Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: elbow

47 An Elbow Biomechanical Model and Its Coefficients Adjustment

Authors: Jie Bai, Yongsheng Gao, Shengxin Wang, Jie Zhao


Through the establishment of the elbow biomechanical model, it can provide theoretical guide for rehabilitation therapy on the upper limb of the human body. A biomechanical model of the elbow joint can be built by the connection of muscle force model and elbow dynamics. But there are many undetermined coefficients in the model like the optimal joint angle and optimal muscle force which are usually specified as the experimental parameters of other workers. Because of the individual differences, there is a certain deviation of the final result. To this end, the RMS value of the deviation between the actual angle and calculated angle is considered. A set of coefficients which lead to the minimum RMS value will be chosen to be the optimal parameters. The direct search method and the conjugacy search method are used to get the optimal parameters, thus the model can be more accurate and mode adaptability.

Keywords: elbow biomechanical model, RMS, direct search, conjugacy search

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46 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli


Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: duct fitting, pressure loss, elbow, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
45 The Predictive Value of Extensor Grip Test for the Effectiveness of Treatment for Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohammad Javad Zehtab, S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Ali Majlesara, Parvin Tajik, Babak Siavashi


Objective: There are different modalities proposed for tennis elbow treatment with few randomized trials comparing them. We designed a study to compare the effectiveness of five different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina hospital of Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfill trial entry criteria, among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT result. Stratified on EGT result, patients allocated randomly to 5 treatment groups: Brace (B) group, physiotherapy (P), brace + physiotherapy (BP), injection (I) and injection + physiotherapy (IP). Results: Patients who had positive result of EGT had better response to treatments: less SOC (p = 0.06), less PFFQ and patients’ satisfaction scores (p < 0.001). Among the treatment IP was the most successful, then BP, P and B, respectively; injection was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing; in which positive EGT was correlated with a dramatic response to treatment. Conclusion: In all patients IP and then BP is recommended but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group.

Keywords: tennis elbow, extensor grip test, physiotherapy, tennis elbow treatment

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44 Comparison of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classifications for Electromyography Signals Acquired at Five Positions of Elbow Joint

Authors: Amna Khan, Zareena Kausar, Saad Malik


Bio Mechatronics has extended applications in the field of rehabilitation. It has been contributing since World War II in improving the applicability of prosthesis and assistive devices in real life scenarios. In this paper, classification accuracies have been compared for two classifiers against five positions of elbow. Electromyography (EMG) signals analysis have been acquired directly from skeletal muscles of human forearm for each of the three defined positions and at modified extreme positions of elbow flexion and extension using 8 electrode Myo armband sensor. Features were extracted from filtered EMG signals for each position. Performance of two classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been compared by analyzing the classification accuracies. SVM illustrated classification accuracies between 90-96%, in contrast to 84-87% depicted by LDA for five defined positions of elbow keeping the number of samples and selected feature the same for both SVM and LDA.

Keywords: classification accuracies, electromyography, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Myo armband sensor, support vector machine (SVM)

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43 Effect of Sand Particle Distribution in Oil and Gas Pipeline Erosion

Authors: Christopher Deekia Nwimae, Nigel Simms, Liyun Lao


Erosion in pipe bends caused by particles is a major obstacle in the oil and gas fields and might cause the breakdown of production equipment. This work studied the effects imposed by flow velocity and impact of solid particles diameter in an elbow; erosion rate was verified with experimental data using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange and discrete phase model was employed to calculate the air/solid particle flow in an elbow. One erosion model and three-particle rebound models were used to predict the erosion rate on the 90° elbows. The generic erosion model was used in the CFD-based erosion model, and after comparing it with experimental data, results showed agreement with the CFD-based predictions as observed.

