Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10646

Search results for: demand side management

10646 Demand and Supply Management for Electricity Markets: Econometric Analysis of Electricity Prices

Authors: Ioana Neamtu

Abstract:

This paper investigates the potential for demand-side management for the system price in the Nordic electricity market and the price effects of introducing wind-power into the system. The model proposed accounts for the micro-structure of the Nordic electricity market by modeling each hour individually, while still accounting for the relationship between the hours within a day. This flexibility allows us to explore the differences between peak and shoulder demand hours. Preliminary results show potential for demand response management, as indicated by the price elasticity of demand as well as a small but statistically significant decrease in price, given by the wind power penetration. Moreover, our study shows that these effects are stronger during day-time and peak hours,compared to night-time and shoulder hours.

Keywords: structural model, GMM estimation, system of equations, electricity market

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
10645 Optimized Scheduling of Domestic Load Based on User Defined Constraints in a Real-Time Tariff Scenario

Authors: Madia Safdar, G. Amjad Hussain, Mashhood Ahmad

Abstract:

One of the major challenges of today’s era is peak demand which causes stress on the transmission lines and also raises the cost of energy generation and ultimately higher electricity bills to the end users, and it was used to be managed by the supply side management. However, nowadays this has been withdrawn because of existence of potential in the demand side management (DSM) having its economic and- environmental advantages. DSM in domestic load can play a vital role in reducing the peak load demand on the network provides a significant cost saving. In this paper the potential of demand response (DR) in reducing the peak load demands and electricity bills to the electric users is elaborated. For this purpose the domestic appliances are modeled in MATLAB Simulink and controlled by a module called energy management controller. The devices are categorized into controllable and uncontrollable loads and are operated according to real-time tariff pricing pattern instead of fixed time pricing or variable pricing. Energy management controller decides the switching instants of the controllable appliances based on the results from optimization algorithms. In GAMS software, the MILP (mixed integer linear programming) algorithm is used for optimization. In different cases, different constraints are used for optimization, considering the comforts, needs and priorities of the end users. Results are compared and the savings in electricity bills are discussed in this paper considering real time pricing and fixed tariff pricing, which exhibits the existence of potential to reduce electricity bills and peak loads in demand side management. It is seen that using real time pricing tariff instead of fixed tariff pricing helps to save in the electricity bills. Moreover the simulation results of the proposed energy management system show that the gained power savings lie in high range. It is anticipated that the result of this research will prove to be highly effective to the utility companies as well as in the improvement of domestic DR.

Keywords: controllable and uncontrollable domestic loads, demand response, demand side management, optimization, MILP (mixed integer linear programming)

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10644 Feasibility of Iron Scrap Recycling with Considering Demand-Supply Balance

Authors: Reina Kawase, Yuzuru Matsuoka

Abstract:

To mitigate climate change, to reduce CO2 emission from steel sector, energy intensive sector, is essential. One of the effective countermeasure is recycling of iron scrap and shifting to electric arc furnace. This research analyzes the feasibility of iron scrap recycling with considering demand-supply balance and quantifies the effective by CO2 emission reduction. Generally, the quality of steel made from iron scrap is lower than the quality of steel made from basic oxygen furnace. So, the constraint of demand side is goods-wise steel demand and that of supply side is generation of iron scap. Material Stock and Flow Model (MSFM_demand) was developed to estimate goods-wise steel demand and generation of iron scrap and was applied to 35 regions which aggregated countries in the world for 2005-2050. The crude steel production was estimated under two case; BaU case (No countermeasures) and CM case (With countermeasures). For all the estimation periods, crude steel production is greater than generation of iron scrap. This makes it impossible to substitute electric arc furnaces for all the basic oxygen furnaces. Even though 100% recycling rate of iron scrap, under BaU case, CO2 emission in 2050 increases by 12% compared to that in 2005. With same condition, 32% of CO2 emission reduction is achieved in CM case. With a constraint from demand side, the reduction potential is 6% (CM case).

