Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 330

Search results for: polyimide membranes

330 Deep Eutectic Solvent/ Polyimide Blended Membranes for Anaerobic Digestion Gas Separation

Authors: Glemarie C. Hermosa, Sheng-Jie You, Chien Chih Hu


Efficient separation technologies are required for the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas streams. Membrane-based natural gas separation has emerged as one of the fastest growing technologies, due to the compactness, higher energy efficiency and economic advantages which can be reaped. The removal of Carbon dioxide from gas streams using membrane technology will also give the advantage like environmental friendly process compared to the other technologies used in gas separation. In this study, Polyimide membranes, which are mostly used in the separation of gases, are blended with a new kind of solvent: Deep Eutectic Solvents or simply DES. The three types of DES are used are choline chloride based mixed with three different hydrogen bond donors: Lactic acid, N-methylurea and Urea. The blending of the DESs to Polyimide gave out high permeability performance. The Gas Separation performance for all the membranes involving CO2/CH4 showed low performance while for CO2/N2 surpassed the performance of some studies. Among the three types of DES used the solvent Choline Chloride/Lactic acid exhibited the highest performance for both Gas Separation applications. The values are 10.5 for CO2/CH4 selectivity and 60.5 for CO2/N2. The separation results for CO2/CH4 may be due to the viscosity of the DESs affecting the morphology of the fabricated membrane thus also impacts the performance. DES/blended Polyimide membranes fabricated are novel and have the potential of a low-cost and environmental friendly application for gas separation.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, gas separation, polyimide blends, polyimide membranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
329 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
328 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation

Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin


The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
327 Improvement of Heat Dissipation Ability of Polyimide Composite Film

Authors: Jinyoung Kim, Jinuk Kwon, Haksoo Han


Polyimide is widely used in electronic industries, and heat dissipation of polyimide film is important for its application in electric devices for high-temperature resistance heat dissipation film. In this study, we demonstrated a new way to increase heat dissipating rate by adding carbon black as filler. This type of polyimide composite film was produced by pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4’-oxydianiline (ODA). Carbon black (CB) is added in different loading, shows increasing heat dissipation rate for increase of Carbon black. The polyimide-carbon black composite film is synthesized with high dissipation rate to ~8W∙m−1K−1. Its high thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature were maintained with carbon filler verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), the polyimidization reaction of polyi(amide-mide) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The polyimide composite film with carbon black with high heat dissipating rate could be used in various applications such as computers, mobile phone industries, integrated circuits, coating materials, semiconductor etc.

Keywords: polyimide, heat dissipation, electric device, filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
326 Surface Modified Nano-Diamond/Polyimide Hybrid Composites

Authors: Hati̇ce Bi̇rtane, Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Memet Vezi̇r Kahraman


Polyimide (PI) is one of the most important super-engineering materials because of its mechanical properties and its thermal stability. Electronic industry is the typical extensive applications of polyimides including interlayer insulation films, buffer coating, films, alpha-ray shielding films, and alignment films for liquid crystal displays. The mechanical and thermal properties of polymers are generally improved by the addition of inorganic additives. The challenges in this area of high-performance organic/inorganic hybrid materials are to obtain significant improvements in the interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing material since the organic matrix is relatively incompatible with the inorganic phase. In this study, modified nanodiamond was prepared from the reaction of nanodiamond and (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified nanodiamond. The morphology of the Polyimide/ modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by FTIR. FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were successfully prepared. A thermal property of the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: hybrid materials, nanodiamond, polyimide, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
325 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang


Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
324 The Effect of Arabic Gum on Polyethersulfone Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien


In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) to the dope solutions of polyethersulfone (PES) was studied. The aim of adding AG is to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. several AG loading (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in PES/ N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) casting solutions were prepared to fabricate PES membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PES/AG membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of oil solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG to PES membranes was found to increase the permeate flux and porosity as well as reducing surface roughness and the contact angle of the membranes.

Keywords: antifouling, Arabic gum, polyethersulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
323 The Use of Arabic Gum Mixed with Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Dodecylamine to Fabricate Superior Ultrafiltration Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien


In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with dodecylamine (CNT-DDA) to the casting solutions of polysulfone (PS) was investigated. The aim of adding AG and CNT-DDA was to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. Different CNT-DDA loadings (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in 2 wt.% AG were added to PS/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) casting solutions to prepare PS membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PS/AG/CNT-DDA membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of BSA solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG and CNT-DDA to PS membranes was found to increase the hydrophilicity, porosity and hence the permeate flux of the fabricated membranes.