Keywords: erosion, prediction, elbow, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
42 Study of Human Upper Arm Girth during Elbow Isokinetic Contractions Based on a Smart Circumferential Measuring System

Authors: Xi Wang, Xiaoming Tao, Raymond C. H. So


As one of the convenient and noninvasive sensing approaches, the automatic limb girth measurement has been applied to detect intention behind human motion from muscle deformation. The sensing validity has been elaborated by preliminary researches but still need more fundamental study, especially on kinetic contraction modes. Based on the novel fabric strain sensors, a soft and smart limb girth measurement system was developed by the authors’ group, which can measure the limb girth in-motion. Experiments were carried out on elbow isometric flexion and elbow isokinetic flexion (biceps’ isokinetic contractions) of 90°/s, 60°/s, and 120°/s for 10 subjects (2 canoeists and 8 ordinary people). After removal of natural circumferential increments due to elbow position, the joint torque is found not uniformly sensitive to the limb circumferential strains, but declining as elbow joint angle rises, regardless of the angular speed. Moreover, the maximum joint torque was found as an exponential function of the joint’s angular speed. This research highly contributes to the application of the automatic limb girth measuring during kinetic contractions, and it is useful to predict the contraction level of voluntary skeletal muscles.

Keywords: fabric strain sensor, muscle deformation, isokinetic contraction, joint torque, limb girth strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
41 Effect of Submaximal Eccentric versus Maximal Isometric Contraction on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Authors: Mohamed M. Ragab, Neveen A. Abdel Raoof, Reham H. Diab


Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the most common symptom when ordinary individuals and athletes are exposed to unaccustomed physical activity, especially eccentric contraction which impairs athletic performance, ordinary people work ability and physical functioning. A multitude of methods have been investigated to reduce DOMS. One of the valuable method to control DOMS is repeated bout effect (RBE) as a prophylactic method. Purpose: To compare the repeated bout effect of submaximal eccentric contraction versus maximal isometric contraction on induced DOMS. Methods: Sixty normal male volunteers were assigned randomly into three groups of equal number: Group (A) “first study group”: 20 subjects received submaximal eccentric contraction on non-dominant elbow flexors as prophylactic exercise. Group (B) “second study group”: 20 subjects received maximal isometric contraction on non-dominant elbow flexors as prophylactic exercise. Group (C) “control group”: 20 subjects did not receive any prophylactic exercise. Maximal isometric contraction peak torque of elbow flexors and patient related elbow evaluation (PREE) scale were measured for each subject 3 times before, immediately after and 48 hours after induction of DOMS. Results: Post-hoc test for maximal isometric peak torque and PREE scale immediately and 48 hours after induction of DOMS revealed that group (A) and group (B) resulted in significant decrease in maximal isometric strength loss and elbow pain and disability rather than control group (C), but submaximal eccentric group (A) was more effective than maximal isometric group (B) as it showed more rapid recovery of functional strength and less degrees of elbow pain and disability. Conclusion: Both submaximal eccentric contraction and maximal isometric contraction were effective in prevention of DOMS but submaximal eccentric contraction had the greatest protective effect.

Keywords: delayed onset muscle soreness, maximal isometric peak torque, patient related elbow evaluation scale, repeated bout effect

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40 Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Shuo-Ling Chang


The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.

Keywords: nanoindentation, silicon, phase transformation, amorphous, annealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
39 The Applications of Four Fingers Theory: The Proof of 66 Acupoints under the Human Elbow and Knee

Authors: Chih-I. Tsai, Yu-Chien. Lin


Through experiences of clinical practices, it is discovered that locations on the body at a level of four fingerbreadth above and below the joints are the points at which muscles connect to tendons, and since the muscles and tendons possess opposite characteristics, muscles are full of blood but lack qi, while tendons are full of qi but lack blood, these points on our body become easily blocked. It is proposed that through doing acupuncture or creating localized pressure to the areas four fingerbreadths above and below our joints, with an elastic bandage, we could help the energy, also known as qi, to flow smoothly in our body and further improve our health. Based on the Four Fingers Theory, we understand that human height is 22 four fingerbreadths. In addition, qi and blood travel through 24 meridians, 50 times each day, and they flow through 6 cun with every human breath. We can also understand the average number of human heartbeats is 75 times per minute. And the function of qi-blood circulation system in Traditional Chinese Medicine is the same as the blood circulation in Western Medical Science. Informed by Four Fingers Theory, this study further examined its applications in acupuncture practices. The research question is how Four Fingers Theory proves what has been mentioned in Nei Jing that there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. In responding to the research question, there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. Four Fingers Theory facilitated the creation of the acupuncture naming and teaching system. It is expected to serve as an approachable and effective way to deliver knowledge of acupuncture to the public worldwide.

