Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Y. Raghu

11 Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments of North East Coast of Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique

Authors: R. Ravisankar, Tholkappian A. Chandrasekaran, Y. Raghu, K. K. Satapathy, M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy


The coastal areas of Tamilnadu are assuming greater importance owing to increasing human population, urbanization and accelerated industrial activities. sIn the present study, sediment samples are collected along the east coast of Tamilnadu for assessment of heavy metal pollution. The concentration of 13 selected heavy metals such as Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn determined by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In order to describe the pollution status, Contamination factor and pollution load index are calculated and reported. This result suggests that sources of metal contamination were mainly attributed to natural inputs from surrounding environments.

Keywords: sediments, heavy metals, EDXRF, pollution contamination factors

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10 Modelling of Lunar Lander’s Thruster’s Exhaust Plume Impingement in Vacuum

Authors: Mrigank Sahai, R. Sri Raghu


This paper presents the modelling of rocket exhaust plume flow field and exhaust plume impingement in vacuum for the liquid apogee engine and attitude control thrusters of the lunar lander. Analytic formulations for rarefied gas kinetics has been taken as reference for modelling the plume flow field. The plume has been modelled as high speed, collision-less, axi-symmetric gas jet, expanding into vacuum and impinging at a normally set diffusive circular plate. Specular reflections have not been considered for the present study. Different parameters such as number density, temperature, pressure, flow velocity, heat flux etc., have been calculated and have been plotted against and compared to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo results. These analyses have provided important information for the placement of critical optical instruments and design of optimal thermal insulation for the hardware that may come in contact with the thruster exhaust.

Keywords: collision-less gas, lunar lander, plume impingement, rarefied exhaust plume

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9 Drum Scrubber Performance Assessment and Improvement to Achieve the Desired Product Quality

Authors: Prateek Singh, Arun Kumar Pandey, C. Raghu Kumar, M. R. Rath, A. S. Reddy


Drum scrubber is widely used equipment in the washing of Iron ore. The purpose of the scrubber is to release the adhered fine clayey particles from the iron-bearing particles. Presently, the iron ore wash plants in the Eastern region of India consist of the scrubber, double deck screen followed by screw classifier as the main unit operations. Hence, scrubber performance efficiency has a huge impact on the downstream product quality. This paper illustrates the effect of scrubber feed % solids on scrubber performance and alumina distribution on downstream equipment. Further, it was established that scrubber performance efficiency could be defined as the ratio of the adhered particles (-0.15mm) released from scrubber feed during scrubbing operation with respect to the maximum possible release of -0.15mm (%) particles.

Keywords: scrubber, adhered particles, feed % solids, efficiency

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8 A Mini-Review on Effect of Magnetic Field and Material on Combustion Engines

Authors: A. N. Santhosh, Vinay Hegde, S. Vinod Kumar, R. Giria, D. L. Rakesh, M. S. Raghu


At present, research on automobile engineering is in high demand, particularly in the field of fuel combustion. A large number of fossil fuels are being used in combustion, which may get exhausted in the near future and are not economical. To this end, research on the use of magnetic material in combustion engines is in progress to enhance the efficiency of fuel. The present review describes the chemical, physical and mathematical theory behind the magnetic materials along with the working principle of the internal combustion engine. The effect of different magnets like ferrite magnet, Neodymium magnet, and electromagnets was discussed. The effect of magnetic field on the consumption of the fuel, brake thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon emission, along with smoke density, have been discussed in detail. Detailed mathematical modelling that shows the effect of magnetic field on fuel combustion is elaborated. Required pictorial representations are included wherever necessary. This review article could serve as a base for studying the effect of magnetic materials on IC engines.

Keywords: magnetic field, energizer, fuel conditioner, fuel consumption, emission reduction

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7 Direct Strength Method Approach for Indian Cold Formed Steel Sections with and Without Perforation for Compression Member

Authors: K. Raghu, Altafhusen P. Pinjar


Cold-formed steel section are extensively used in industry and many other non-industry constructions worldwide, it is relatively a new concept in India. Cold-formed steel sections have been developed as more economical building solutions to the alternative heavier hot-rolled sections in the commercial and residential markets. Cold‐formed steel (CFS) structural members are commonly manufactured with perforations to accommodate plumbing, electrical, and heating conduits in the walls and ceilings of buildings. Current design methods available to engineers for predicting the strength of CFS members with perforations are prescriptive and limited to specific perforation locations, spacing, and sizes. The Direct Strength Method (DSM), a relatively new design method for CFS members validated for members with and without perforations, predicts the ultimate strength of general CFS members with the elastic buckling properties of the member cross section. The design compression strength and flexural strength of Indian (IS 811-1987) standard sections is calculated as per North American Specification (AISI-S100 2007) and software CUFSM 4.05.