Keywords: Arabic gum, hydrophilicity, polysulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
322 Modeling of the Pores Form Influence on the Hydraulic Resistance of Membranes and Their Permeability

Authors: Zhanat Umarova


Until the present time, modeling of the pores form influence on the hydraulic resistance of membranes and their permeability has not been analyzed. The aim of the given work is the theoretical consideration of the issue on the productivity of polymer membranes with the profile pores and determination of the optimum form of pores.

Keywords: modeling, polymer membranes, permeability, pore’s density

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
321 Prussian Blue/Chitosan Mixed-Matrix Membranes with Improved Separation Performance of Ethanol/Water Mixtures

Authors: Ting-YuLiu, Yi-Feng Lin


Porous Prussian Blue (PB) nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form PB/CS mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) and the as-prepared PB/CS MMMs were used to dehydration of ethanol at 25 oC in the pervaporation process. The effect of PB loading in CS matrix on pervaporation performance was investigated. The FESEM, EDS, FTIR and XRD measurements were also used for the characterization of the PB/CS MMMs. The PB/CS membranes with 30 wt% PB loading show the best performance with the permeate flux of 614 g/m2h and the separation factor of 1472. The pervaporation using the PB/CS membranes exhibits outstanding performance as compared with the previously reported CS based membranes and MMMs. The present work demonstrates good pervaporation performance of the PB/CS MMMs for the separation of 90wt% ethanol aqueous solution, moreover, it has an opportunity for dehydration of bioethanol in this system of pervaporation.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, Prussian blue, mixed-matrix membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
320 Synthesis of Electrospun Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polyvinylidene Fluoriure (PVDF) Nanofibrous Membranes for CO₂ Capture

Authors: Wen-Wen Wang, Qian Ye, Yi-Feng Lin


Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase continuously, resulting in climate change and global warming. As a result, CO₂ capture has attracted a large amount of research attention. Among the various CO₂ capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO₂, because it can be scaled up, low energy consumptions and small area requirements for use by the gas separation. Various nanofibrous membranes were successfully prepared by a simple electrospinning process. The membrane contactor combined with chemical absorption and membrane process in the post-combustion CO₂ capture is used in this study. In a membrane contactor system, the highly porous and water-repellent nanofibrous membranes were used as a gas-liquid interface in a membrane contactor system for CO₂ absorption. In this work, we successfully prepared the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous membranes with an electrospinning process. Afterwards, the as-prepared water-repellent PVDF porous membranes were used for the CO₂ capture application. However, the pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes were wetted by the amine absorbents, resulting in the decrease in the CO₂ absorption flux, the hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were added into the PVDF nanofibrous membranes to improve the solvent resistance of the membranes. To increase the hydrophobic properties and CO₂ absorption flux, more hydrophobic surfaces of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes are obtained by the grafting of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the membranes surface. Furthermore, the highest CO₂ absorption flux of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes is reached after the FAS modification with four times. The PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes with 60 wt% PDMS addition can be a long and continuous operation of the CO₂ absorption and regeneration experiments. It demonstrates the as-prepared PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes could potentially be used for large-scale CO₂ absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, electrospinning process, membrane contactor, nanofibrous membranes, PDMS/PVDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
319 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung


Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
318 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-nanoparticles Composite Membranes

Authors: Abdel-Mohdy, A. Abou-Okeil, S. El-Sabagh, S. M. El-Sawy


Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were prepared by a bulk polymerization method in the presence of N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared membranes have antibacterial properties which increases with adding Ag nanoparticles.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles , antimicrobial, Membrane, composites, mechanical properties, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
317 Fabrication of a High-Performance Polyetherimide Membrane for Helium Separation

Authors: Y. Alqaheem, A. Alomair, F. Altarkait, F. Alswaileh, Nusrat Tanoli


Helium market is continuously growing due to its essential uses in the electronic and healthcare sectors. Currently, helium is produced by cryogenic distillation but the process is uneconomical especially for low production volumes. On the other hand, polymeric membranes can provide a cost-effective solution for helium purification due to their low operating energy. However, the preparation of membranes involves the use of very toxic solvents such as chloroform. In this work, polyetherimide membranes were prepared using a less toxic solvent, n-methylpyrrolidone with a polymer-to-solvent ratio of 27 wt%. The developed membrane showed a superior helium permeability of 15.9 Barrer that surpassed the permeability of membranes made by chloroform.