Keywords: iron scrap recycling, CO2 emission reduction, steel demand, MSFM demand

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10643 Elasticity Model for Easing Peak Hour Demand for Metrorail Transport System

Authors: P. K. Sarkar, Amit Kumar Jain

Abstract:

The demand for Urban transportation is characterised by a large scale temporal and spatial variations which causes heavy congestion inside metro trains in peak hours near Centre Business District (CBD) of the city. The conventional approach to address peak hour congestion, metro trains has been to increase the supply by way of introduction of more trains, increasing the length of the trains, optimising the time table to increase the capacity of the system. However, there is a limitation of supply side measures determined by the design capacity of the systems beyond which any addition in the capacity requires huge capital investments. The demand side interventions are essentially required to actually spread the demand across the time and space. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the potential Transport Demand Management tools applicable to Urban Rail Transportation systems with a special focus on differential pricing. A conceptual price elasticity model has been developed to analyse the effect of various combinations of peak and nonpeak hoursfares on demands. The elasticity values for peak hour, nonpeak hour and cross elasticity have been assumed from the relevant literature available in the field. The conceptual price elasticity model so developed is based on assumptions which need to be validated with actual values of elasticities for different segments of passengers. Once validated, the model can be used to determine the peak and nonpeak hour fares with an objective to increase overall ridership, revenue, demand levelling and optimal utilisation of assets.

Keywords: urban transport, differential fares, congestion, transport demand management, elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
10642 Load Management Using Multiple Sequential Load Shaping Techniques

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasi

Abstract:

Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential characteristic of current and future smart grid systems. As one of DSM functions, load management aims to control customers’ total electric consumption and utility’s load factor by using various load shaping techniques. However, applying load shaping techniques such as load shifting, peak clipping, or strategic conservation individually does not provide the desired level of improvement for load factor increment and/or customer’s bill reduction. In this paper, two load shaping techniques will be simulated as constrained optimization problems. The purpose is to reflect the application of combined load shifting and strategic conservation model together at the same time, and the application of combined load shifting and peak clipping model as well. The problem will be formulated and solved by using disciplined convex programming (CVX) based MATLAB® R2013b. Simulation results will be evaluated and compared for studying the most impactful multi-techniques model in improving load curve.

Keywords: convex programing, demand side management, load shaping, multiple, building energy optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
10641 Effect of Delay on Supply Side on Market Behavior: A System Dynamic Approach

Authors: M. Khoshab, M. J. Sedigh

Abstract:

Dynamic systems, which in mathematical point of view are those governed by differential equations, are much more difficult to study and to predict their behavior in comparison with static systems which are governed by algebraic equations. Economical systems such as market are among complicated dynamic systems. This paper tries to adopt a very simple mathematical model for market and to study effect of supply and demand function on behavior of the market while the supply side experiences a lag due to production restrictions.

Keywords: dynamic system, lag on supply demand, market stability, supply demand model

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
10640 Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Samuel Adeoye

Abstract:

Ekiti State is an agrarian state located in south western part of Nigeria. The injected power to the Ado-Ekiti and the entire state are 25MW and 37.6 MW respectively. The estimated power demand for Ado Ekiti and Ekiti state were 29.01MW and 224.116MW respectively. The distributed power to the consumers is characterized with shortcomings which include: in-adequate supply, poor voltage regulation, improper usage, illiteracy and wastage. The power generation in Nigeria is presently 1680.60MW which does not match the estimated power demand of 15,000MW with a population of over 170 million citizens. This paper evaluates the energy utilization in Ado Ekiti metropolis, the wastage and its economic implication as well as effective means of its management. The use of direct interviews, administration of questionnaires, measurements of current and voltage with clamp multimeter, and simple mathematical approach were used for the purpose of evaluation. Recommendations were made with the view of reducing energy waste from mean value of 10.84% to 2% in order to reduce the cost implication such that the huge financial waste can be injected to other parts of the economy as well as the management of energy in Ekiti state.

Keywords: consumers, demand, energy, management, power supply, waste

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10639 Microeconomic Consequences of the Housing Market Deformation in the Selected Region of the Czech Republic

Authors: Hana Janáčková

Abstract:

Housing can be sorted as basic needs of households. Purchase of acceptable ownership housing is important investments for most them. For rental housing households must consider the part of rent expenditure paid in the total household income. For this reason, financial considerations of households in this area depend on the government innervations (public administration) in housing - on housing policy. Market system of housing allocation, whether ownership or tenancy, is based on the fact that housing is a scarce good. The allocation of housing is based on demand and supply. The market system of housing can sometimes have a negative impact on some households, the market is unable to satisfy certain groups of the population that are not able or willing to accept market price. For these reasons, there is a more or less regulation of the market. Regulation is both on the demand and supply side, and the state determines the rules of behaviour for all economic entities of the housing market. This article submits results of analysis of selected regulatory interference of the state in the housing market and assesses their implications deforming the market in the selected region of the Czech Republic. The first part describes tools of supports and the second part discusses deformations and analyses their consequences on the demand side of housing market and on supply side.