Keywords: four fingers theory, meridians circulation, 66 acupoints under human elbow and knee, acupuncture

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
38 Posterior Thigh Compartment Syndrome Associated with Hamstring Avulsion and Antiplatelet Therapy

Authors: Andrea Gatti, Federica Coppotelli, Ma Primavera, Laura Palmieri, Umberto Tarantino


Aim of study: Scientific literature is scarce of studies and reviews valuing the pros and cons of the paratricipital approach for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures; the lateral paratricipital approach is a valid alternative to the classical posterior approach to the humeral shaft as it preserves both the triceps muscle and the elbow extensor mechanisms; based on our experience, this retrospective analysis aims at analyzing outcome, risks and benefits of the lateral paratricipital approach for humeral shaft fractures. Methods: Our study includes 14 patients treated between 2018 and 2019 for unilateral humeral shaft fractures: 13 with a B1 or B2 and a patient with a C fracture type (according to the AO/ATO Classification); 6 of our patients identified as male while 8 as female; age average was 57.8 years old (range 21-73 years old). A lateral paratricipital approach was performed on all 14 patients, sparing the triceps muscle by avoiding the olecranon osteotomy and by assessing the integrity and the preservation of the radial nerve; the humeral shaft fracture osteosynthesis was performed by means of plates and screws. After surgery all patients have started elbow functional rehabilitation with acceptable pain management. Post-operative follow-up has been carried out by assessing radiographs, MEPS (Mayo Elbow Performance Score) and DASH (Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand) functional assessment and ROM of the affected joint. Results: All 14 patients had an optimal post-operative follow-up with an adequate osteosynthesis and functional rehabilitations by entirely preserving the operated elbow joint; the mean elbow ROM was 0-118.6 degree (range of 0-130) while the average MEPS score was 86 (range75-100) and 79.9 for the DASH (range 21.7-86.1). Just 2 patients suffered of temporary radial nerve apraxia, healed in the subsequent follow-ups. CONCLUSION: The lateral paratricipital approach preserve both the integrity of the triceps muscle and the elbow biomechanism but we do strongly recommend additional studies to be carried out to highlight differences between it and the classical posterior approach in treating humeral shaft fractures.

Keywords: paratricepital approach, humerus shaft fracture, posterior approach humeral shaft, paratricipital postero-lateral approach

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37 A Failure Investigations of High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack at Plat Forming Unit Furnace Elbow

Authors: Altoumi Alndalusi


High-temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) failure is the common phenomena at elevated temperature in hydrogen environment in oil and gas field. The failure occurred once after four years at the internal surface of Platforming elbow. Both visual and microscopic examinations revealed that the failure was initiated due to blistering forming followed by large cracking at the inner surface. Crack morphology showed that the crack depth was about 50% of material wall thickness and its behavior generally was intergranular. This study concluded that the main reason led to failure due to incorrect material selection comparing to the platforming conditions.

Keywords: decarburization, failure, heat affected zone, morphology, partial pressure, plate form

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
36 A Multi Function Myocontroller for Upper Limb Prostheses

Authors: Ayad Asaad Ibrahim


Myoelectrically controlled prostheses are becoming more and more popular, for below-elbow amputation, the wrist flexor and extensor muscle group, while for above-elbow biceps and triceps brachii muscles are used for control of the prosthesis. A two site multi-function controller is presented. Two stainless steel bipolar electrode pairs are used to monitor the activities in both muscles. The detected signals are processed by new pre-whitening technique to identify the accurate tension estimation in these muscles. These estimates will activate the relevant prosthesis control signal, with a time constant of 200 msec. It is ensured that the tension states in the control muscle to activate a particular prosthesis function are similar to those used to activate normal functions in the natural hand. This facilitates easier training.