Keywords: helium separation, polyetherimide, dense membrane, gas permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
316 Rare Earth Metal Ion-Doped SiO2 Nanocomposite Membranes for Gas Separation in Steam Atmosphere

Authors: Md. Hasan Zahir


Y2O3-doped silica membranes were synthesized with the sol-gel method by using a tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sol mixed with yttrium nitrate hexahydrate. These solutions were used to fabricate hydrogen separation microporous membranes with a sandwich-type structure on γ-Al2O3 supported by tubular α-Al2O3. Pore size distribution measurements were conducted directly on the membranes before and after hydrothermal treatment with a nano-permporometer. The gas permeance properties of the membranes were measured in the temperature range 100–500°C. The Y-doped SiO2 membrane (Si/Y = 3/1) was found to exhibit asymptotically stable permeances of 2.39×10-7 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for He and 6.19 ×10-10 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for CO2, with a high selectivity of 386 (He/CO2) at 500°C for 20 h in the presence of steam. The Y-doped silica membranes exhibit very high gas permeances for molecules with smaller kinetic diameters. The apparent activation energies of the H2 permeance at 400°C were 24.2±0.2 and 21.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 for SiO2 and Si/Y, respectively. Very high permeances were obtained for N2 and O2, 2.2 and 5 × 10-8 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 respectively, which demonstrates that these materials are promising air purification and/or separation systems that block larger impurity molecules by molecular sieving effects. Y-doped SiO2 exhibits greater hydrothermal stability at high temperatures and higher selectivity than SiO2 membranes.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, gas separation, hydrothermal stability, rare earth doped-Silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
315 In-situ Performance of Pre-applied Bonded Waterproofing Membranes at Contaminated Test Slabs

Authors: Ulli Heinlein, Thomas Freimann


Pre-applied bonded membranes are used as positive-side waterproofing on concrete basements, are installed before the concrete work, and achieve a tear-resistant and waterproof bond with the subsequently placed fresh concrete. This bond increases redundancy compared to lose waterproofing membranes by preventing lateral water migrations in the event of damage. So far, the membranes have been tested in the laboratory, but it is not yet known how they behave on construction sites in the presence of dirt, soil, cement paste or moisture. This article, therefore, conducts investigations on six construction sites using 18 test slabs where the pre-applied bonded membranes are selectively contaminated or wetted. Subsequently, cores are taken, and the influence of the contaminations on the adhesive tensile strength and waterproof bond is tested. Pre-applied bonded membranes with smooth or granular but closed surfaces show no sensitivity to wetness, whereas open-pored membranes with nonwovens do not tolerate standing water. Contaminations decline the performance of all pre-applied bonded membranes since a separating layer is formed between the bonding layer and the concrete. The influence depends on the thickness of the contamination and its mechanical properties.

Keywords: waterproofing, positive-side waterproofing, basement, pre-applied bonded waterproofing membrane, In-situ testing, lateral water migrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
314 Development and Characterization of a Polymer Composite Electrolyte to Be Used in Proton Exchange Membranes Fuel Cells

Authors: B. A. Berns, V. Romanovicz, M. M. de Camargo Forte, D. E. O. S. Carpenter


The Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) are largely studied because they operate at low temperatures and they are suitable for mobile applications. However, There are some deficiencies in their operation, Mainly those that use ethanol as a hydrogen source that require a certain attention. Therefore, This research aimed to develop Nafion® composite membranes, Mixing clay minerals, Kaolin and halloysite to the polymer matrix in order to improve the ethanol molecule retentions and at the same time to keep the system’s protonic conductivity. The modified Nafion/Kaolin, Nafion/Halloysite composite membranes were prepared in weight proportion of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The membranes obtained were characterized as to their ethanol permeability, Protonic conductivity and water absorption. The composite morphology and structure are characterized by SEM and EDX and also the thermal behavior is determined by TGA and DSC. The analysis of the results shows ethanol permeability reduction from 48% to 63%. However, The protonic conductivity results are lower in relation to pure Nafion®. As to the thermal behavior, The Nafion® composite membranes were stable up to a temperature of 325ºC.

