Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2084

Search results for: policymaking implications

2084 Social Influences on Americans' Mask-Wearing Behavior during COVID-19

Authors: Ruoya Huang, Ruoxian Huang, Edgar Huang

Abstract:

Based on a convenience sample of 2,092 participants from across all 50 states of the United States, a survey was conducted to explore Americans’ mask-wearing behaviors during COVID-19 according to their political convictions, religious beliefs, and ethnic cultures from late July to early September, 2020. The purpose of the study is to provide evidential support for government policymaking so as to drive up more effective public policies by taking into consideration the variance in these social factors. It was found that the respondents’ party affiliation or preference, religious belief, and ethnicity, in addition to their health condition, gender, level of concern of contracting COVID-19, all affected their mask-wearing habits both in March, the initial coronavirus outbreak stage, and in August, when mask-wearing had been made mandatory by state governments. The study concludes that pandemic awareness campaigns must be run among all citizens, especially among African Americans, Muslims, and Republicans, who have the lowest rates of wearing masks, in order to protect themselves and others. It is recommended that complementary cognitive bias awareness programs should be implemented in non-Black and non-Muslim communities to eliminate social concerns that deter them from wearing masks.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, ethnicity, mask-wearing, policymaking implications, political affiliations, religious beliefs, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2083 Enhancing Maritime Governance in Africa: Challenges of Maritime Policy Development in the East African Community

Authors: Christantus Begealawuh Nchongayi

Abstract:

As clearly stated in goal 14 of sustainable development goals, global oceans greatly contribute to making the earth habitable for mankind. This explains why ocean governance is an important global concern today. The emerging maritime security problems and the impact of climate change on African oceans, evidenced by tropical cyclones as seen recently in the Southern region of Africa, is also an indication that maritime governance and policymaking are important elements of peace and security in Africa. Within the last decade, there have been commendable efforts towards maritime governance and policymaking in Africa, although implementation of existing maritime policies is still lacking. This paper provides a snapshot of the overall state of the maritime policymaking process in Africa. It specifically explores the challenges facing policymakers in developing national and regional maritime security strategy in the East African Community. For methodology, the paper relied on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from informal discussions with policymakers and key policy-making bodies in Africa, and from a survey of public opinions. The study found that the Africa Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIMS) is a recent template for regional and national maritime security policymaking in Africa and that although maritime security has in the past not been prioritized in the security agenda of the East African Community, developing and aligning a regional maritime security strategy to the 2050 AIMS will result to positive regional integration outcomes in East Africa.

Keywords: 2050 Africa integrated maritime strategy, east African community, maritime policy-making, maritime security

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2082 Optimal Framework of Policy Systems with Innovation: Use of Strategic Design for Evolution of Decisions

Authors: Yuna Lee

Abstract:

In the current policy process, there has been a growing interest in more open approaches that incorporate creativity and innovation based on the forecasting groups composed by the public and experts together into scientific data-driven foresight methods to implement more effective policymaking. Especially, citizen participation as collective intelligence in policymaking with design and deep scale of innovation at the global level has been developed and human-centred design thinking is considered as one of the most promising methods for strategic foresight. Yet, there is a lack of a common theoretical foundation for a comprehensive approach for the current situation of and post-COVID-19 era, and substantial changes in policymaking practice are insignificant and ongoing with trial and error. This project hypothesized that rigorously developed policy systems and tools that support strategic foresight by considering the public understanding could maximize ways to create new possibilities for a preferable future, however, it must involve a better understating of Behavioural Insights, including individual and cultural values, profit motives and needs, and psychological motivations, for implementing holistic and multilateral foresight and creating more positive possibilities. To what extent is the policymaking system theoretically possible that incorporates the holistic and comprehensive foresight and policy process implementation, assuming that theory and practice, in reality, are different and not connected? What components and environmental conditions should be included in the strategic foresight system to enhance the capacity of decision from policymakers to predict alternative futures, or detect uncertainties of the future more accurately? And, compared to the required environmental condition, what are the environmental vulnerabilities of the current policymaking system? In this light, this research contemplates the question of how effectively policymaking practices have been implemented through the synthesis of scientific, technology-oriented innovation with the strategic design for tackling complex societal challenges and devising more significant insights to make society greener and more liveable. Here, this study conceptualizes the notions of a new collaborative way of strategic foresight that aims to maximize mutual benefits between policy actors and citizens through the cooperation stemming from evolutionary game theory. This study applies mixed methodology, including interviews of policy experts, with the case in which digital transformation and strategic design provided future-oriented solutions or directions to cities’ sustainable development goals and society-wide urgent challenges such as COVID-19. As a result, artistic and sensual interpreting capabilities through strategic design promote a concrete form of ideas toward a stable connection from the present to the future and enhance the understanding and active cooperation among decision-makers, stakeholders, and citizens. Ultimately, an improved theoretical foundation proposed in this study is expected to help strategically respond to the highly interconnected future changes of the post-COVID-19 world.

