Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3438

Search results for: pollution load

3438 Assessment of the Soils Pollution Level of the Open Mine and Tailing Dump of Surrounding Territories of Akhtala Ore Processing Combine by Heavy Metals

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, T. H. Derdzyan


For assessment of the soils pollution level of the open mine and tailing dump of surrounding territories of Akhtala ore processing combine by heavy metals in 2013 collected soil samples and analyzed for different heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd. The main soil type in the study sites was the mountain cambisol. To classify soil pollution level contamination indices like Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) are calculated. The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to I geo, Cf and Cd values shows that the soil is very polluted. And also the PLI values for the 19 sites were >1, which indicates deterioration of site quality.

Keywords: soils pollution, heavy metal, geoaccumulation index, pollution load index, contamination factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
3437 Harmonic Pollution Caused by Non-Linear Load: Analysis and Identification

Authors: K. Khlifi, A. Haddouk, M. Hlaili, H. Mechergui


The present paper provides a detailed analysis of prior methods and approaches for non-linear load identification in residential buildings. The main goal of this analysis is to decipher the distorted signals and to estimate the harmonics influence on power systems. We have performed an analytical study of non-linear loads behavior in the residential environment. Simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the distorted rate of the current and follow his behavior. To complete this work, an instrumental platform has been realized to carry out practical tests on single-phase non-linear loads which illustrate the current consumption of some domestic appliances supplied with single-phase sinusoidal voltage. These non-linear loads have been processed and tracked in order to limit their influence on the power grid and to reduce the Joule effect losses. As a result, the study has allowed to identify responsible circuits of harmonic pollution.

Keywords: distortion rate, harmonic analysis, harmonic pollution, non-linear load, power factor

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3436 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis

Authors: Aditi Acharya


Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.

Keywords: environmental pollution, water pollution, nanotechnology, nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
3435 Quantification of Pollution Loads for the Rehabilitation of Pusu River

Authors: Abdullah Al-Mamun, Md. Nuruzzaman, Md. Noor Salleh, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Mohd. Zaki M. Amin, Norlida Mohd. Dom


Identification of pollution sources and determination of pollution loads from all areas are very important for sustainable rehabilitation of any contaminated river. Pusu is a small river which, flows through the main campus of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) at Gombak. Poor aesthetics of the river, which is flowing through the entrance of the campus, gives negative impression to the local and international visitors. As such, this study is being conducted to find ways to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner. The point and non-point pollution sources of the river basin are identified. Upper part of the 12.6 km2 river basin is covered with secondary forest. However, it is the lower-middle reaches of the river basin which is being cleared for residential development and source of high sediment load. Flow and concentrations of the common pollutants, important for a healthy river, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), Turbidity, pH, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AN), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) are determined. Annual pollution loading to the river was calculated based on the primary and secondary data. Concentrations of SS were high during the rainy day due to contribution from the non-point sources. There are 7 ponds along the river system within the campus, which are severely affected by high sediment load from the land clearing activities. On the other hand, concentrations of other pollutants were high during the non-rainy days. The main sources of point pollution are the hostels, cafeterias, sewage treatment plants located in the campus. Therefore, both pollution sources need to be controlled in order to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: river pollution, rehabilitation, point pollution source, non-point pollution sources, pollution loading

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3434 Estimating Industrial Pollution Load in Phnom Penh by Industrial Pollution Projection System

