Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Marios N. Moschakis

10 Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis


With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.

Keywords: clustering, load profiling, load modeling, machine learning, energy efficiency and quality

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9 Comparison of Machine Learning Models for the Prediction of System Marginal Price of Greek Energy Market

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis


The Greek Energy Market is structured as a mandatory pool where the producers make their bid offers in day-ahead basis. The System Operator solves an optimization routine aiming at the minimization of the cost of produced electricity. The solution of the optimization problem leads to the calculation of the System Marginal Price (SMP). Accurate forecasts of the SMP can lead to increased profits and more efficient portfolio management from the producer`s perspective. Aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of various machine learning models such as artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy models for the prediction of the SMP of the Greek market. Machine learning algorithms are favored in predictions problems since they can capture and simulate the volatilities of complex time series.

Keywords: deregulated energy market, forecasting, machine learning, system marginal price

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8 Voltage Sag Characteristics during Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Faults

Authors: Ioannis Binas, Marios Moschakis


Electrical faults in transmission and distribution networks can have great impact on the electrical equipment used. Fault effects depend on the characteristics of the fault as well as the network itself. It is important to anticipate the network’s behavior during faults when planning a new equipment installation, as well as troubleshooting. Moreover, working backwards, we could be able to estimate the characteristics of the fault when checking the perceived effects. Different transformer winding connections dominantly used in the Greek power transfer and distribution networks and the effects of 1-phase to neutral, phase-to-phase, 2-phases to neutral and 3-phase faults on different locations of the network were simulated in order to present voltage sag characteristics. The study was performed on a generic network with three steps down transformers on two voltage level buses (one 150 kV/20 kV transformer and two 20 kV/0.4 kV). We found that during faults, there are significant changes both on voltage magnitudes and on phase angles. The simulations and short-circuit analysis were performed using the PSCAD simulation package. This paper presents voltage characteristics calculated for the simulated network, with different approaches on the transformer winding connections during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults on various locations.

Keywords: Phase angle shift, power quality, transformer winding connections, voltage sag propagation

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7 Evaluation of Energy Upgrade Measures and Connection of Renewable Energy Sources Using Software Tools: Case Study of an Academic Library Building in Larissa, Greece

Authors: Giwrgos S. Gkarmpounis, Aikaterini G. Rokkou, Marios N. Moschakis


Increased energy consumption in the academic buildings, creates the need to implement energy saving measures and to take advantage of the renewable energy sources to cover the electrical needs of those buildings. An Academic Library will be used as a case study. With the aid of RETScreen software that takes into account the energy consumptions and characteristics of the Library Building, it is proved that measures such as the replacement of fluorescent lights with led lights, the installation of outdoor shading, the replacement of the openings and Building Management System installation, provide a high level of energy savings. Moreover, given the available space of the building and the climatic data, the installation of a photovoltaic system of 100 kW can also cover a serious amount of the building energy consumption, unlike a wind system that seems uncompromising. Lastly, HOMER software is used to compare the use of a photovoltaic system against a wind system in order to verify the results that came up from the RETScreen software concerning the renewable energy sources.

Keywords: building sector, energy saving measures, energy upgrading, homer software, renewable energy sources, RETScreen software

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6 Bioclimatic Design, Evaluation of Energy Behavior and Energy-Saving Interventions at the Theagenio Cancer Hospital

Authors: Emmanouel Koumoulas, Aikaterini Rokkou, Marios Moschakis


Theagenio" in Thessaloniki exists and works for three centuries now as a hospital. Since 1975, it has been operating as an Integrated Special Cancer Hospital and since 1985 it has been integrated into the National Health System. "Theagenio" Cancer Hospital is located at the central web of Thessaloniki residential complex and consists of two buildings, the "Symeonidio Research Center", which was completed in 1962 and the Nursing Ward, a project that was later completed in 1975. This paper examines the design of the Hospital Unit according to the requirements of the energy design of buildings. Initially, the energy characteristics of the Hospital are recorded, followed by a detailed presentation of the electromechanical installations. After the existing situation has been captured and with the help of the software TEE-KENAK, different scenarios for the energy upgrading of the buildings have been studied. Proposals for upgrading concern both the shell, e.g. installation of external thermal insulation, replacement of frames, addition of shading systems, etc. as well as electromechanical installations, e.g. use of ceiling fans, improvements in heating and cooling systems, interventions in lighting, etc. The simulation calculates the future energy status of the buildings and presents the economic benefits of the proposed interventions with reference to the environmental profits that arise.