Keywords: policymaking, strategic design, sustainable innovation, evolution of cooperation

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
2081 Testing for Endogeneity of Foreign Direct Investment: Implications for Economic Policy

Authors: Liwiusz Wojciechowski

Abstract:

Research background: The current knowledge does not give a clear answer to the question of the impact of FDI on productivity. Results of the empirical studies are still inconclusive, no matter how extensive and diverse in terms of research approaches or groups of countries analyzed they are. It should also take into account the possibility that FDI and productivity are linked and that there is a bidirectional relationship between them. This issue is particularly important because on one hand FDI can contribute to changes in productivity in the host country, but on the other hand its level and dynamics may imply that FDI should be undertaken in a given country. As already mentioned, a two-way relationship between the presence of foreign capital and productivity in the host country should be assumed, taking into consideration the endogenous nature of FDI. Purpose of the article: The overall objective of this study is to determine the causality between foreign direct investment and total factor productivity in host county in terms of different relative absorptive capacity across countries. In the classic sense causality among variables is not always obvious and requires for testing, which would facilitate proper specification of FDI models. The aim of this article is to study endogeneity of selected macroeconomic variables commonly being used in FDI models in case of Visegrad countries: main recipients of FDI in CEE. The findings may be helpful in determining the structure of the actual relationship between variables, in appropriate models estimation and in forecasting as well as economic policymaking. Methodology/methods: Panel and time-series data techniques including GMM estimator, VEC models and causality tests were utilized in this study. Findings & Value added: The obtained results allow to confirm the hypothesis states the bi-directional causality between FDI and total factor productivity. Although results differ from among countries and data level of aggregation implications may be useful for policymakers in case of providing foreign capital attracting policy.

Keywords: endogeneity, foreign direct investment, multi-equation models, total factor productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
2080 Soft Power in International Politics: Defense and Continued Relevance

Authors: Shivani Yadav

Abstract:

The paper will first elaborate on the concept of soft power as formulated by Joseph Nye, who argues that soft power is as important as hard power in international politics as it replaces coercion with non-coercive forms of co-optation and attraction. The central tenet of the paper is to extrapolate the continued relevance of soft power in international relations in the 21st century. It is argued that the relevance of soft power, in concurrence with hard power, is on the rise in the international system. This is found to be emanating out of two factors. First, the state-centric practice of international relations has expanded to allow other actors to participate in policymaking. This has led to the resources for power generation to become varied, largely move away from the control of governments, and to produce both hard and soft power attributes. Second, as the currency of coercive power seems to be devaluing in global politics, the role of intangible factors like soft power is getting more important in policymaking. The paper will then go on to elaborate on the critiques of the formulation of soft power from various perspectives, as well as the defenses to these critiques presented by soft power proponents. The paper will reflect on the continued relevance of soft power in international politics by giving the example of India, and how soft power has continued to serve its policy objectives over the years. It is observed that even as India is recognized as a rising superpower today, yet it has made a continuous effort in cultivating its soft power resources, which have proven to be its assets in furthering its foreign policy interests. In conclusion, the paper makes the point that soft power, in conjunction with hard power, will shape international politics in the coming times.