Authors: Vibol San, Vin Spoann


Manufacturing plays an important role in job creation around the world. In 2013, it is estimated that there were more than half a billion jobs in manufacturing. In Cambodia in 2015, the primary industry occupies 26.18% of the total economy, while agriculture is contributing 29% and the service sector 39.43%. The number of industrial factories, which are dominated by garment and textiles, has increased since 1994, mainly in Phnom Penh city. Approximately 56% out of total 1302 firms are operated in the Capital city in Cambodia. Industrialization to achieve the economic growth and social development is directly responsible for environmental degradation, threatening the ecosystem and human health issues. About 96% of total firms in Phnom Penh city are the most and moderately polluting firms, which have contributed to environmental concerns. Despite an increasing array of laws, strategies and action plans in Cambodia, the Ministry of Environment has encountered some constraints in conducting the monitoring work, including lack of human and financial resources, lack of research documents, the limited analytical knowledge, and lack of technical references. Therefore, the necessary information on industrial pollution to set strategies, priorities and action plans on environmental protection issues is absent in Cambodia. In the absence of this data, effective environmental protection cannot be implemented. The objective of this study is to estimate industrial pollution load by employing the Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS), a rapid environmental management tool for assessment of pollution load, to produce a scientific rational basis for preparing future policy direction to reduce industrial pollution in Phnom Penh city. Due to lack of industrial pollution data in Phnom Penh, industrial emissions to the air, water and land as well as the sum of emissions to all mediums (air, water, land) are estimated using employment economic variable in IPPS. Due to the high number of employees, the total environmental load generated in Phnom Penh city is estimated to be 476.980.93 tons in 2014, which is the highest industrial pollution compared to other locations in Cambodia. The result clearly indicates that Phnom Penh city is the highest emitter of all pollutants in comparison with environmental pollutants released by other provinces. The total emission of industrial pollutants in Phnom Penh shares 55.79% of total industrial pollution load in Cambodia. Phnom Penh city generates 189,121.68 ton of VOC, 165,410.58 ton of toxic chemicals to air, 38,523.33 ton of toxic chemicals to land and 28,967.86 ton of SO2 in 2014. The results of the estimation show that Textile and Apparel sector is the highest generators of toxic chemicals into land and air, and toxic metals into land, air and water, while Basic Metal sector is the highest contributor of toxic chemicals to water. Textile and Apparel sector alone emits 436,015.84 ton of total industrial pollution loads. The results suggest that reduction in industrial pollution could be achieved by focusing on the most polluting sectors.

Keywords: most polluting area, polluting industry, pollution load, pollution intensity

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3433 ECO ROADS: A Solution to the Vehicular Pollution on Roads

Authors: Harshit Garg, Shakshi Gupta


One of the major problems in today’s world is the growing pollution. The cause for all environmental problems is the increasing pollution rate. Looking upon the statistics, one can find out that most of the pollution is caused by the vehicular pollution which is more than 70 % of the total pollution, effecting the environment as well as human health proportionally. One is aware of the fact that vehicles run on roads so why not having the roads which could adsorb that pollution, not only once but a number of times. Every problem has a solution which can be solved by the state of art of technology, that is one can use the innovative ideas and thoughts to make technology as a solution to the problem of vehicular pollution on roads. Solving the problem up to a certain limit/ percentage can be formulated into a new term called ECO ROADS.

Keywords: environment, pollution, roads, sustainibility

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3432 Quantification of River Ravi Pollution and Oxidation Pond Treatment to Improve the Drain Water Quality

Authors: Yusra Mahfooz, Saleha Mehmood


With increase in industrialization and urbanization, water contaminating rivers through effluents laden with diverse chemicals in developing countries. The study was based on the waste water quality of the four drains (Outfall, Gulshan -e- Ravi, Hudiara, and Babu Sabu) which enter into river Ravi in Lahore, Pakistan. Different pollution parameters were analyzed including pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, EC, TSS, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and fecal coliform. Approximately all the water parameters of drains were exceeded the permissible level of wastewater standards. In calculation of pollution load, Hudiara drains showed highest pollution load in terms of COD i.e. 429.86 tons/day while in Babu Sabu drain highest pollution load was calculated in terms of BOD i.e. 162.82 tons/day (due to industrial and sewage discharge in it). Lab scale treatment (oxidation ponds) was designed in order to treat the waste water of Babu Sabu drain, through combination of different algae species i.e. chaetomorphasutoria, sirogoniumsticticum and zygnema sp. Two different sizes of ponds (horizontal and vertical), and three different concentration of algal samples (25g/3L, 50g/3L, and 75g/3L) were selected. After 6 days of treatment, 80 to 97% removal efficiency was found in the pollution parameters. It was observed that in the vertical pond, maximum reduction achieved i.e. turbidity 62.12%, EC 79.3%, BOD 86.6%, COD 79.72%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.6%, sulphates 96.9% and phosphates 85.3%. While in the horizontal pond, the maximum reduction in pollutant parameters, turbidity 69.79%, EC 83%, BOD 88.5%, COD 83.01%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.8%, sulphates 97% and phosphates 86.3% was observed. Overall treatment showed that maximum reduction was carried out in 50g algae setup in the horizontal pond due to large surface area, after 6 days of treatment. Results concluded that algae-based treatment are most energy efficient, which can improve drains water quality in cost effective manners.