Keywords: energy consumption in hospitals, energy saving interventions, energy upgrading, hospital facilities

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5 Encapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria in Complex Coacervates

Authors: L. A. Bosnea, T. Moschakis, C. Biliaderis


Two probiotic strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (E6) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (B1), isolated from traditional Greek dairy products, were microencapsulated by complex coacervation using whey protein isolate (WPI, 3% w/v) and gum arabic (GA, 3% w/v) solutions mixed at different polymer ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 4:1). The effect of total biopolymer concentration on cell viability was assessed using WPI and GA solutions of 1, 3 and 6% w/v at a constant ratio of 2:1. Also, several parameters were examined for optimization of the microcapsule formation, such as inoculum concentration and the effect of ionic strength. The viability of the bacterial cells during heat treatment and under simulated gut conditions was also evaluated. Among the different WPI/GA weight ratios tested (1:1, 2:1, and 4:1), the highest survival rate was observed for the coacervate structures made with the ratio of 2:1. The protection efficiency at low pH values is influenced by both concentration and the ratio of the added biopolymers. Moreover, the inoculum concentration seems to affect the efficiency of microcapsules to entrap the bacterial cells since an optimum level was noted at less than 8 log cfu/ml. Generally, entrapment of lactobacilli in the complex coacervate structure enhanced the viability of the microorganisms when exposed to a low pH environment (pH 2.0). Both encapsulated strains retained high viability in simulated gastric juice (>73%), especially in comparison with non-encapsulated (free) cells (<19%). The encapsulated lactobacilli also exhibited enhanced viability after 10–30 min of heat treatment (65oC) as well as at different NaCl concentrations (pH 4.0). Overall, the results of this study suggest that complex coacervation with WPI/GA has a potential to deliver live probiotics in low pH food systems and fermented dairy products; the complexes can dissolve at pH 7.0 (gut environment), releasing the microbial cells.

Keywords: probiotic, complex coacervation, whey, encapsulation

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4 Isotretinoin and Psychiatric Adverse Events: A Review of the Evidence

Authors: Thodoris Tsagkaris, Marios Stavropoulos, Panagiotis Theodosis-Nobelos, Charalampos Triantis


Isotretinoin is a widely used therapeutic for the treatment of acne vulgaris and various other skin disorders. However, since its approval, many side effects and contraindications have been described, particularly important, such as teratogenicity as well as liver disease and dermal deterioration. In a very important allegation, isotretinoin has been linked with psychiatric symptoms like depression, suicidal ideation, schizophrenia, and hypervitaminosis A syndrome characteristics. These adverse effects have raised significant concerns regarding the safety of isotretinoin. Numerous studies and research have associated isotretinoin with side effects on the mental health of patients and have proposed plausible mechanisms regarding this suspected causative relationship. However, the evidence is still contradicting, and the data disperse, making their validity less valuable. Thus, in the present study, we aim to analyze further the available literature and present a complete analysis of the side effects of isotretinoin, with particular emphasis on the effects it may have on the mental health of patients. The review is based on international articles from broad scientific electronic databases like PubMed and Scopus. This review concludes that although many studies have associated isotretinoin with mental effects like depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and suicidal ideation, the data are still insufficient and often contradictory. In fact, additional studies with accurate data and larger double-blinded samples, and more analytic systematic reviews are required. It is especially important to monitor the dose and the intervals that isotretinoin has to be administered in order to potentially cause mental health problems, as well as the duration of treatment and the role that the patient's medical and pharmaceutical history may play.

Keywords: acne, depression, isotretinoin, mental health

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3 Learning Gains and Constraints Resulting from Haptic Sensory Feedback among Preschoolers' Engagement during Science Experimentation

Authors: Marios Papaevripidou, Yvoni Pavlou, Zacharias Zacharia


Embodied cognition and additional (touch) sensory channel theories indicate that physical manipulation is crucial to learning since it provides, among others, touch sensory input, which is needed for constructing knowledge. Given these theories, the use of Physical Manipulatives (PM) becomes a prerequisite for learning. On the other hand, empirical research on Virtual Manipulatives (VM) (e.g., simulations) learning has provided evidence showing that the use of PM, and thus haptic sensory input, is not always a prerequisite for learning. In order to investigate which means of experimentation, PM or VM, are required for enhancing student science learning at the kindergarten level, an empirical study was conducted that sought to investigate the impact of haptic feedback on the conceptual understanding of pre-school students (n=44, age mean=5,7) in three science domains: beam balance (D1), sinking/floating (D2) and springs (D3). The participants were equally divided in two groups according to the type of manipulatives used (PM: presence of haptic feedback, VM: absence of haptic feedback) during a semi-structured interview for each of the domains. All interviews followed the Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy and consisted of three phases: initial evaluation, experimentation, final evaluation. The data collected through the interviews were analyzed qualitatively (open-coding for identifying students’ ideas in each domain) and quantitatively (use of non-parametric tests). Findings revealed that the haptic feedback enabled students to distinguish heavier to lighter objects when held in hands during experimentation. In D1 the haptic feedback did not differentiate PM and VM students' conceptual understanding of the function of the beam as a mean to compare the mass of objects. In D2 the haptic feedback appeared to have a negative impact on PM students’ learning. Feeling the weight of an object strengthen PM students’ misconception that heavier objects always sink, whereas the scientifically correct idea that the material of an object determines its sinking/floating behavior in the water was found to be significantly higher among the VM students than the PM ones. In D3 the PM students outperformed significantly the VM students with regard to the idea that the heavier an object is the more the spring will expand, indicating that the haptic input experienced by the PM students served as an advantage to their learning. These findings point to the fact that PMs, and thus touch sensory input, might not always be a requirement for science learning and that VMs could be considered, under certain circumstances, as a viable means for experimentation.