Keywords: housing, housing market, microeconomic consequences, deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
10638 The Egyptian eGovernment Journey

Authors: Ali Abdelsattar Elshabrawy

Abstract:

The Egyptian government is struggling to build it's eGovernment project. They succeeded to build the Egyptian digital portal, which contain links for number of services provided by different ministries. For achieving such success, their are requirements necessary to build such a project such as: internet dissemination, IT literacy, Strategy, disqualification of paper based services. This paper is going to clarify the main obstacles to the Egyptian eGovernment project from both the supply and demand sides. Also will clarify the most critical requirements in this phase of the project lifecycle. This paper should be in great value for the project team and also for many other developing countries that share the same obstacles.

Keywords: the egyptian egovernment project lifecycle, supply side barriers, demand side barriers, egovernment project requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
10637 Customer Experience Management in Food and Beverage Outlet at Indian School of Business: Methodology and Recommendations

Authors: Anupam Purwar

Abstract:

In conventional consumer product industry, stockouts are taken care by carrying buffer stock to check underserving caused by changes in customer demand, incorrect forecast or variability in lead times. But, for food outlets, the alternate of carrying buffer stock is unviable because of indispensable need to serve freshly cooked meals. Besides, the food outlet being the sole provider has no incentives to reduce stockouts, as they have no fear of losing revenue, gross profit, customers and market share. Hence, innovative, easy to implement and practical ways of addressing the twin problem of long queues and poor customer experience needs to be investigated. Current work analyses the demand pattern of 11 different food items across a routine day. Based on this optimum resource allocation for all food items has been carried out by solving a linear programming problem with cost minimization as the objective. Concurrently, recommendations have been devised to address this demand and supply side problem keeping in mind their practicability. Currently, the recommendations are being discussed and implemented at ISB (Indian School of Business) Hyderabad campus.

Keywords: F&B industry, resource allocation, demand management, linear programming, LP, queuing analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
10636 The Political Economy of Human Trafficking and Human Insecurity in Asia: The Case of Japan, Thailand and India

Authors: Mohammed Bashir Uddin

Abstract:

Human trafficking remains as a persistent problem in many parts of the world. It is considered by many countries as an issue of a threat to national security. Border enforcement to prevent trafficking has been the main incentive, which eventually causes human insecurity for vulnerable people, especially for women. This research argues that focus needs to be placed on the political economy of trafficking, hence on the supply and demand sides of trafficking from a broader socio-economic perspective. Trafficking is a global phenomenon with its contemporary origins in the international capitalist market system. This research investigates particularly the supply-demand nexus on the backdrop of globalization and its impact on human security. It argues that the nexus varies across the countries, particularly the demand side. While prostitution has been the sole focus of the demand side in all countries in Asia, the paper argues that organ trade, bonded labor, cheap and exploitable labor through false recruitment (male trafficking) and adoption are some of the rising demands that explore new trends of trafficking, which could be better explained through international political economy (IPE). Following a qualitative research method, the paper argues that although demands vary in destination countries, they are the byproducts of IPE which have different socio-economic impacts both on trafficked individuals and the states.

Keywords: globalization, human security, human trafficking, political economy

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10635 Impact of the Pandemic on China's Digital Creative Industries: Mechanisms and Manifestations

Authors: Li Qiaoming

Abstract:

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early 2020 brought new opportunities to the development of the digital creative industry in China. Based on the realistic foundation of the development of the digital creative industry in China, an analysis was conducted on the mechanism of action of the pandemic on this industry from both sides of supply and demand by sorting out its concept, connotation, and related theories. To be specific, the demand side experienced changes due to the changes in the consumption habits of residents, the sharp increase in gross domestic time (GDT), the satisfaction of the psychological needs of users, search for substitutes for offline consumption, and other factors. An analysis was carried out on the mechanism of action of the pandemic on the digital creative industry from the production link, supply subjects, product characteristics, and transmission link of the supply side. Then, a detailed discussion was held on the manifestation forms of the impact of the pandemic from the dimensions of time and space. Finally, this paper discussed the main development focuses of the digital creative industry in the post-pandemic era from the aspects of the government, industries, and enterprises.