Keywords: Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), thermal properties, nanoclay, differential scanning calorimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
313 Experimental Study of Hydrogen and Water Vapor Extraction from Helium with Zeolite Membranes for Tritium Processes

Authors: Rodrigo Antunes, Olga Borisevich, David Demange


The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has identified zeolite membranes as most promising for tritium processes in the future fusion reactors. Tritium diluted in purge gases or gaseous effluents, and present in both molecular and oxidized forms, can be pre-concentrated by a stage of zeolite membranes followed by a main downstream recovery stage (e.g., catalytic membrane reactor). Since 2011 several membrane zeolite samples have been tested to measure the membrane performances in the separation of hydrogen and water vapor from helium streams. These experiments were carried out in the ZIMT (Zeolite Inorganic Membranes for Tritium) facility where mass spectrometry and cold traps were used to measure the membranes’ performances. The membranes were tested at temperatures ranging from 25 °C up to 130 °C, at feed pressures between 1 and 3 bar, and typical feed flows of 2 l/min. During this experimental campaign, several zeolite-type membranes were studied: a hollow-fiber MFI nanocomposite membrane purchased from IRCELYON (France), and tubular MFI-ZSM5, NaA and H-SOD membranes purchased from Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS, Germany). Among these membranes, only the MFI-based showed relevant performances for the H2/He separation, with rather high permeances (~0.5 – 0.7 μmol/sm2Pa for H2 at 25 °C for MFI-ZSM5), however with a limited ideal selectivity of around 2 for H2/He regardless of the feed concentration. Both MFI and NaA showed higher separation performances when water vapor was used instead; for example, at 30 °C, the separation factor for MFI-ZSM5 is approximately 10 and 38 for 0.2% and 10% H2O/He, respectively. The H-SOD evidenced to be considerably defective and therefore not considered for further experiments. In this contribution, a comprehensive analysis of the experimental methods and results obtained for the separation performance of different zeolite membranes during the past four years in inactive environment is given. These results are encouraging for the experimental campaign with molecular and oxidized tritium that will follow in 2017.

Keywords: gas separation, nuclear fusion, tritium processes, zeolite membranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
312 Multi-Scale Modelling of Thermal Wrinkling of Thin Membranes

Authors: Salim Belouettar, Kodjo Attipou


The thermal wrinkling behavior of thin membranes is investigated. The Fourier double scale series are used to deduce the macroscopic membrane wrinkling equations. The obtained equations account for the global and local wrinkling modes. Numerical examples are conducted to assess the validity of the approach developed. Compared to the finite element full model, the present model needs only few degrees of freedom to recover accurately the bifurcation curves and wrinkling paths. Different parameters such as membrane’s aspect ratio, wave number, pre-stressed membranes are discussed from a numerical point of view and the properties of the wrinkles (critical load, wavelength, size and location) are presented.

Keywords: wrinkling, thermal stresses, Fourier series, thin membranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
311 PBI Based Composite Membrane for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Kwangwon Seo, Haksoo Han


Al-Si was synthesized and introduced in poly 2,2’-m-(phenylene)-5,5’-bibenzimidazole (PBI). As a result, a series of five Al-Si/PBI composite (ASPBI) membranes (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 wt.%) were developed and characterized for application in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The chemical and morphological structure of ASPBI membranes were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. According to the doping level test and thermogravimetric analysis, as the concentration of Al-Si increased, the doping level increased up to 475%. Moreover, the proton conductivity, current density at 0.6V, and maximum power density of ASPBI membranes increased up to 0.31 Scm-1, 0.320 Acm-2, and 0.370 Wcm-2, respectively, because the increased concentration of Al-Si allows the membranes to hold more PA. Alternatively, as the amount of Al-Si increased, the tensile strength of PA-doped and -undoped membranes decreased. This was resulted by both excess PA and aggregation, which can cause serious degradation of the membrane and induce cracks. Moreover, the PA-doped and -undoped ASPBI12 had the lowest tensile strength. The improved performances of ASPBI membranes imply that ASPBI membranes are possible candidates for HT-PEMFC applications. However, further studies searching to improve the compatibility between PBI matrix and inorganic and optimize the loading of Al-Si should be performed.