Keywords: oxidation pond, ravi pollution, river water quality, wastewater treatment

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3431 Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments of North East Coast of Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique

Authors: R. Ravisankar, Tholkappian A. Chandrasekaran, Y. Raghu, K. K. Satapathy, M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy


The coastal areas of Tamilnadu are assuming greater importance owing to increasing human population, urbanization and accelerated industrial activities. sIn the present study, sediment samples are collected along the east coast of Tamilnadu for assessment of heavy metal pollution. The concentration of 13 selected heavy metals such as Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn determined by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In order to describe the pollution status, Contamination factor and pollution load index are calculated and reported. This result suggests that sources of metal contamination were mainly attributed to natural inputs from surrounding environments.

Keywords: sediments, heavy metals, EDXRF, pollution contamination factors

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3430 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan


The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

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3429 Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis


With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.

Keywords: clustering, load profiling, load modeling, machine learning, energy efficiency and quality

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3428 Heavy Metal Contamination of a Dumpsite Environment as Assessed with Pollution Indices

Authors: Olubunmi S. Shittu, Olufemi J. Ayodele, Augustus O. A. Ilori, Abidemi O. Filani, Adetola T. Afuye


Indiscriminate refuse dumping in and around Ado-Ekiti combined with improper management of few available dumpsites, such as Ilokun dumpsite, posed the threat of heavy metals pollution in the surrounding soils and underground water that needs assessment using pollution indices. Surface soils (0-15 cm) were taken from the centre of Ilokun dumpsite (0 m) and environs at different directions and distances during the dry and wet seasons, as well as a background sample at 1000 m away, adjacent to the dumpsite at Ilokun, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The concentration of heavy metals used to calculate the pollution indices for the soils were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The soils recorded high concentrations of all the heavy metals above the background concentrations irrespective of the season with highest concentrations at the 0 m except Ni and Fe at 50 m during the dry and wet season, respectively. The heavy metals concentration were in the order of Ni > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd > Fe during the dry season, and Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Mn during the wet season. Using the Contamination Factor (CF), the soils were classified to be moderately contaminated with Cd and Fe to very high contamination with other metals during the dry season and low Cd contamination (0.87), moderate contamination with Fe, Pb, Mn and Ni and very high contamination with Cr and Cu during the wet season. At both seasons, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicates the soils to be generally polluted with heavy metals and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) calculated shown the soils to be in unpolluted to moderately polluted levels. Enrichment Factor (EF) implied the soils to be deficiently enriched with all the heavy metals except Cr (7.90) and Cu (6.42) that were at significantly enrichment levels during the wet season. Modified Degree of Contamination (mCd) recorded, indicated the soils to be of very high to extremely high degree of contamination during the dry season and moderate degree of contamination during the wet season except 0 m with high degree of contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in the soils combined with some of the pollution indices indicated the soils in and around the Ilokun Dumpsite are being polluted with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources constituted by the indiscriminate refuse dumping.