Keywords: COVID-19, demand and supply relationship, digital creative industries, industry shocks

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10634 Demand Response from Residential Air Conditioning Load Using a Programmable Communication Thermostat

Authors: Saurabh Chanana, Monika Arora

Abstract:

Demand response is getting increased attention these days due to the increase in electricity demand and introduction of renewable resources in the existing power grid. Traditionally demand response programs involve large industrial consumers but with technological advancement, demand response is being implemented for small residential and commercial consumers also. In this paper, demand response program aims to reduce the peak demand as well as overall energy consumption of the residential customers. Air conditioners are the major reason of peak load in residential sector in summer, so a dynamic model of air conditioning load with thermostat action has been considered for applying demand response programs. A programmable communicating thermostat (PCT) is a device that uses real time pricing (RTP) signals to control the thermostat setting. A new model incorporating PCT in air conditioning load has been proposed in this paper. Results show that introduction of PCT in air conditioner is useful in reducing the electricity payments of customers as well as reducing the peak demand.

Keywords: demand response, home energy management, programmable communicating thermostat, thermostatically controlled appliances

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
10633 Part of Geomatics Technology in the Capability to Implement an on Demand Transport in Oran Wilaya (the Northwestern of Algeria)

Authors: N. Brahmia

Abstract:

The growing needs of displacements led advanced countries in this field install new specific transport systems, able to palliate any deficiencies, especially when regular public transport does not adequately meet the requests of users. In this context, on-demand transport systems (ODT) are very efficient; they rely on techniques based on the location of trip generators which should be assured effectively with the use of operators responsible of the advance reservation, planning and organization, and studying the different ODT criteria. As the advanced countries in the field of transport, some developing countries are involved in the adaptation of the new technologies to reduce the deficit in their communication system. This communication presents the study of an ODT implementation in the west of Algeria, by developing the Geomatics side of the study. This part requires the use of specific systems such as Geographic Information System (GIS), Road Database Management System (RDBMS)… so we developed the process through an application in an environment of mobility by using the computer tools dedicated to the management of the entities related to the transport field.

Keywords: geomatics, GIS, ODT, transport systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 532
10632 Accessibility of Institutional Credit and Its Impact on Agricultural Output: A Case Study

Authors: Showkat Ahmad Bhat, M. S. Bhatt

Abstract:

The study evaluates the ex-post impact of institutional credit on agricultural output. It first examines the key factors that influence the accessibility of institutional credit by farm households. For quantitative analysis both program participant and non-participant respondents were drawn and cross-sectional survey data were collected from 412 households in Pulwama District of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Propensity Score Matching Method was employed to analyze the impact of the institutional credit on agricultural output. Results show that institutional credit has a positive and significant impact on the agricultural output measured in terms of farm income and crop productivity. To estimate the accessibility of credit, an examination of both demand side and supply side factors were carried out. The demand for credit was measured with respect to respondents who applied for credit. Supply side credit allocation measured in terms of the proportion of ‘credit amount’ farmers obtained. Logit and Two-limit Tobit Regression Models were used to investigate the determinants that influence the accessibility of formal credit for Demand for and supply of credit respectively. The estimated results suggested that the demand for credit is positively and significantly affected by the factors such as: age of the household head, formal education, membership, cash crop grown, farm size and saving account. All the variables were found significantly increasing the household’s likelihood to demand for and supply of credit from banks. However, the impact of these factors varies considerably across the credit markets. Factors which were found negatively and significantly influencing the accessibility of credit were: ‘square of the age’, household assets and rate of interest. The credit constraints analysis suggested that square of the age; household assets and rate of interest were the three most important factors that increased the probability of being constrained. The study finally discusses these results in detail and draws some recommendations.