Keywords: composite membrane, high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, membrane electrode assembly, polybenzimidazole, polymer electrolyte membrane, proton conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
310 Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Large Deformation Characteristics of Magnetic Responsive Hydrogel Nanocomposites Membranes

Authors: Mallikarjunachari Gangapuram


Stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite membranes are gaining significant attention these days due to their potential applications in various engineering fields. For example, sensors, soft actuators, drug delivery, remote controlled therapy, water treatment, shape morphing, and magnetic refrigeration are few advanced applications of hydrogel nanocomposite membranes. In this work, hydrogel nanocomposite membranes are synthesized by embedding nanometer-sized (diameter - 300 nm) Fe₃O₄ magnetic particles into the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. To understand the large deformation characteristics of these membranes, a well-known experimental method ball indentation technique is used. Different designing parameters such as membrane thickness, the concentration of magnetic particles and ball diameter on the viscoelastic properties are studied. All the experiments are carried out without and with a static magnetic field. Finite element simulations are carried out to validate the experimental results. It is observed, the creep response decreases and Young’s modulus increases as the thickness and concentration of magnetic particles increases. Image analysis revealed the hydrogel membranes are undergone global deformation for ball diameter 18 mm and local deformation when the diameter decreases from 18 mm to 0.5 mm.

Keywords: ball indentation, hydrogel membranes, nanocomposites, Young's modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
309 Separation of Water/Organic Mixtures Using Micro- and Nanostructured Membranes of Special Type of Wettability

Authors: F. R. Sultanov Ch. Daulbayev, B. Bakbolat, Z. A. Mansurov, A. A. Zhurintaeva, R. I. Gadilshina, A. B. Dugali


Both hydrophilic-oleophobic and hydrophobic-oleophilic membranes were obtained by coating of the substrate of membranes, presented by stainless steel meshes with various dimensions of their openings, with a composition that forms the special type of their surface wettability via spray-coating method. The surface morphology of resulting membranes was studied using SEM, the type of their wettability was identified by measuring the contact angle between the surface of membrane and a drop of studied liquid (water or organic liquid) and efficiency of continuous separation of water and organic liquid was studied on self-assembled setup.

Keywords: membrane, stainless steel mesh, oleophobicity, hydrophobicity, separation, water, organic liquids

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
308 Microporous 3D Aluminium Metal-Organic Frameworks in Chitosan Based Mixed Matrix Membrane for Ethanol/Water Separation

Authors: Madhan Vinu, Yue-Chun Jiang, Yi-Feng Lin, Chia-Her Lin


An effective approach to enhance the ethanol/water pervaporation of mixed matrix membranes prepared from three microporous aluminium based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Al(OH)(BPDC)] (DUT-5), [Al(OH)(NDC)] (DUT-4) and [Al(OH)(BzPDC)] (CAU-8) have been synthesized by employing solvothermal reactions. Interestingly, all Al-MOFs showed attractive surface area with microporous 12.3, 10.2 and 8.0 Å for DUT-5, DUT-4 and CAU-8 MOFs which are confirmed through N₂ gas sorption measurements. All the microporous compounds are highly stable as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, the synthesized microporous MOF particles of DUT-5, DUT-4, and CAU-8 were successfully incorporated into biological chitosan (CS) membranes to form [email protected], [email protected], and [email protected] membranes. The different MOF loadings such as 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 wt% in CS networks have been prepared, and the same were used to separate mixtures of water and ethanol at 25ºC in the pervaporation process. In particular, when 0.15 wt% of DUT-5 was loaded, [email protected] membrane displayed excellent permeability and selectivity in ethanol/water separation than that of the previous literature. These CS based membranes separation through functionalized microporous MOFs reveals the key governing factors that are essential for designing novel MOF membranes for bioethanol purification.

Keywords: metal-organic framework, microporous materials, separation, chitosan membranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
307 Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Filled Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Separation