Keywords: prosthesis, biosignal processing, pre-whitening, myoelectric controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
35 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow Properties Fluctuations in Slug-Churn Flow through Pipe Elbow

Authors: Nkemjika Chinenye-Kanu, Mamdud Hossain, Ghazi Droubi


Prediction of multiphase flow induced forces, void fraction and pressure is crucial at both design and operating stages of practical energy and process pipe systems. In this study, transient numerical simulations of upward slug-churn flow through a vertical 90-degree elbow have been conducted. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to model the two-phase flows while the K-epsilon Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were used to model turbulence in the flows. The simulation results were validated using experimental results. Void fraction signal, peak frequency and maximum magnitude of void fraction fluctuation of the slug-churn flow validation case studies compared well with experimental results. The x and y direction force fluctuation signals at the elbow control volume were obtained by carrying out force balance calculations using the directly extracted time domain signals of flow properties through the control volume in the numerical simulation. The computed force signal compared well with experiment for the slug and churn flow validation case studies. Hence, the present numerical simulation technique was able to predict the behaviours of the one-way flow induced forces and void fraction fluctuations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, flow induced vibration, slug-churn flow, void fraction and force fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
34 Adaptation to Repeated Eccentric Exercise Assessed by Double to Single Twitch Ratio

Authors: Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski


The aim of this study was to assess double to single twitch ratio after two bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 19 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (P<0.05). In measurements performed at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout both maximal voluntary isometric torque and electrically evoked contractions were significantly higher than in measurements performed after the fist bout (P<0.05). Although low-frequency fatigue significantly increased up to 48 hours after each bout of eccentric exercise, its values at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout were significantly lower than at respective time points after the first bout (P<0.05). Smaller changes in double to single twitch ratio at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout of eccentric exercise reflects repeated bout effect that confers protection against subsequent exercise-induced muscle damage.

Keywords: biceps brachii, electrical stimulation, lenghtening contractions, repeated bout effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
33 Differential Effect of Technique Majors on Isokinetic Strength in Youth Judoka Athletes

Authors: Chungyu Chen, Yi-Cheng Chen, Po-Hsian Hsu, Hsin-Ying Chen, Yen-Po Hsiao


The purpose of this study was to assess the muscular strength performance of upper and lower extremity in isokinetic system for the youth judo players, and also to compare the strength difference between major techniques. Sixteen male and 20 female judo players (age: 16.7 ± 1.6 years old, training age: 4.5 ± 0.8 years) were served as the volunteers for this study. There were 21 players major hand techniques and 15 players major foot techniques. The Biodex S4 Pro was used to assess the strength performance of extensor and flexor of concentric action under the load condition of 30 degree/sec, 60 degree/sec, and 120 degree/sec for elbow joints and knee joints. The strength parameters were included the maximal torque, the normalized maximal torque, the average power, and the average maximal torque. A t test for independent groups was used to evaluate whether hand major and foot major differ significantly with an alpha level of .05. The result showed the maximal torque of left knee extensor in foot major players (243.5 ± 36.3 Nm) was higher significantly than hand major (210.7 ± 21.0 Nm) under the load of 30 degree/sec (p < .05). There were no differences in upper extremity strength between the hand and foot techniques major in three loads (ps < .05). It indicated that the judo player is required to develop the upper extremity strength overall to secure the execution of major techniques.