Keywords: contamination factor, enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, modified degree of contamination, pollution load index

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3427 Long-Term Structural Behavior of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

Authors: Jung-Yoon Lee, Jongmun Kim, Hyo-Jun Chang, Jung-Min Kim


People’s tendency towards living in apartment houses is increasing in a densely populated country. However, some residents living in apartment houses are bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, the communities are increasingly imposing a bylaw, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused on the specific long-time deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program consisted of testing nine floor sound insulation specimens subjected to sustained load for 45 days. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: three types of resilient materials and magnitudes of loads. The test results indicated that the structural behavior of the floor sound insulation systems under long-time load was quite different from that the systems under short-time load. The loading period increased the deflection of floor sound insulation systems and the increasing rate of the long-time deflection of the systems with ethylene vinyl acetate was smaller than that of the systems with low density ethylene polystyrene.

Keywords: resilient materials, floor sound insulation systems, long-time deflection, sustained load, noise pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
3426 Load Management Using Multiple Sequential Load Shaping Techniques

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasi


Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential characteristic of current and future smart grid systems. As one of DSM functions, load management aims to control customers’ total electric consumption and utility’s load factor by using various load shaping techniques. However, applying load shaping techniques such as load shifting, peak clipping, or strategic conservation individually does not provide the desired level of improvement for load factor increment and/or customer’s bill reduction. In this paper, two load shaping techniques will be simulated as constrained optimization problems. The purpose is to reflect the application of combined load shifting and strategic conservation model together at the same time, and the application of combined load shifting and peak clipping model as well. The problem will be formulated and solved by using disciplined convex programming (CVX) based MATLAB® R2013b. Simulation results will be evaluated and compared for studying the most impactful multi-techniques model in improving load curve.

Keywords: convex programing, demand side management, load shaping, multiple, building energy optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3425 Two Day Ahead Short Term Load Forecasting Neural Network Based

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah


This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity. The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, artificial neural networks, back propagation learning, hourly load demand

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3424 Contribution of Electrochemical Treatment in Treating Textile Dye Wastewater

Authors: Usha N. Murthy, H. B. Rekha, Mahaveer Devoor


The introduction of more stringent pollution regulations, in relation to financial and social pressures for sustainable development, has pressed toward limiting the volumes of industrial and domestic effluents discharged into the environment-as well as to increase the efforts within research and development of new or more efficient wastewater treatment technologies. Considering both discharge volume and effluent composition, wastewater generated by the textile industry is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. The pollution load is mainly due to spent dye baths, which are composed of unreacted dyes, dispersing agents, surfactants, salts and organics. In the present investigation, the textile dye wastewater was characterized by high colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH. Electrochemical oxidation process for four plate electrodes was carried out at five different current intensities, out of which 0.14A has achieved maximum percentage removal of COD with 75% and 83% of colour. The COD removal rate in kg COD/h/m2 decreases with increase in the current intensity. The energy consumption increases with increase in the current intensity. Hence, textile dye wastewater can be effectively pre-treated by electrochemical oxidation method where the process limits objectionable colour while leaving the COD associated with organics left for natural degradation thus causing a sustainable reduction in pollution load.

Keywords: electrochemical treatment, COD, colour, environmental engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
3423 Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution

Authors: A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Alawi, T. Al-Said, E. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Roumi


Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.

Keywords: organic pollution, sea cucumbers, mitigation, Stichopus hermanni, Holothuria atra

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3422 Application Water Quality Modelling In Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Management: A Review

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. W. Ishak, S. F. Che Osmi


Nowadays the issues of water quality and water pollution have been a major problem across the country. A lot of management attempt to develop their own TMDL database in order to control the river pollution. Over the past decade, the mathematical modeling has been used as the tool for the development of TMDL. This paper presents the application of water quality modeling to develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) information. To obtain the reliable database of TMDL, the appropriate water quality modeling should choose based on the available data provided. This paper will discuss on the use of several water quality modeling such as QUAL2E, QUAL2K, and EFDC to develop TMDL. The attempts to integrate several modeling are also being discussed in this paper. Based on this paper, the differences in the application of water quality modeling based on their properties such as one, two or three dimensional are showing their ability to develop the modeling of TMDL database.