Keywords: institutional credit, agriculture, propensity score matching logit model, Tobit model

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
10631 Contribution of Geomatics Technology in the Capability to Implement an On-Demand Transport in Oran Wilaya (the Northwestern of Algeria)

Authors: Brahmia Nadjet

Abstract:

The growing needs of displacements led advanced countries in this field install new specific transport systems, able to palliate any deficiencies, especially when regular public transport does not adequately meet the requests of users. In this context, on-demand transport systems (ODT) are very efficient. They rely on techniques based on the location of trip generators which should be assured effectively with the use of operators responsible for the advance reservation, planning and organization, and studying the different ODT criteria (organizational, technical, geographical, etc.). As the advanced countries in the field of transport, some developing countries are involved in the adaptation of the new technologies to reduce the deficit in their communication system. This paper presents the study of an ODT implementation in the west of Algeria, by developing the geomatics side of the study. This part requires the use of specific systems such as Geographic Information System (GIS), Road Database Management System (RDBMS). So, we developed the process through an application in an environment of mobility by using the computer tools dedicated to the management of the entities related to the transport field.

Keywords: ODT, geomatics, GIS, transport systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
10630 Provision Electronic Management Requirements in Libyan Oil Companies

Authors: Hitham Yami

Abstract:

This study will focus primarily on assessing the availability requirements of the electronic management of oil companies in Libya, and the mean objectives of the research applying electronic management and make recommendations and steps to approach electronic management. There are limited research and statistical analysis to support electronic management in Libyan companies. The groundwork for the proposed approach is to develop independent variables and the dependent variables to be restructured after it Alntra side of the field and the side to get the data to achieve the desired results and solving the problem faced by the Libyan Oil Corporation. All these strategies are proposed to achieve the goal, and solving Libyan oil installations.

Keywords: oil company’s revenue, independent variables, electronic management, Libyan oil corporation

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
10629 Analysis of Two Methods to Estimation Stochastic Demand in the Vehicle Routing Problem

Authors: Fatemeh Torfi

Abstract:

Estimation of stochastic demand in physical distribution in general and efficient transport routs management in particular is emerging as a crucial factor in urban planning domain. It is particularly important in some municipalities such as Tehran where a sound demand management calls for a realistic analysis of the routing system. The methodology involved critically investigating a fuzzy least-squares linear regression approach (FLLRs) to estimate the stochastic demands in the vehicle routing problem (VRP) bearing in mind the customer's preferences order. A FLLR method is proposed in solving the VRP with stochastic demands. Approximate-distance fuzzy least-squares (ADFL) estimator ADFL estimator is applied to original data taken from a case study. The SSR values of the ADFL estimator and real demand are obtained and then compared to SSR values of the nominal demand and real demand. Empirical results showed that the proposed methods can be viable in solving problems under circumstances of having vague and imprecise performance ratings. The results further proved that application of the ADFL was realistic and efficient estimator to face the stochastic demand challenges in vehicle routing system management and solve relevant problems.

Keywords: fuzzy least-squares, stochastic, location, routing problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
10628 Imbalance on the Croatian Housing Market in the Aftermath of an Economic Crisis

Authors: Tamara Slišković, Tomislav Sekur

Abstract:

This manuscript examines factors that affect demand and supply of the housing market in Croatia. The period from the beginning of this century, until 2008, was characterized by a strong expansion of construction, housing and real estate market in general. Demand for residential units was expanding, and this was supported by favorable lending conditions of banks. Indicators on the supply side, such as the number of newly built houses and the construction volume index were also increasing. Rapid growth of demand, along with the somewhat slower supply growth, led to the situation in which new apartments were sold before the completion of residential buildings. This resulted in a rise of housing price which was indication of a clear link between the housing prices with the supply and demand in the housing market. However, after 2008 general economic conditions in Croatia worsened and demand for housing has fallen dramatically, while supply descended at much slower pace. Given that there is a gap between supply and demand, it can be concluded that the housing market in Croatia is in imbalance. Such trend is accompanied by a relatively small decrease in housing price. The final result of such movements is the large number of unsold housing units at relatively high price levels. For this reason, it can be argued that housing prices are sticky and that, consequently, the price level in the aftermath of a crisis does not correspond to the discrepancy between supply and demand on the Croatian housing market. The degree of rigidity of the housing price can be determined by inclusion of the housing price as the explanatory variable in the housing demand function. Other independent variables are demographic variable (e.g. the number of households), the interest rate on housing loans, households' disposable income and rent. The equilibrium price is reached when the demand for housing equals its supply, and the speed of adjustment of actual prices to equilibrium prices reveals the extent to which the prices are rigid. The latter requires inclusion of the housing prices with time lag as an independent variable in estimating demand function. We also observe the supply side of the housing market, in order to explain to what extent housing prices explain the movement of new construction activity, and other variables that describe the supply. In this context, we test whether new construction on the Croatian market is dependent on current prices or prices with a time lag. Number of dwellings is used to approximate new construction (flow variable), while the housing prices (current or lagged), quantity of dwellings in the previous period (stock variable) and a series of costs related to new construction are independent variables. We conclude that the key reason for the imbalance in the Croatian housing market should be sought in the relative relationship of price elasticities of supply and demand.