Keywords: knee, elbow, power, judo

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
32 Prospective Study of the Evaluation of Autologous Blood Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis

Authors: Bheeshma B., Mathivanan N., Manoj Deepak M., Prabhu Thangaraju, K. Venkatachalam


This study involves the effect of autologous blood injection for patients who had degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis which was confirmed radio logically and by ultrasound examination and failed cortisone injections to the lateral epicondylitis. In this prospective longitudinal series involves pre-injection assessment of grip strength, pain, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. In this study, blood from the contralateral limb is taken and injected into the affected limb with the help of ultrasound guidance and then the patient wore a customized wrist support for five days, after which they were commenced with stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. In these patients assessment was done after six months and then finally at 12 months after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. 50 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Our study thus concludes that autologous blood injection show significant improvement in pain and function in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who did not have relief with cortisone injection.

Keywords: lateral epicondylitis, autologous blood injection, conservative treatment, plasma-rich proteins (PRPs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
31 CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil

Authors: Pakawhat Khumkhreung, Yottana Khunatorn


The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.

Keywords: airfoil, average pitot tube, combustion air, CFD, pressure drop, rectangular duct

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
30 Modeling and Control of an Acrobot Using MATLAB and Simulink

Authors: Dong Sang Yoo


The problem of finding control laws for underactuated systems has attracted growing attention since these systems are characterized by the fact that they have fewer actuators than the degrees of freedom to be controlled. The acrobot, which is a planar two-link robotic arm in the vertical plane with an actuator at the elbow but no actuator at the shoulder, is a representative of underactuated systems. In this paper, the dynamic model of the acrobot is implemented using Mathworks’ Simscape. And the sliding mode control is constructed using MATLAB and Simulink.

Keywords: acrobot, MATLAB and simulink, sliding mode control, underactuated system

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29 Robotic Arm Allowing a Diabetic Quadriplegic Patient to Self-Administer Insulin

Authors: L. Parisi


A method which allows a diabetic quadriplegic patient that has had four limb amputations (above the knee and elbow) to self-administer injections of insulin has been designed. The aim of this research project is to improve a quadriplegic patient’s self-management, affected by diabetes, by designing a suitable device for self-administering insulin.The quadriplegic patient affected by diabetes has to be able to self-administer insulin safely and independently to guarantee stable healthy conditions. The device also should be designed to adapt to a number of different varying personal characteristics such as height and body weight.

Keywords: robotic arm, self-administration, insulin, diabetes, quadriplegia

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
28 Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in Alleviating Pain Syndrome in Stroke Patients with Upper Limb Spasticity

Authors: Akulov M. A., Zaharov V. O., Jurishhev P. E., Tomskij A. A.


Introduction: Spasticity is a severe consequence of stroke, leading to profound disability, decreased quality of life and decrease of rehabilitation efficacy [4]. Spasticity is often associated with pain syndrome, arising from joint damage of paretic limbs (postural arthropathy) or painful spasm of paretic limb muscles. It is generally accepted that injection of botulinum toxin into a cramped muscle leads to decrease of muscle tone and improves motion range in paretic limb, which is accompanied by pain alleviation. Study aim: To evaluate the change in pain syndrome intensity after incections of botulinum toxin A (Xeomin) in stroke patients with upper limb spasticity. Patients and methods. 21 patients aged 47-74 years were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: acute stroke 4-7 months before the inclusion into the study, leading to spasticity of wrist and/or finger flexors, elbow flexor or forearm pronator, associated with severe pain syndrome. Patients received Xeomin as monotherapy 90-300 U, according to spasticity pattern. Efficacy evaluation was performed using Ashworth scale, disability assessment scale (DAS), caregiver burden scale and global treatment benefit assessment on weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. Efficacy criterion was the decrease of pain syndrome by week 4 on PQLS and VAS. Results: The study revealed a significant improvement of measured indices after 4 weeks of treatment, which persisted until the 12 week of treatment. Xeomin is effective in reducing muscle tone of flexors of wrist, fingers and elbow, forearm pronators. By the 4th week of treatment we observed a significant improvement on DAS (р < 0,05), Ashworth scale (1-2 points) in all patients (р < 0,05), caregiver burden scale (р < 0,05). A significant decrease of pain syndrome by the 4th week of treatment on PQLS (р < 0,05) и VAS (р < 0,05) was observed. No adverse effect were registered. Conclusion: Xeomin is an effective treatment of pain syndrome in postural upper limb spasticity after stroke. Xeomin treatment leads to a significant improvement on PQLS and VAS.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, pain syndrome, spasticity, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
27 Analysis in Mexico on Workers Performing Highly Repetitive Movements with Sensory Thermography in the Surface of the Wrist and Elbows