Keywords: foreign policy, India’s soft power, international politics, smart power, soft power

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2079 An Overview of Water Governance and Management in the Philippines: Some Key Findings

Authors: Sahara Piang Brahim

Abstract:

This paper looks at the current state of water governance in the Philippines. It is mainly descriptive and relies on an analysis of secondary data gathered during the author’s fieldwork as well as those found in available scholarly literature, legal and government policy documents, reports and publicly available information on the official websites of government agencies and departments. This paper finds that despite the Philippines having relatively abundant water resources due to its topographical characteristics, it is facing a number of water-related problems, including the availability of water supply in light of growing water demand, increasing population and urbanization as well as climate change. Another key finding is that the sheer number of agencies, which have overlapping legal mandates and functions in relation to water governance and management, make coordination, planning and data collection difficult especially since they are neither vertically nor horizontally integrated. These findings have obvious implications for water policy and governance in the country. This study also finds that 'predict and control' characterizes the government’s approach to water resources management and allocation. This paper argues that taking such an approach and the existing institutional context into account is quite relevant not only in terms of making sense of how decision-making and policymaking take place but also when contemplating the kinds of alternative governance arrangements that could address water-related issues and challenges and that might work 'best' in the Philippines.

Keywords: Philippines, water governance, water issues, water policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2078 Is School Misbehavior a Decision: Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2077 The Nexus of Federalism and Economic Development: A Politico-Economic Analysis of Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors: Rameesha Javaid

Abstract:

Balochistan, the largest landmass named after and dominated by the 55% Baloch population, which has had a difficult anti-center history like their brothers the Kurds of Middle East, reluctantly acceded to Pakistan in 1947. The region, which attained the status of a province after two decades of accession, has lagged behind in social development and economic growth as compared to the other three federating units. The province has seen the least financial autonomy and administrative decentralization both in autocratic and democratic dispensations under geostrategic and security considerations. Significant corrections have been recently made in the policy framework through changing the formula for intra-provincial National Finance Award, curtailing the number of subjects under federal control, and reactivating the Council of Common Interests. Yet policymaking remains overwhelmingly bureaucratic under a weak parliamentary oversight. The provincial coalition governments are unwieldy and directionless. The government machinery has much less than the optimal capability, character, integrity, will, and opportunity to perform. Decentralization further loses its semblance in the absence of local governments for long intervals and with the hold of hereditary tribal chiefs. Increased allocations failed to make an impact in the highest per capita cost environment due to long distances and scattered settlements. Decentralization, the basic ingredient of federalism has remained mortgaged to geo-strategic factors, internal security perceptions, autocratic and individualistic styles of governments, bureaucratic policymaking structures, bad governance, non-existent local governments, and feudalistic tribal lords. This suboptimal federalism speaks for the present underdevelopment in Balochistan and will earmark the milestones in the future.

Keywords: Balochistan, economic development, federalism, political economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2076 The Syntactic Features of Islamic Legal Texts and Their Implications for Translation

Authors: Rafat Y. Alwazna

Abstract:

Certain religious texts are deemed part of legal texts that are characterised by high sensitivity and sacredness. Amongst such religious texts are Islamic legal texts that are replete with Islamic legal terms that designate particular legal concepts peculiar to Islamic legal system and legal culture. However, from the syntactic perspective, Islamic legal texts prove lengthy, condensed and convoluted, with little use of punctuation system, but with an extensive use of subordinations and co-ordinations, which separate the main verb from the subject, and which, of course, carry a heavy load of legal detail. The present paper seeks to examine the syntactic features of Islamic legal texts through analysing a short text of Islamic jurisprudence in an attempt at exploring the syntactic features that characterise this type of legal text. A translation of this text into legal English is then exercised to find the translation implications that have emerged as a result of the English translation. Based on these implications, the paper compares and contrasts the syntactic features of Islamic legal texts to those of legal English texts. Finally, the present paper argues that there are a number of syntactic features of Islamic legal texts, such as nominalisation, passivisation, little use of punctuation system, the use of the Arabic cohesive device, etc., which are also possessed by English legal texts except for the last feature and with some variations. The paper also claims that when rendering an Islamic legal text into legal English, certain implications emerge, such as the necessity of a sentence break, the omission of the cohesive device concerned and the increase in the use of nominalisation, passivisation, passive participles, and so on.