Keywords: direct strength, cold formed, perforations, CUFSM

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6 Studies on Pesticide Usage Pattern and Farmers Knowledge on Pesticide Usage and Technologies in Open Field and Poly House Conditions

Authors: B. Raghu, Shashi Vemuri, Ch. Sreenivasa Rao


The survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out by interviewing farmers growing chill in open fields and poly houses based on the questionnaire prepared to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of poly house farmers are high compared to open field farmers, where 57.14% poly house farmers are high school educated, whereas 35% open field farmers are illiterates. Majority farmers use nursery of 35 days and grow in <0.5 acre poly house in summer and rabi and < 1 acre in open field during kharif. Awareness on pesticide related issues is varying among poly house and open field farmers with some commonality, where 28.57% poly house farmers know about recommended pesticides while only 10% open field farmers are aware of this issue. However, in general, all farmers contact pesticide dealer for recommendations, poly house farmers prefer to contact scientists (35.71%) and open field farmers prefer to contact agricultural officers (33.33). Most farmers are unaware about pesticide classification and toxicity symbols on packing. Farmers are aware about endosulfan ban, but only 21.42% poly house and 11.66% open field farmers know about ban of monocrotofos on vegetables. Very few farmers know about pesticide residues and related issues, but know washing helps to reduce contamination.

Keywords: open field, pesticide usage, polyhouses, residues survey

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5 Structural Health Monitoring using Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors in Slab and Beams

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Dinesh Muthoo, Kim twiname


Many existing and newly built structures are constructed on the design basis of the engineer and the workmanship of the construction company. However, when considering larger structures where more people are exposed to the building, its structural integrity is of great importance considering the safety of its occupants (Raghu, 2013). But how can the structural integrity of a building be monitored efficiently and effectively. This is where the fourth industrial revolution step in, and with minimal human interaction, data can be collected, analysed, and stored, which could also give an indication of any inconsistencies found in the data collected, this is where the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) monitoring system is introduced. This paper illustrates how data can be collected and converted to develop stress – strain behaviour and to produce bending moment diagrams for the utilisation and prediction of the structure’s integrity. Embedded fibre optic sensors were used in this study– fibre Bragg grating sensors in particular. The procedure entailed making use of the shift in wavelength demodulation technique and an inscription process of the phase mask technique. The fibre optic sensors considered in this report were photosensitive and embedded in the slab and beams for data collection and analysis. Two sets of fibre cables have been inserted, one purposely to collect temperature recordings and the other to collect strain and temperature. The data was collected over a time period and analysed used to produce bending moment diagrams to make predictions of the structure’s integrity. The data indicated the fibre Bragg grating sensing system proved to be useful and can be used for structural health monitoring in any environment. From the experimental data for the slab and beams, the moments were found to be64.33 kN.m, 64.35 kN.m and 45.20 kN.m (from the experimental bending moment diagram), and as per the idealistic (Ultimate Limit State), the data of 133 kN.m and 226.2 kN.m were obtained. The difference in values gave room for an early warning system, in other words, a reserve capacity of approximately 50% to failure.

Keywords: fibre bragg grating, structural health monitoring, fibre optic sensors, beams