Authors: Asim Laeeq Khan, Mazhar Amjad Gilani, Tayub Raza


The use of fossil fuels for energy generation leads to the emission of greenhouse gases particularly CO2 into the atmosphere. To date, several techniques have been proposed for the efficient removal of CO2 from flue gas mixtures. Membrane technology is a promising choice due to its several inherent advantages such as low capital cost, high energy efficiency, and low ecological footprint. One of the goals in the development of membranes is to achieve high permeability and selectivity. Mixed matrix membranes comprising of inorganic fillers embedded in polymer matrix are a class of membranes that have showed improved separation properties. One of the biggest challenges in the commercialization if mixed matrix membranes are the removal of non-selective voids existing at the polymer-filler interface. In this work, mixed matrix membranes were prepared using polysulfone as polymer matrix and ordered mesoporous MCM-41 as filler materials. A new approach to removing the interfacial voids was developed by introducing room temperature ionic (RTIL) at the polymer-filler interface. The results showed that the imidazolium based RTIL not only provided wettability characteristics but also helped in further improving the separation properties. The removal of interfacial voids and good contact between polymer and filler was verified by SEM measurement. The synthesized membranes were tested in a custom built gas permeation set-up for the measurement of gas permeability and ideal gas selectivity. The results showed that the mixed matrix membranes showed significantly higher CO2 permeability in comparison to the pristine membrane. In order to have further insight into the role of fillers, diffusion and solubility measurements were carried out. The results showed that the presence of highly porous fillers resulted in increasing the diffusion coefficient while the solubility showed a slight drop. The RTIL filled membranes showed higher CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivity than unfilled membranes while the permeability dropped slightly. The increase in selectivity was due to the highly selective RTIL used in this work. The study revealed that RTIL filled mixed matrix membranes are an interesting candidate for gas separation membranes.

Keywords: ionic liquids, CO2 separation, membranes, mixed matrix membranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
306 Influence of Layer-by-Layer Coating Parameters on the Properties of Hybrid Membrane for Water Treatment

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen WIese


The presented investigation studies the correlation between the process parameters of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coatings and properties of the produced hybrid membranes for water treatment. The coating of alumina ceramic support membrane with polyelectrolyte multilayers on top results in hybrid membranes with increased fouling resistant behavior, high retention (up to 90%) of salt ions and various pharmaceuticals, selectivity to various organic molecules as known from LbL coated polyether sulfone membranes and the possibility of pH response control. Chosen polyelectrolytes were added to the support using the LbL-coating process. Parameters like the type of polyelectrolyte, ionic strength, and pH were varied in order to find the most suitable process conditions and to study how they influence the properties of the final product. The applied LbL-films was investigated in respect to its homogeneity and penetration depth. The analysis of the layer buildup was performed using fluorescence labeled polyelectrolyte molecules and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy as well as Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, the influence of the coating parameters on the porosity, surface potential, retention, and permeability of the developed hybrid membranes were estimated. In conclusion, a comparison was drawn between the filtration performance of the uncoated alumina ceramic membrane and modified hybrid membranes.

Keywords: water treatment, membranes, ceramic membranes, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
305 Porous Alumina-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite Membranes Processed via Spark Plasma Sintering for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Water

Authors: H. K. Shahzad, M. A. Hussein, F. Patel, N. Al-Aqeeli, T. Laoui


The purpose of the present study was to use the adsorption mechanism with microfiltration synergistically for efficient heavy metal removal from contaminated water. Alumina (Al2O3) is commonly used for ceramic membranes development while recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered among the best adsorbent materials for heavy metals. In this work, we combined both of these materials to prepare porous Al2O3-CNTs nanocomposite membranes via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. Alumina was used as a base matrix while CNTs were added as filler. The SPS process parameters i.e. applied pressure, temperature, heating rate, and holding time were varied to obtain the best combination of porosity (64%, measured according to ASTM c373-14a) and strength (3.2 MPa, measured by diametrical compression test) of the developed membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission secondary electron microscopy (FE-SEM), contact angle and porosity measurements. The results showed that properties of the synthesized membranes were highly influenced by the SPS process parameters. FE-SEM images revealed that CNTs were reasonably dispersed in the alumina matrix. The porous membranes were evaluated for their water flux transport as well as their capacity to adsorb heavy metals ions. Selected membranes were able to remove about 97% cadmium from contaminated water. Further work is underway to enhance the removal efficiency of the developed membranes as well as to remove other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, inorganic membrane, nanocomposite, spark plasma sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
304 Fabrication of Cellulose Acetate/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes Blended with Silica and Carbon Nanotube for Desalination Process

Authors: Siti Nurkhamidah, Yeni Rahmawati, Fadlilatul Taufany, Eamor M. Woo, I Made P. A. Merta, Deffry D. A. Putra, Pitsyah Alifiyanti, Krisna D. Priambodo


Cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG) membrane was modified with varying amount of silica and carbon nanotube (CNT) to enhance its separation performance in the desalination process. These composite membranes were characterized for their hydrophilicity, morphology and permeation properties. The experiment results show that hydrophilicity of CA/PEG/Silica membranes increases with the increasing of silica concentration and the decreasing particle size of silica. From Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image, it shows that pore structure of CA/PEG membranes increases with the addition of silica. Membrane performance analysis shows that permeate flux, salt rejection, and permeability of membranes increase with the increasing of silica concentrations. The effect of CNT on the hydrophylicity, morphology, and permeation properties was also discussed.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, cellulose acetate, desalination, membrane, PEG

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
303 Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation

Authors: Lebea Nthunya, Arne Verliefde, Bhekie Mamba, Sabelo Mhlanga


A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.