Authors: Sandra K. Enriquez, Claudia Camargo, Jesús E. Olguín, Juan A. López, German Galindo


Currently companies have increased the number of disorders of cumulative trauma (CTDs), these are increasing significantly due to the Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) performed in workstations, which causes economic losses to businesses, due to temporary and permanent disabilities of workers. This analysis focuses on the prevention of disorders caused by: repeatability, duration and effort; And focuses on reducing cumulative trauma disorders such as occupational diseases using sensory thermography as a noninvasive method, the above is to evaluate the injuries could have workers to perform repetitive motions. Objectives: The aim is to define rest periods or job rotation before they generate a CTD, this sensory thermography by analyzing changes in temperature patterns on wrists and elbows when the worker is performing HRM over a period of time 2 hours and 30 minutes. Information on non-work variables such as wrist and elbow injuries, weight, gender, age, among others, and work variables such as temperature workspace, repetitiveness and duration also met. Methodology: The analysis to 4 industrial designers, 2 men and 2 women to be specific was conducted in a business in normal health for a period of 12 days, using the following time ranges: the first day for every 90 minutes continuous work were asked to rest 5 minutes, the second day for every 90 minutes of continuous work were asked to rest 10 minutes, the same to work 60 and 30 minutes straight. Each worker was tested with 6 different ranges at least twice. This analysis was performed in a controlled room temperature between 20 and 25 ° C, and a time to stabilize the temperature of the wrists and elbows than 20 minutes at the beginning and end of the analysis. Results: The range time of 90 minutes working continuous and a rest of 5 minutes of activity is where the maximum temperature (Tmax) was registered in the wrists and elbows in the office, we found the Tmax was 35.79 ° C with a difference of 2.79 ° C between the initial and final temperature of the left elbow presented at the individual 4 during the 86 minutes, in of range in 90 minutes continuously working and rested for 5 minutes of your activity. Conclusions: It is possible with this alternative technology is sensory thermography predict ranges of rotation or rest for the prevention of CTD to perform HRM work activities, obtaining with this reduce occupational disease, quotas by health agencies and increasing the quality of life of workers, taking this technology a cost-benefit acceptable in the future.

Keywords: sensory thermography, temperature, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), highly repetitive movement (HRM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
26 Improvement of an Arm and Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Gyro Sensor

Authors: D. Maneetham


The developed exoskeleton device has to control joints between shoulder and arm. Exoskeleton device can help patients with hemiplegia upper so that the patient can help themselves in their daily life. Exoskeleton device includes a robot arm wear that looks like the movement is similar to the normal arm. Exoskeleton arm is powered by the motor through the cable with a control system that developed to control the movement of the joint of a robot arm. The arm will include the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist. The control system is used Arduino Mega 2560 controller and the operation of the DC motor through the relay module. The control system can be divided into two modes such as the manual control with the joystick mode and automatically control with the movement of the head by Gyro sensor. The controller is also designed to move between the shoulder and the arm movement from their original location. Results have shown that the controller gave the best performance and all movements can be controlled.