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4 Diagrid Structural System

Authors: K. Raghu, Sree Harsha


The interrelationship between the technology and architecture of tall buildings is investigated from the emergence of tall buildings in late 19th century to the present. In the late 19th century early designs of tall buildings recognized the effectiveness of diagonal bracing members in resisting lateral forces. Most of the structural systems deployed for early tall buildings were steel frames with diagonal bracings of various configurations such as X, K, and eccentric. Though the historical research a filtering concept is developed original and remedial technology- through which one can clearly understand inter-relationship between the technical evolution and architectural esthetic and further stylistic transition buildings. Diagonalized grid structures – “diagrids” - have emerged as one of the most innovative and adaptable approaches to structuring buildings in this millennium. Variations of the diagrid system have evolved to the point of making its use non-exclusive to the tall building. Diagrid construction is also to be found in a range of innovative mid-rise steel projects. Contemporary design practice of tall buildings is reviewed and design guidelines are provided for new design trends. Investigated in depths are the behavioral characteristics and design methodology for diagrids structures, which emerge as a new direction in the design of tall buildings with their powerful structural rationale and symbolic architectural expression. Moreover, new technologies for tall building structures and facades are developed for performance enhancement through design integration, and their architectural potentials are explored. By considering the above data the analysis and design of 40-100 storey diagrids steel buildings is carried out using E-TABS software with diagrids of various angle to be found for entire building which will be helpful to reduce the steel requirement for the structure. The present project will have to undertake wind analysis, seismic analysis for lateral loads acting on the structure due to wind loads, earthquake loads, gravity loads. All structural members are designed as per IS 800-2007 considering all load combination. Comparison of results in terms of time period, top storey displacement and inter-storey drift to be carried out. The secondary effect like temperature variations are not considered in the design assuming small variation.

Keywords: diagrid, bracings, structural, building

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3 Transforming Citrus Waste to Value Added Products: A Sustainable Approach Towards Biorefinery

Authors: Amit Keshav, B. Mazumdar, Raghu Vamsie Kollati


Current attention on food sustainability focuses on food security and nutrition and to reduce food waste and spoilage, yet, large amounts of foods wastes are dumped throughout the world. The estimated energy consumption has focused that India rely 44% on coal, 7% on natural gas, 22% on petroleum and other liquids for their energy requirements.On the contrary, the demand for biofuels is growing rapidly throughout the globe since, fossil-based fuels are non-renewable and finite. So, current attention on clean and efficient energy routes (renewable sources) are highly explored for a sustainable development. Rapid population growth has resulted in significant quantity of food waste which has a high potential to convert into value added products (natural dyes, polyphenols, flavonoids, amino acids and fatty acids) or bio-fuels. High volumes of Food supply chain waste (FSCW) accumulated over has a potential to be used as a feed stock for bio-refineries. A large ton of citrous fruits such as oranges, lemon, mosambi etc. is used for juice extraction leaving behind 50 wt% of citrus waste. Citrus fruit waste has proven that it has potential for the production of phytochemicals such as pectin, essential oils, phenolic compounds and flavonoids etc. The compounds are used as flavouring, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent and also have antioxidant activities. Employing food waste for extraction of value-added products reduces environmental concerns (solid waste management) and increases the value to the product. Conventionally used extraction techniques require large quantity of solvents requires high extractive time and are ineffective. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) in this regard is a green extraction technique that offers many advantages such as the reduction of the extraction time and solvent consumption, possibility of simultaneously extracting multiple samples, drastically improving the sample output. MAE is a promising technique used for extraction of medium to high polarity compounds from a solid matrix. In the present work, acid-less hydrothermal MW treatment <150°C was applied to citrus waste for an efficient recovery of phytochemicals. Many studies shown that MAE could be used for reducing the recovery time significantly in contrary to the conventional extraction methods.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction, phytochemicals, food waste, citrus fruits

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2 Public-Private Partnership for Critical Infrastructure Resilience