Keywords: membrane distillation, modification, energy efficiency, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
302 Development of Hydrophilic Materials for Nanofiltration Membrane Achieving Dual Resistance to Fouling and Chlorine

Authors: Xi Quan Cheng, Yan Chao Xu, Xu Jiang, Lu Shao, Cher Hon Lau


A hydrophilic thin-film-composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membrane has been developed through the interfacial polymerization (IP) of amino-functional polyethylene glycol (PEG) and trimesoyl chloride. The selective layer is formed on a polyethersulfone (PES) support that is characterized using FTIR, XPS and SEM, and is dependent on monomer immersion duration, and the concentration of monomers and additives. The higher hydrophilicity alongside the larger pore size of the PEG-based selective layer is the key to a high water flux of 66.0 L m-2 h-1 at 5.0 bar. With mean pore radius of 0.42 nm and narrow pore size distribution, the MgSO4 rejections of the PEG based PA TFC NF membranes can reach up to 80.2 %. The hydrophilic PEG based membranes shows positive charged since the isoelectric points range from pH=8.9 to pH=9.1 and the rejection rates for different salts of the novel membranes are in the order of R(MgCl2)>R(MgSO4)>R(NaCl)>R(Na2SO4). The pore sizes and water permeability of these membranes are tailored by varying the molecular weight and molecular architecture of amino-functional PEG. Due to the unique structure of the selective layer of the PEG based membranes consisting of saturated aliphatic construction unit (CH2-CH2-O), the membranes demonstrate dual resistance to fouling and chlorine. The membranes maintain good salt rejections and high water flux of PEG based membranes after treatment by 2000 ppm NaClO for 24 hours. Interestingly, the PEG based membranes exhibit excellent fouling resistance with a water flux recovery of 90.2 % using BSA as a model molecule. More importantly, the hydrophilic PEG based NF membranes have been exploited to separate several water soluble antibiotics (such as tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic applied in the treatment of various types of bacterial infections), showing excellent performance in concentration or removal of antibioics.

Keywords: nanofiltration, antibiotic separation, hydrophilic membrane, high flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
301 Milling Process of Rigid Flex Printed Circuit Board to Which Polyimide Covers the Whole Surface

Authors: Daniela Evtimovska, Ivana Srbinovska, Padraig O’Rourke


Kostal Macedonia has the challenge to mill a rigid-flex printed circuit board (PCB). The PCB elaborated in this paper is made of FR4 material covered with polyimide through the whole surface on the one side, including the tabs where PCBs need to be separated. After milling only 1.44 meters, the updraft routing tool isn’t effective and causes polyimide debris on all PCB cuts if it continues to mill with the same tool. Updraft routing tool is used for all another product in Kostal Macedonia, and it is changing after milling 60 meters. Changing the tool adds 80 seconds to the cycle time. One solution is using a laser-cut machine. Buying a laser-cut machine for cutting only one product doesn’t make financial sense. The focus is given to find an internal solution among the options under review to solve the issue with polyimide debris. In the paper, the design of the rigid-flex panel is described deeply. It is evaluated downdraft routing tool as a possible solution which could be used for the flex rigid panel as a specific product. It is done a comparison between updraft and down draft routing tools from a technical and financial aspect of view, taking into consideration the customer requirements for the rigid-flex PCB. The results show that using the downdraft routing tool is the best solution in this case. This tool is more expensive for 0.62 euros per piece than updraft. The downdraft routing tool needs to be changed after milling 43.44 meters in comparison with the updraft tool, which needs to be changed after milling only 1.44 meters. It is done analysis which actions should be taken in order further improvements and the possibility of maximum serving of downdraft routing tool.

Keywords: Kostal Macedonia, rigid flex PCB, polyimide, debris, milling process, up/down draft routing tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 75