Keywords: TMDL, water quality modeling, QUAL2E, EFDC

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3421 Electric Load Forecasting Based on Artificial Neural Network for Iraqi Power System

Authors: Afaneen Anwer, Samara M. Kamil


Load Forecast required prediction accuracy based on optimal operation and maintenance. A good accuracy is the basis of economic dispatch, unit commitment, and system reliability. A good load forecasting system fulfilled fast speed, automatic bad data detection, and ability to access the system automatically to get the needed data. In this paper, the formulation of the load forecasting is discussed and the solution is obtained by using artificial neural network method. A MATLAB environment has been used to solve the load forecasting schedule of Iraqi super grid network considering the daily load for three years. The obtained results showed a good accuracy in predicting the forecasted load.

Keywords: load forecasting, neural network, back-propagation algorithm, Iraqi power system

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3420 Optimal Scheduling of Load and Operational Strategy of a Load Aggregator to Maximize Profit with PEVs

Authors: Md. Shafiullah, Ali T. Al-Awami


This project proposes optimal scheduling of imported power of a load aggregator with the utilization of EVs to maximize its profit. As with the increase of renewable energy resources, electricity price in competitive market becomes more uncertain and, on the other hand, with the penetration of renewable distributed generators in the distribution network the predicted load of a load aggregator also becomes uncertain in real time. Though there is uncertainties in both load and price, the use of EVs storage capacity can make the operation of load aggregator flexible. LA submits its offer to day-ahead market based on predicted loads and optimized use of its EVs to maximize its profit, as well as in real time operation it uses its energy storage capacity in such a way that it can maximize its profit. In this project, load aggregators profit maximization algorithm is formulated and the optimization problem is solved with the help of CVX. As in real time operation the forecasted loads differ from actual load, the mismatches are settled in real time balancing market. Simulation results compare the profit of a load aggregator with a hypothetical group of 1000 EVs and without EVs.

Keywords: CVX, electricity market, load aggregator, load and price uncertainties, profit maximization, real time balancing operation

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3419 Numerical Modelling of Dust Propagation in the Atmosphere of Tbilisi City in Case of Western Background Light Air

Authors: N. Gigauri, V. Kukhalashvili, A. Surmava, L. Intskirveli, L. Gverdtsiteli


Tbilisi, a large city of the South Caucasus, is a junction point connecting Asia and Europe, Russia and republics of the Asia Minor. Over the last years, its atmosphere has been experienced an increasing anthropogenic load. Numerical modeling method is used for study of Tbilisi atmospheric air pollution. By means of 3D non-linear non-steady numerical model a peculiarity of city atmosphere pollution is investigated during background western light air. Dust concentration spatial and time changes are determined. There are identified the zones of high, average and less pollution, dust accumulation areas, transfer directions etc. By numerical modeling, there is shown that the process of air pollution by the dust proceeds in four stages, and they depend on the intensity of motor traffic, the micro-relief of the city, and the location of city mains. In the interval of time 06:00-09:00 the intensive growth, 09:00-15:00 a constancy or weak decrease, 18:00-21:00 an increase, and from 21:00 to 06:00 a reduction of the dust concentrations take place. The highly polluted areas are located in the vicinity of the city center and at some peripherical territories of the city, where the maximum dust concentration at 9PM is equal to 2 maximum allowable concentrations. The similar investigations conducted in case of various meteorological situations will enable us to compile the map of background urban pollution and to elaborate practical measures for ambient air protection.