Keywords: English legal texts, Islamic legal texts, nominalisation, participles, passivisation, syntactic features, translation implications

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2075 The Viability of Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Global Financial Stability: Evidence from Practical Implications

Authors: Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Saarim Ghazi, Amir Khalil ur Rehman

Abstract:

This study examines the factors which influence and contribute towards the financial viability of Islamic finance and its impact on global financial stability. However, the purpose of this paper is to differentiate the practical implications of both Islamic and conventional finance on global financial stability. The Islamic finance is asset backed financing which creates wealth through trade, commerce and believes in risk and return sharing. Islamic banking is asset driven as against to conventional banking which is liability driven. In order to introduce new financial products for market, financial innovation in Islamic finance must be within the Shari’ah parameters that are tested against the ‘Maqasid al-Shari’ah’. Interest-based system leads to income and wealth inequalities and mis-allocation of resources. Moreover, this system has absence of just and equitable aspect of distribution that may exploit either the debt holder or the financier. Such implications are reached to a tipping point that leaves only one choice: change or face continued decline and misery.

Keywords: viability, global financial stability, practical implications, asset driven, tipping point

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2074 Reciprocal Interferences in Bilingual English-Igbo Speaking Society: The Implications in Language Pedagogy

Authors: Ugwu Elias Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Discussions on bilingualism have always dwelt on how the mother tongue interferes with the target language. This interference is considered a serious problem in second language learning. Usually, the interference has been phonological. But the objective of this research is to explore how the target language interferes with the mother tongue. In the case of the Igbo language, it interferes with English mostly at the phonological level while English interferes with Igbo at the realm of vocabulary. The result is a new language \"Engligbo\" which is a hybrid of English and Igbo. The Igbo language spoken by about 25 million people is one of the three most prominent languages in Nigeria. This paper discusses the phenomenal Engligbo, and other implications for Igbo learners of English. The method of analysis is descriptive. A number of recommendations were made that would help teachers handle problems arising from such mutual interferences.

Keywords: reciprocal interferences, bilingualism, implications, language pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
2073 The Semiotic Analysis of Thai Social Contexts in Thai Post’s News Articles

Authors: Pakpoom Hannapha

Abstract:

This paper investigates the implications of social and political contexts in Thai Post’s news articles written by a columnist, Khon Plai Soy. Samples included twenty eight news articles published between 28th May 2015 and 28th June 2015 selected and analyzed according to Semiotics including implications, connotation, cultural politics, and Thai usage in newspaper articles. The data analysis can be divided into two parts; first, an analysis of signs/signifiers appearing in the articles and second, an analysis of the columnist’s purposes. This study demonstrated representations of signs in the selected articles that were categorized into four groups: events, actions, persons, and organizations. In this study, implications of the news articles were analyzed in two aspects according to Semiotics. It was found that the columnist mostly points out purposes for education, facts, and personal opinions in his works. Also, he offers some solutions to problems discussed in the articles. The writer often explicated knowledge and facts in accordance with either his personal opinions or problem-solutions. According to the research result, studying the implications of news articles in the Thai Post based on the Semiotic approach can help clarify and understand connotative meanings in terms of contents and the writer’s purposes. This paper can enhance readers’ understanding of Semiotic implications through signs and meanings in the texts and thus be used as a model to explore other political news articles

Keywords: semiotic analysis, Thai social contexts, Thai Post’s news, articles

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2072 Economic and Ecological Implications in Agricultural Production Within the Strong and Weak Sustainability Framework

Authors: Mauricio Quintero Angel, Andrés A. Duque Nivia, Carlos H. Fajardo Toro

Abstract:

This paper analyzes two approaches of sustainability, the weak and strong, considering a case of study of oil palm production for an industry of biodegradable detergent. In this case, a company demand the oil palm as the active element for washing and through its trademark aims to supply 10% of the Colombian market of washing powders. Under each approach the economic and ecological implications of the palm oil production and especially the implications for crop management are described. The crop production under the weak sustainability implies plantations, intensive use of agrochemicals and the inclusion of new areas of cultivation as the market grows. Under the strong sustainability the production system is limited by the productive vocation of the ecosystem, so that new approaches and creativity for making viable the nature conservancy and the business development are require.