Keywords: haptic feedback, physical and virtual manipulatives, pre-school science learning, science experimentation

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2 Nutrition, Dental Status and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Underage Refugees in Germany

Authors: Marios Loucas, Rafael Loucas, Oliver Muensterer


Aim of the Study: Over the last two years, there has been a substantial rise of refugees entering Germany, of which approximately one-third are underage. Little is known about the general state of health such as nutrition, dental status and post-traumatic stress disorder among underage refugees. Our study assesses the general health status of underage refugees based on a large sample cohort. Methods: After ethics board approval, we used a structured questionnaire to collect demographic information and health-related elements in 3 large refugee accommodation centers, focusing on nutritional and dental status, as well as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Main results: A total of 461 minor refugees were included. The majority were boys (54.5%), average age was 8 years. Out of the 8 recorded countries of origin, most children came from Syria (33.6%), followed by Afghanistan (23.2%). Of the participants, 50.3% reported DSM-5 criteria of Posttraumatic stress disorder and presented mental health-related problems. The most frequently reported mental abnormalities were concentration disturbances (15.2%), sleep disorders (6.9%), unclear headaches (5.4%). The majority of the participants showed an unfavorable nutritional and dental status. According to the family, the majority of the children rarely eat healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables and fish. However, the majority of these children (over 90%) consume a large quantity of sugary foods and sweetened drinks such as soft drinks and confectionery at least daily. Caries was found in 63% of the minor children included in the study. A large proportion (47%) reported never brushing their teeth. According to the family, 78.3% of refugee children have never been evaluated by a dentist in Germany. The remainder visited a dentist mainly because of unbearable toothache. Conclusions: Minor refugees have specific psychological, nutritional and dental problems that must be considered in order to ensure appropriate medical care. Posttraumatic stress disorder is mainly caused by physical and emotional trauma suffered either during the flight or in the refugee camp in Germany. These data call for widespread screening of psychological, dental and nutritional problems in underage refugees. Dental care of this cohort is completely inadequate. Nutritional programs should focus on educating the families and providing the means to obtain healthy foods for these children.

Keywords: children, nutrition, posttraumatic stress disorder, refugee

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1 Characteristics of Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator in Repetitive Working Mode

Authors: Haohua Zong, Marios Kotsonis


Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is a new concept of zero net mass flow actuator which utilizes pulsed arc/spark discharge to rapidly pressurize gas in a small cavity under constant-volume conditions. The unique combination of high exit jet velocity (>400 m/s) and high actuation frequency (>5 kHz) provides a promising solution for high-speed high-Reynolds-number flow control. This paper focuses on the performance of PSJA in repetitive working mode which is more relevant to future flow control applications. A two-electrodes PSJA (cavity volume: 424 mm3, orifice diameter: 2 mm) together with a capacitive discharge circuit (discharge energy: 50 mJ-110 mJ) is designed to enable repetitive operation. Time-Resolved Particle Imaging Velocimetry (TR-PIV) system working at 10 kHz is exploited to investigate the influence of discharge frequency on performance of PSJA. In total, seven cases are tested, covering a wide range of discharge frequencies (20 Hz-560 Hz). The pertinent flow features (shock wave, vortex ring and jet) remain the same for single shot mode and repetitive working mode. Shock wave is issued prior to jet eruption. Two distinct vortex rings are formed in one cycle. The first one is produced by the starting jet whereas the second one is related with the shock wave reflection in cavity. A sudden pressure rise is induced at the throat inlet by the reflection of primary shock wave, promoting the shedding of second vortex ring. In one cycle, jet exit velocity first increases sharply, then decreases almost linearly. Afterwards, an alternate occurrence of multiple jet stages and refresh stages is observed. By monitoring the dynamic evolution of exit velocity in one cycle, some integral performance parameters of PSJA can be deduced. As frequency increases, the jet intensity in steady phase decreases monotonically. In the investigated frequency range, jet duration time drops from 250 µs to 210 µs and peak jet velocity decreases from 53 m/s to approximately 39 m/s. The jet impulse and the expelled gas mass (0.69 µN∙s and 0.027 mg at 20 Hz) decline by 48% and 40%, respectively. However, the electro-mechanical efficiency of PSJA defined by the ratio of jet mechanical energy to capacitor energy doesn’t show significant difference (o(0.01%)). Fourier transformation of the temporal exit velocity signal indicates two dominant frequencies. One corresponds to the discharge frequency, while the other accounts for the alternation frequency of jet stage and refresh stage in one cycle. The alternation period (300 µs approximately) is independent of discharge frequency, and possibly determined intrinsically by the actuator geometry. A simple analytical model is established to interpret the alternation of jet stage and refresh stage. Results show that the dynamic response of exit velocity to a small-scale disturbance (jump in cavity pressure) can be treated as a second-order under-damping system. Oscillation frequency of the exit velocity, namely alternation frequency, is positively proportional to exit area, but inversely proportional to cavity volume and throat length. Theoretical value of alternation period (305 µs) agrees well with the experimental value.

Keywords: plasma, synthetic jet, actuator, frequency effect

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