Keywords: air pollution, dust, numerical modeling, urban

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3418 A Statistical Approach to Rationalise the Number of Working Load Test for Quality Control of Pile Installation in Singapore Jurong Formation

Authors: Nuo Xu, Kok Hun Goh, Jeyatharan Kumarasamy


Pile load testing is significant during foundation construction due to its traditional role of design validation and routine quality control of the piling works. In order to verify whether piles can take loadings at specified settlements, piles will have to undergo working load test where the test load should normally up to 150% of the working load of a pile. Selection or sampling of piles for the working load test is done subject to the number specified in Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7 SS EN 1997-1:2010. This paper presents an innovative way to rationalize the number of pile load test by adopting statistical analysis approach and looking at the coefficient of variance of pile elastic modulus using a case study at Singapore Tuas depot. Results are very promising and have shown that it is possible to reduce the number of working load test without influencing the reliability and confidence on the pile quality. Moving forward, it is suggested that more load test data from other geological formations to be examined to compare with the findings from this paper.

Keywords: elastic modulus of pile under soil interaction, jurong formation, kentledge test, pile load test

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3417 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang


In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

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3416 Short Term Distribution Load Forecasting Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam


The major tool for distribution planning is load forecasting, which is the anticipation of the load in advance. Artificial neural networks have found wide applications in load forecasting to obtain an efficient strategy for planning and management. In this paper, the application of neural networks to study the design of short term load forecasting (STLF) Systems was explored. Our work presents a pragmatic methodology for short term load forecasting (STLF) using proposed two-stage model of wavelet transform (WT) and artificial neural network (ANN). It is a two-stage prediction system which involves wavelet decomposition of input data at the first stage and the decomposed data with another input is trained using a separate neural network to forecast the load. The forecasted load is obtained by reconstruction of the decomposed data. The hybrid model has been trained and validated using load data from Telangana State Electricity Board.

Keywords: electrical distribution systems, wavelet transform (WT), short term load forecasting (STLF), artificial neural network (ANN)

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3415 Non-Linear Control in Positioning of PMLSM by Estimates of the Load Force by MRAS Method

Authors: Maamar Yahiaoui, Abdelrrahmene Kechich, Ismail Elkhallile Bousserhene


This article presents a study in simulation by means of MATLAB/Simulink software of the nonlinear control in positioning of a linear synchronous machine with the esteemed force of load, to have effective control in the estimator in all tests the wished trajectory follows and the disturbance of load start. The results of simulation prove clearly that the control proposed can detect the reference of positioning the value estimates of load force equal to the actual value.

Keywords: mathematical model, Matlab, PMLSM, control, linearization, estimator, force, load, current

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
3414 Treatment of Sanitary Landfill Leachate by Advanced Oxidation Techniques

Authors: R. Kerbachi , Y. Medkour, F. Sahnoune


The integrated waste management is an important aspect in the implementation of sustainable development. Leachate generated by sanitary landfills is a high-strength wastewater that is likely to contain large amounts of organic and inorganic matter, with humic substances, as well as ammonia nitrogen, heavy metals, chlorinated organic and inorganic salts. Untreated leachates create a great potential for harm to the environment, they can permeate ground water or mix with surface water and contribute to the pollution of soil, ground water, and surface water. In Algeria, the treatment of landfill leachate is the weakest link in the solid waste management. This study focuses on the evaluation of the pollution load carried by leachate produced in a former sanitary landfill located to the west of Algiers and the implementation of advanced oxidation treatment (advanced oxidation process, AOP), Fenton, electro-Fenton etc. The characterization of these leachates shows that they have a high organic load, mineral and nitrogen. Measured COD reaches very high values of the order of 5000 to 20,000 mg O2 / L. On this non-biodegradable leachate, treatment tests have been carried out by the methods of coagulation-flocculation, Fenton oxidation, electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton. The removal efficiencies of pollution obtained for each of these modes of treatment are respectively 69, 80, 84 and 97%. The study shows that advanced oxidation processes are very suitable for the treatment of poorly biodegradable leachate.