Keywords: Croatian housing market, economic crisis, housing prices, supply imbalance, demand imbalance

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10627 The Environmental and Economic Analysis of Extended Input-Output Table for Thailand’s Biomass Pellet Industry

Authors: Prangvalai Buasan, Boonrod Sajjakulnukit, Thongchart Bowonthumrongchai

Abstract:

The biomass pellet demand in the power sector has increased since 2020. The revised national power development plan also aims to promote biomass fuel consumption by around 485 MW by 2030. The replacement of solid fossil fuel with biomass pellets will affect medium-term and long-term national benefits for all industries throughout the supply chain. Therefore, the evaluation of environmental and economic impacts throughout the biomass pellet supply chain needs to be performed to provide better insight into the goods and financial flow of this activity and provide information for decision-making on increasing biomass consumption in Thailand. This study extended the national input-output table for the biomass pellet industry and applied the input-output analysis (IOA) method, a sort of macroeconomic analysis, to interpret the result of transactions between industries in the monetary unit when the revised national power development plan was adopted and enforced. The extended environmental input-output analysis (EEIOA) was integrated to estimate the potential of greenhouse gas reduction in the power generation sector as well as industrial sectors which has a high ability to consume biomass pellets as fuel. The finding indicates that increasing biomass pellets consumption in the power sector increases the price of biomass pellets and biomass feedstock. Biomass production and management should be considered along with enhancing biomass production capability to reach the most productive condition at the minimum production cost. Business tax and import price play an important role in production cost on the supply side meanwhile national policy and market price are the key factors in driving demand-led growth of private consumption on the demand side. Environmental benefits of greenhouse gas reduction from renewable energy consumption such as carbon credit and renewable energy certificate (REC) could be used as an incentive in promoting biomass fuel consumption on the demand side. The study results are beneficial to policymakers and/or project implementers in the decision-making process toward mobilizing financial resources to invest in renewable energy and sustainable development of the energy sector.

Keywords: renewable energy, biomass pellets, input-output analysis, macroeconomic planning, environmental extended input-output analysis

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10626 Inventory Decisions for Perishable Products with Age and Stock Dependent Demand Rate

Authors: Maher Agi, Hardik Soni

Abstract:

This paper presents a deterministic model for optimized control of the inventory of a perishable product subject to both physical deterioration and degradation of its freshness condition. The demand for the product depends on its current inventory level and freshness condition. Our model allows for any positive amount of end of cycle inventory. Some useful conditions that characterize the optimal solution of the model are derived and an algorithm is presented for finding the optimal values of the price, the inventory cycle, the end of cycle inventory level and the order quantity. Numerical examples are then given. Our work shows how the product freshness in conjunction with the inventory deterioration affects the inventory management decisions.

Keywords: inventory management, lot sizing, perishable products, deteriorating inventory, age-dependent demand, stock-dependent demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
10625 Demand-Side Financing for Thai Higher Education: A Reform Towards Sustainable Development

Authors: Daral Maesincee, Jompol Thongpaen

Abstract:

Thus far, most of the decisions made within the walls of Thai higher education (HE) institutions have primarily been supply-oriented. With the current supply-driven, itemized HE financing systems, the nation is struggling to systemically produce high-quality manpower that serves the market’s needs, often resulting in education mismatches and unemployment – particularly in science, technology, and innovation (STI)-related fields. With the COVID-19 pandemic challenges widening the education inequality (accessibility and quality) gap, HE becomes even more unobtainable for underprivileged students, permanently leaving some out of the system. Therefore, Thai HE needs a new financing system that produces the “right people” for the “right occupations” through the “right ways,” regardless of their socioeconomic backgrounds, and encourages the creation of non-degree courses to tackle these ongoing challenges. The “Demand-Side Financing for Thai Higher Education” policy aims to do so by offering a new paradigm of HE resource allocation via two main mechanisms: i) standardized formula-based unit-cost subsidizations that is specific to each study field and ii) student loan programs that respond to the “demand signals” from the labor market and the students, that are in line with the country’s priorities. Through in-dept reviews, extensive studies, and consultations with various experts, education committees, and related agencies, i) the method of demand signal analysis is identified, ii) the unit-cost of each student in the sample study fields is approximated, iii) the method of budget analysis is formulated, iv) the interagency workflows are established, and v) a supporting information database is created to suggest the number of graduates each HE institution can potentially produce, the study fields and skillsets that are needed by the labor market, the employers’ satisfaction with the graduates, and each study field’s employment rates. By responding to the needs of all stakeholders, this policy is expected to steer Thai HE toward producing more STI-related manpower in order to uplift Thai people’s quality of life and enhance the nation’s global competitiveness. This policy is currently in the process of being considered by the National Education Transformation Committee and the Higher Education Commission.

Keywords: demand-side financing, higher education resource, human capital, higher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
10624 Feasibility of On-Demand Transport Systems (ODT) in Oran Wilaya: Geomatics Study

Authors: Brahmia Nadjet

Abstract:

The growing needs of displacements led advanced countries in this field install new specific transport systems, able to palliate any deficiencies, especially when regular public transport does not adequately meet the requests of users. In this context, on-demand transport systems (ODT) are very efficient; they rely on techniques based on the location of trip generators which should be assured effectively with the use of operators responsible of the advance reservation, planning and organization, and studying the different ODT criteria (organizational, technical, geographical, etc.). As the advanced countries in the field of transport, some developing countries are involved in the adaptation of the new technologies to reduce the deficit in their communication system. This communication presents the study of an ODT implementation in the west of Algeria, by developing the Geomatics side of the study. This part requires the use of specific systems (such as GIS, RDBMS), so we developed the process through an application in an environment of mobility by using the computer tools dedicated to the management of the entities related to the transport field.

Keywords: ODT, geomatics, GIS, transport systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
10623 Viability of On-Demand Transportation (ODT) in Oran Wilaya: Geomatics Study

Authors: Nadjet Brahmia

Abstract:

The growing needs of displacements led advanced countries in this field install new specific transport systems, able to palliate any deficiencies, especially when regular public transport does not adequately meet the requests of users. In this context, on-demand transportation (ODT) are very efficient; they rely on techniques based on the location of trip generators which should be assured effectively with the use of operators responsible of the advance reservation, planning and organization, and studying the different ODT criteria (organizational, technical, geographical, etc.). As the advanced countries in the field of transport, some developing countries are involved in the adaptation of the new technologies to reduce the deficit in their communication system. This communication presents the study of an ODT implementation in the west of Algeria, by developing the Geomatics side of the study. This part requires the use of specific systems (such as GIS, RDBMS…), so we developed the process through an application in an environment of mobility by using the computer tools dedicated to the management of the entities related to the transport field.

Keywords: ODT, geomatics, GIS, transport systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
10622 System-Wide Impact of Energy Efficiency in the Industry Sector: A Comparative Study between Canada and Denmark

Authors: M. Baldini, H. K. Jacobsen, M. Jaccard

Abstract:

In light of the international efforts to comply with the Paris agreement and emission targets for future energy systems, Denmark and Canada are among the front-runner countries dealing with climate change. The experiences in the energy sector have seen both countries coping with trade-offs between investments in renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency, thus tackling the climate issue from the supply and demand side respectively. On the demand side, the industrial sector is going through a remarkable transformation, with implementation of energy efficiency measures, change of input fuel for end-use processes and forecasted electrification as main features under the spotlight. By looking at Canada and Denmark's experiences as pathfinders on the demand and supply approach to climate change, it is possible to obtain valuable experience that may be applied to other countries aiming at the same goal. This paper presents a comparative study on industrial energy efficiency between Canada and Denmark. The study focuses on technologies and system options, policy design and implementation and modelling methodologies when implementing industrial energy savings in optimization models in comparison to simulation models. The study identifies gaps and junctures in the approach towards climate change actions and, learning from each other, lessen the differences to further foster the adoption of energy efficiency measurements in the industrial sector, aiming at reducing energy consumption and, consequently, CO₂ emissions.