Keywords: exoskeleton arm, hemiplegia upper, shoulder and arm, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
25 Termination of the Brachial Artery in the Arm and Its Clinical Significance

Authors: Ramya Rathan, Miral N. F. Salama


The variations in the arteries have been drawing attention of anatomists for a long time because of their clinical significance. The brachial artery is the principal artery of the arm which is the continuation of the axillary artery from the lower border of the Teres Major. It terminates into the radial and ulnar arteries below the elbow joint at the neck radius. The present study aims at exploring the clinical significance of the high termination of the brachial artery. During the routine cadaveric dissection of the arm, for the undergraduate students of medicine at our university, we observed a high bifurcation of the radial and the ulnar artery at the midshaft of the humerus. The median nerve was seen passing between these two junctions. Further, the course and the relations of this artery were studied. The accurate knowledge regarding these kinds of variation in the blood vessels is mandatory for planning of designing. General physicians, surgeons and radiologists should keep in mind the variations in the branching pattern of the arteries in their daily medical, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to avoid complications in diagnostic and surgical procedures.

Keywords: brachial artery, high termination, radial artery, ulnar artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
24 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith


This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: exoskeleton- upper limb system, model free terminal sliding mode, gravity compensation, robustness analysis

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23 Nutrient Foramina in the Shaft of Long Bones of Upper Limb

Authors: Madala Venkateswara Rao


The major blood supply to the long bones occurs through the nutrient arteries, which enters through the nutrient foramina. This is the study of nutrient Foramina in the shaft of upper limb long bones taken from the department of Anatomy at Narayana medical college nellore. Nutrient foramina play an important role in nutrition and growth of the bones. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, 'to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee' but they are very variable in position. Their number, location, direction & its importance in the growing end of long bones were studied in the long bones of upper limb. The present study has variations in the position & direction of long bones especially in the radius & ulna, as most of the nutrient foramina are found in anterior surface of upper 1/3rd and middle 1/3rd of these bones. The study of nutrient foramina is not only of academic interest but also in medico-legal practice in relation to their position. Careful observation has also been made on the position of nutrient foramina in relation to upper end of long bones. This study also gives importance of length long bones to know the height of an individual. With the knowledge of variations in the nutrient foramen, placement of internal fixation devices can be appropriately done.

Keywords: nutrient artery, nutrient foramina, shaft of long bones, upper limb bones

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22 Undercasts in Fracture Care: A Randomized Control Study

Authors: B. Kenny


There is currently no literature comparing undercasts in fracture care. This study is a randomised trial comparing the 4 commonly used undercasts in Australia. These are Webril, Sofban, Goretech and Delta-dry. The ideal undercast should be comfortable for the patient and not cause itchiness. It should be durable enough to withstand daily activities. The clinician/technician should find the undercast easy to apply and remove. It should provide adequate padding without compromising cast mouldability to obtain a good cast index and air index. 18 volunteering medical students were randomly allocated to receive 4 angular casts, one over each elbow and ankle(total of 72 casts). They were blinded to cast type. After an hour their casts were stressed by pouring 20ml Normal Saline onto the skin beneath. Each student filled a questionnaire about comfort, itchiness, weight and water resistance. Subsequently they ranked each cast 1 to 4 based on preference. Our preliminary results show Delta-dry is the most preferred undercast followed by Webril, Sofban and Goretech in that order. Underlay selection is important component of patient care with long immobilsation. Webril or Deltra-dry are by far the most preferred undercasts in our study.

Keywords: casts, fracture, treatment modality, patient compliance

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21 Inverse Mode Shape Problem of Hand-Arm Vibration (Humerus Bone) for Bio-Dynamic Response Using Varying Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ajay R, Rammohan B, Sridhar K S S, Gurusharan N


The objective of the work is to develop a numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem by determining the cross-sectional area of a structure for the desired mode shape via the vibration response study of the humerus bone, which is in the form of a cantilever beam with anisotropic material properties. The humerus bone is the long bone in the arm that connects the shoulder to the elbow. The mode shape is assumed to be a higher-order polynomial satisfying a prescribed set of boundary conditions to converge the numerical algorithm. The natural frequency and the mode shapes are calculated for different boundary conditions to find the cross-sectional area of humerus bone from Eigenmode shape with the aid of the inverse mode shape algorithm. The cross-sectional area of humerus bone validates the mode shapes of specific boundary conditions. The numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem is validated in the biomedical application by finding the cross-sectional area of a humerus bone in the human arm.