Keywords: advanced oxidation processes, electrocoagulation, electro-Fenton, leachates treatment, sanitary landfill

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3413 Finding Viable Pollution Routes in an Urban Network under a Predefined Cost

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou, Stefanos Katsavounis, Ria Kalfakakou


In an urban area the determination of transportation routes should be planned so as to minimize the provoked pollution taking into account the cost of such routes. In the sequel these routes are cited as pollution routes. The transportation network is expressed by a weighted graph G= (V, E, D, P) where every vertex represents a location to be served and E contains unordered pairs (edges) of elements in V that indicate a simple road. The distances/cost and a weight that depict the provoked air pollution by a vehicle transition at every road are assigned to each road as well. These are the items of set D and P respectively. Furthermore the investigated pollution routes must not exceed predefined corresponding values concerning the route cost and the route pollution level during the vehicle transition. In this paper we present an algorithm that generates such routes in order that the decision maker selects the most appropriate one.

Keywords: bi-criteria, pollution, shortest paths, computation

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3412 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei


In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

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3411 Investigation of Different Control Stratgies for UPFC Decoupled Model and the Impact of Location on Control Parameters

Authors: S. A. Al-Qallaf, S. A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider


In order to evaluate the performance of a unified power flow controller (UPFC), mathematical models for steady state and dynamic analysis are to be developed. The steady state model is mainly concerned with the incorporation of the UPFC in load flow studies. Several load flow models for UPFC have been introduced in literature, and one of the most reliable models is the decoupled UPFC model. In spite of UPFC decoupled load flow model simplicity, it is more robust compared to other UPFC load flow models and it contains unique capabilities. Some shortcoming such as additional set of nonlinear equations are to be solved separately after the load flow solution is obtained. The aim of this study is to investigate the different control strategies that can be realized in the decoupled load flow model (individual control and combined control), and the impact of the location of the UPFC in the network on its control parameters.

Keywords: UPFC, decoupled model, load flow, control parameters

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3410 A Robust PID Load Frequency Controller of Interconnected Power System Using SDO Software

Authors: Pasala Gopi, P. Linga Reddy


The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected electrical power system is much more complex with increasing size, changing structure and increasing load. This paper deals with Load Frequency Control of three area interconnected Power system incorporating Reheat, Non-reheat and Reheat turbines in all areas respectively. The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected power system is improved by designing PID controller using different tuning techniques and proved that the PID controller which was designed by Simulink Design Optimization (SDO) Software gives the superior performance than other controllers for step perturbations. Finally the robustness of controller was checked against system parameter variations

Keywords: load frequency control, pid controller tuning, step load perturbations, inter connected power system

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3409 Investigations of Heavy Metals Pollution in Sediments of Small Urban Lakes in Karelia Republic

Authors: Aleksandr Medvedev, Zakhar Slukovsii


Waterbodies, which are located either within urban areas or nearby towns, permanently undergo anthropogenic load. The extent of the load can be determined via investigations of chemical composition of both water and sediments. Lakes, as a rule, are considered as a landscape depressions, hence they are capable of natural material accumulating, which has been delivered from the catchment area through rivers as well as temporary flows. As a result, lacustrine sediments (especially closed-basin lakes sediments) are considered as perfect archives, which are served for reconstructing past sedimentation process, assessment of the modern contamination level, and prognostication of possible ways of changing in the future. The purposes of the survey are to define a heavy metals content in lake sediments cores, which were retrieved from four urban lakes located in the southern part of Karelia Republic, and to ascertain the main sources of heavy metals input to these waterbodies. It is really crucial to be aware of heavy metals content in environment, because chemical composition of a landscape may have a significant effect on living organisms and people’s health. Sediment columns were sampled in a field with 2-cm intervals by a gravitational corer called «Limnos». The sediment samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP MS) for 8 chemical elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, V). The highest concentrations of trace elements were established in the upper and middle layers of the cores. It has also been ascertained that the extent of contamination mostly depends on a remoteness of a lake from various pollution sources and features of the sources.

Keywords: bottom sediments, environmental pollution, heavy metals, lakes

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