Authors: Anjula Negi, D. T. V. Raghu Ramaswamy, Rajneesh Sareen


Road infrastructure is emphatically one of the top most critical infrastructure to the Indian economy. Road network in the country of around 3.3 million km is the second largest in the world. Nationwide statistics released by Ministry of Road, Transport and Highways reveal that every minute an accident happens and one death every 3.7 minutes. This reported scale in terms of safety is a matter of grave concern, and economically represents a national loss of 3% to the GDP. Union Budget 2016-17 has allocated USD 12 billion annually for development and strengthening of roads, an increase of 56% from last year. Thus, highlighting the importance of roads as critical infrastructure. National highway alone represent only 1.7% of the total road linkages, however, carry over 40% of traffic. Further, trends analysed from 2002 -2011 on national highways, indicate that in less than a decade, a 22 % increase in accidents have been reported, but, 68% increase in death fatalities. Paramount inference is that accident severity has increased with time. Over these years many measures to increase road safety, lessening damage to physical assets, reducing vulnerabilities leading to a build-up for resilient road infrastructure have been taken. In the context of national highway development program, policy makers proposed implementation of around 20 % of such road length on PPP mode. These roads were taken up on high-density traffic considerations and for qualitative implementation. In order to understand resilience impacts and safety parameters, enshrined in various PPP concession agreements executed with the private sector partners, such highway specific projects would be appraised. This research paper would attempt to assess such safety measures taken and the possible reasons behind an increase in accident severity through these PPP case study projects. Delving further on safety features to understand policy measures adopted in these cases and an introspection on reasons of severity, whether an outcome of increased speeds, faulty road design and geometrics, driver negligence, or due to lack of discipline in following lane traffic with increased speed. Assessment exercise would study these aspects hitherto to PPP and post PPP project structures, based on literature review and opinion surveys with sectoral experts. On the way forward, it is understood that the Ministry of Road, Transport and Highway’s estimate for strengthening the national highway network is USD 77 billion within next five years. The outcome of this paper would provide an understanding of resilience measures adopted, possible options for accessible and safe road network and its expansion to policy makers for possible policy initiatives and funding allocation in securing critical infrastructure.

Keywords: national highways, policy, PPP, safety

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1 Experimental Study on Granulated Steel Slag as an Alternative to River Sand

Authors: K. Raghu, M. N. Vathhsala, Naveen Aradya, Sharth


River sand is the most preferred fine aggregate for mortar and concrete. River sand is a product of natural weathering of rocks over a period of millions of years and is mined from river beds. Sand mining has disastrous environmental consequences. The excessive mining of river bed is creating an ecological imbalance. This has lead to have restrictions imposed by ministry of environment on sand mining. Driven by the acute need for sand, stone dust or manufactured sand prepared from the crushing and screening of coarse aggregate is being used as sand in the recent past. However manufactured sand is also a natural material and has quarrying and quality issues. To reduce the burden on the environment, alternative materials to be used as fine aggregates are being extensively investigated all over the world. Looking to the quantum of requirements, quality and properties there has been a global consensus on a material – Granulated slags. Granulated slag has been proven as a suitable material for replacing natural sand / crushed fine aggregates. In developed countries, the use of granulated slag as fine aggregate to replace natural sand is well established and is in regular practice. In the present paper Granulated slag has been experimented for usage in mortar. Slags are the main by-products generated during iron and steel production in the steel industry. Over the past decades, the steel production has increased and, consequently, the higher volumes of by-products and residues generated which have driven to the reuse of these materials in an increasingly efficient way. In recent years new technologies have been developed to improve the recovery rates of slags. Increase of slags recovery and use in different fields of applications like cement making, construction and fertilizers help in preserving natural resources. In addition to the environment protection, these practices produced economic benefits, by providing sustainable solutions that can allow the steel industry to achieve its ambitious targets of “zero waste” in coming years. Slags are generated at two different stages of steel production, iron making and steel making known as BF(Blast Furnace) slag and steel slag respectively. The slagging agent or fluxes, such as lime stone, dolomite and quartzite added into BF or steel making furnaces in order to remove impurities from ore, scrap and other ferrous charges during smelting. The slag formation is the result of a complex series of physical and chemical reactions between the non-metallic charge(lime stone, dolomite, fluxes), the energy sources(coal, coke, oxygen, etc.) and refractory materials. Because of the high temperatures (about 15000 C) during their generation, slags do not contain any organic substances. Due to the fact that slags are lighter than the liquid metal, they float and get easily removed. The slags protect the metal bath from atmosphere and maintain temperature through a kind of liquid formation. These slags are in liquid state and solidified in air after dumping in the pit or granulated by impinging water systems. Generally, BF slags are granulated and used in cement making due to its high cementious properties, and steel slags are mostly dumped due to unfavourable physio-chemical conditions. The increasing dump of steel slag not only occupies a plenty of land but also wastes resources and can potentially have an impact on the environment due to water pollution. Since BF slag contains little Fe and can be used directly. BF slag has found a wide application, such as cement production, road construction, Civil Engineering work, fertilizer production, landfill daily cover, soil reclamation, prior to its application outside the iron and steel making process.

Keywords: steel slag, river sand, granulated slag, environmental

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