Keywords: Cross-sectional area, Humerus bone, Inverse mode shape problem, Mode shape

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20 Optimal Rest Interval between Sets in Robot-Based Upper-Arm Rehabilitation

Authors: Virgil Miranda, Gissele Mosqueda, Pablo Delgado, Yimesker Yihun


Muscular fatigue affects the muscle activation that is needed for producing the desired clinical outcome. Integrating optimal muscle relaxation periods into a variety of health care rehabilitation protocols is important to maximize the efficiency of the therapy. In this study, four muscle relaxation periods (30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds) and their effectiveness in producing consistent muscle activation of the muscle biceps brachii between sets of elbow flexion and extension task was investigated among a sample of 10 subjects with no disabilities. The same resting periods were then utilized in a controlled exoskeleton-based exercise for a sample size of 5 subjects and have shown similar results. On average, the muscle activity of the biceps brachii decreased by 0.3% when rested for 30 seconds, and it increased by 1.25%, 0.76%, and 0.82% when using muscle relaxation periods of 60, 90, and 120 seconds, respectively. The preliminary results suggest that a muscle relaxation period of about 60 seconds is needed for optimal continuous muscle activation within rehabilitation regimens. Robot-based rehabilitation is good to produce repetitive tasks with the right intensity, and knowing the optimal resting period will make the automation more effective.

Keywords: rest intervals, muscle biceps brachii, robot rehabilitation, muscle fatigue

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19 Quantification of Learned Non-Use of the Upper-Limb After a Stroke

Authors: K. K. A. Bakhti, D. Mottet, J. Froger, I. Laffont


Background: After a cerebrovascular accident (or stroke), many patients use excessive trunk movements to move their paretic hand towards a target (while the elbow is maintained flexed) even though they can use the upper-limb when the trunk is restrained. This phenomenon is labelled learned non-use and is known to be detrimental to neuroplasticity and recovery. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify learned non-use of the paretic upper limb during a hand reaching task using 3D movement analysis. Methods: Thirty-four participants post supratentorial stroke were asked to reach a cone placed in front of them at 80% of their arm length. The reaching movement was repeated 5 times with the paretic hand, and then 5 times with the less-impaired hand. This sequence was first performed with the trunk free, then with the trunk restrained. Learned non-use of the upper-limb (LNUUL) was obtained from the difference of the amount of trunk compensation between the free trunk condition and the restrained trunk condition. Results: LNUUL was significantly higher for the paretic hand, with individual values ranging from 1% to 43%, and one-half of the patients with an LNUUL higher than 15%. Conclusions: Quantification of LNUUL can be used to objectively diagnose patients who need trunk rehabilitation. It can be also used for monitoring the rehabilitation progress. Quantification of LNUUL may guide upper-limb rehabilitation towards more optimal motor recovery avoiding maladaptive trunk compensation and its consequences on neuroplasticity.

Keywords: learned non-use, rehabilitation, stroke, upper limb

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18 The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Associated Factors among Nurses in Jordan

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Hassan Alrabbaie


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent a significant challenge for registered nurses. To our best knowledge, there is no published study that investigated the prevalence of MSDs among nurses and their associated factors comprehensively in Jordan. This study aimed to find the prevalence of MSDs, their possible predictors among registered nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Outcome measures included Nordic Musculoskeletal Questioner (NMQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IPAQ, and sociodemographic data. Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was reported using descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of MSDs. Results: 597 nurses from different hospitals in Jordan participated in this study. Reported MSDs prevalence was the highest at neck (61.1%), followed by upper back (47.2%), shoulder (46.7%), wrist and hands (27.3%), and elbow (13.9%). Significant predictors of MSDs among Jordanian nurses included: being a female, poor sleep quality, high physical activity levels, poor ergonomics, increased workload, and mental stress. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among Jordanian nurses and identified their significant predictors. Future studies are needed to investigate the progressive nature of MSDs and their effective treatment strategies.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nursing, ergonomic, occupational stress

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