Islam and even idolatry about the great savior as well as the justice status in his era in the world will be discussed. Also the viewpoint of Muslims and specially Shiites, which is explained clearly in their scripts, will be depicted. Current human responsibility towards this golden era will be discussed, too. Based on paper findings, religious doctrine promises that a heaven person and sacred character will come as a reformer of the world. In his era, humanity will be saved from tyranny, oppression and inequality, and the earth will be filled with peace, security, justice, and equity. Moreover promoting justice, truth and spreading religion in the world, economic, scientific, political and moral development will be happened.

Keywords: future of humanity, global justice, islam, religions

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