Keywords: industrial energy efficiency, comparative study, CO₂ reduction, energy system modelling

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10621 Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders

Authors: T. Zhou, S. F. Mohd Razali, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, L. Cheng

Abstract:

The wake flow behind two yawed side-by-side circular cylinders is investigated using a three-dimensional vorticity probe. Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and two cylinder spacing ratios T* of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T* = 3.0, there exist two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent stream-wise vorticity is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity. With the increase of α, increases whereas decreases. At α = 45°, is about 67% of. For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is detected in the energy spectrum. The span-wise vorticity contours have an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity contours of and for T* = 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those for T* = 3.0. The independence principle (IP) in terms of Strouhal numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.

Keywords: circular cylinder wake, vorticity, vortex shedding, side-by-side

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10620 Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem

Authors: Mariyam Arif, Ye Liu, Israr Ul Haq, Ahsan Ashfaq

Abstract:

High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, demand-side management, economic dispatch, linear programming, power generation dispatch

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10619 Using AI to Advance Factory Planning: A Case Study to Identify Success Factors of Implementing an AI-Based Demand Planning Solution

Authors: Ulrike Dowie, Ralph Grothmann

Abstract:

Rational planning decisions are based upon forecasts. Precise forecasting has, therefore, a central role in business. The prediction of customer demand is a prime example. This paper introduces recurrent neural networks to model customer demand and combines the forecast with uncertainty measures to derive decision support of the demand planning department. It identifies and describes the keys to the successful implementation of an AI-based solution: bringing together data with business knowledge, AI methods, and user experience, and applying agile software development practices.

Keywords: agile software development, AI project success factors, deep learning, demand forecasting, forecast uncertainty, neural networks, supply chain management

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10618 A Reinforcement Learning Approach for Evaluation of Real-Time Disaster Relief Demand and Network Condition

Authors: Ali Nadi, Ali Edrissi

Abstract:

Relief demand and transportation links availability is the essential information that is needed for every natural disaster operation. This information is not in hand once a disaster strikes. Relief demand and network condition has been evaluated based on prediction method in related works. Nevertheless, prediction seems to be over or under estimated due to uncertainties and may lead to a failure operation. Therefore, in this paper a stochastic programming model is proposed to evaluate real-time relief demand and network condition at the onset of a natural disaster. To address the time sensitivity of the emergency response, the proposed model uses reinforcement learning for optimization of the total relief assessment time. The proposed model is tested on a real size network problem. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model performs well in the case of collecting real-time information.

Keywords: disaster management, real-time demand, reinforcement learning, relief demand

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10617 An Inventory Management Model to Manage the Stock Level for Irregular Demand Items

Authors: Riccardo Patriarca, Giulio Di Gravio, Francesco Costantino, Massimo Tronci

Abstract:

An accurate inventory management policy acquires a crucial role in the several high-availability sectors. In these sectors, due to the high-cost of spares and backorders, an (S-1, S) replenishment policy is necessary for high-availability items. The policy enables the shipment of a substitute efficient item anytime the inventory size decreases by one. This policy can be modelled following the Multi-Echelon Technique for Recoverable Item Control (METRIC). The METRIC is a system-based technique that allows defining the optimum stock level in a multi-echelon network, adopting measures in line with the decision-maker’s perspective. The METRIC defines an availability-cost function with inventory costs and required service levels, using as inputs data about the demand trend, the supplying and maintenance characteristics of the network and the budget/availability constraints. The traditional METRIC relies on the hypothesis that a Poisson distribution well represents the demand distribution in case of items with a low failure rate. However, in this research, we will explore the effects of using a Poisson distribution to model the demand of low failure rate items characterized by an irregular demand trend. This characteristic of a demand is not included in the traditional METRIC formulation leading to the need of revising its traditional formulation. Using the CV (Coefficient of Variation) and ADI (Average inter-Demand Interval) classification, we will define the inherent flaws of Poisson-based METRIC for irregular demand items, defining an innovative ad hoc distribution which can better fit the irregular demands. This distribution will allow defining proper stock levels to reduce stocking and backorder costs due to the high irregularities in the demand trend. A case study in the aviation domain will clarify the benefits of this innovative METRIC approach.

Keywords: METRIC, inventory management, irregular demand, spare parts

Procedia PDF Downloads 205