Keywords: agriculture, environmental impacts, oil palm, strong sustainability, weak sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
2071 The Implications of the Lacanian Concept of 'Lalangue' for Lacanian Theory and Clinical Practice

Authors: Dries Dulsster

Abstract:

This research we want to discuss the implications of the concept of ‘lalangue’ and illustrate its importance for lacanian psychoanalysis and its clinical practice. We will look at this concept through an in depth reading of Lacan’s later seminars, his lectures at the North-American universities and his study on James Joyce. We will illustrate the importance of this concept with a case study from a clinical practice. We will argue that the introduction of ‘lalangue’ has several theoretical and clinical implications that will radically change Lacans teachings. We will illustrate the distinction between language and lalangue. Language serves communication, but this is not the case with lalangue. We will claim that there is jouissance in language and will approach this by introducing the concept of ‘lalangue’. We will ask ourselves what the effect will be of this distinction and how we can use this in clinical practice. The concept of ‘lalangue’ will introduce a new way of thinking about the unconscious. It will force us to no longer view the unconscious as Symbolic, but as Imaginary or Real. Another implication will be the approach on the symptom, no longer approaching it as a formation of the unconscious. It will be renamed as ‘sinthome’, as function of the real. Last of all it will force us to rethink the lacanian interpretation and how we direct the treatment. The implications on a clinical level will be how we think about the lacanian interpretation and the direction of the treatment. We will no longer focus on language and meaning, but focus on jouissance and the ways in which the subject deals with this. We will illustrate this importance with a clinical case study. To summarize, the concept of lalangue forces us to radically rethink lacanian psychoanalysis, with major implications on a theoretical and clinical level. It introduces new concepts such as the real unconscious and the sinthome. It will also make us rethink the way we work as lacanian psychoanalysts.

Keywords: Lacan's later teaching, language, Lalangue, the unconscious

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2070 Examining the Discursive Hegemony of British Energy Transition Narratives

Authors: Antonia Syn

Abstract:

Politicians’ outlooks on the nature of energy futures and an ‘Energy Transition’ have evolved considerably alongside a steady movement towards renewable energies, buttressed by lower technology costs, rising environmental concerns, and favourable national policy decisions. This paper seeks to examine the degree to which an energy transition has become an incontrovertible ‘status quo’ in parliament, and whether politicians share similar understandings of energy futures or narrate different stories under the same label. Parliamentarians construct different understandings of the same reality, in the form of co-existing and competing discourses, shaping and restricting how policy problems and solutions are understood and tackled. Approaching energy policymaking from a parliamentary discourse perspective draws directly from actors’ concrete statements, offering an alternative to policy literature debates revolving around inductive policy theories. This paper uses computer-assisted discourse analysis to describe fundamental discursive changes in British parliamentary debates around energy futures. By applying correspondence cluster analyses to Hansard transcripts from 1986 to 2010, we empirically measure the policy positions of Labour and Conservative politicians’ parliamentary speeches during legislatively salient moments preceding significant energy transition-related policy decisions. Results show the concept of a technology-based, market-driven transition towards fossil-free and nuclear-free renewables integration converged across Labour and the Conservatives within three decades. Specific storylines underwent significant change, particularly in relation to international outlooks, environmental framings, treatments of risk, and increases in rhetoric. This study contributes to a better understanding of the role politics plays in the energy transition, highlighting how politicians’ values and beliefs inevitably determine and delimit creative policymaking.

Keywords: quantitative discourse analysis, energy transition, renewable energy, British parliament, public policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
2069 The Foreign Policy and Foreign Strategy of Japan in the Post-Cold-War Era

Authors: Yutong Shen

Abstract:

In Japan, the parliamentary procedure is the highest level in the process of foreign policymaking, and the cabinet is responsible for the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. After the war, Japan's foreign strategy and foreign policy were consistent with the LDP's ideas. In this paper, we navigate through international newspapers and related literature. By systematically reviewing them, we understand the ideology of Japan's foreign policies for different countries. Among different stakes the government considered in designing foreign policies, Japan seems always to put economic interests before politics or social culture.

Keywords: Japan, international relations, East Asian study, foreign policy, Japan politics, cold war

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
2068 Implications about the Impact of COVID-19 on Business

Authors: Anwar Kashgari

Abstract:

COVID-19 has severe impacts on business all over the world. The great lockdown of many business owners requires a sage deal with this pandemic. This paper seeks to support business leaders with a standpoint about the COVID-19 situation and provides implications for the (Small and Medium Enterprises) SMEs and companies. The paper reflects the author's view about the impact of COVID-19 on business activities. We discussed the impact of COVID-19 upon three aspects, namely, startups, SMEs, and e-commerce. The KSA is an example of the developing countries about which we present the current situation. Finally, recommendations to policy and decision-makers are given.

Keywords: COVID 19, business networking, globalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
2067 Classroom Discourse and English Language Teaching: Issues, Importance, and Implications

Authors: Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Binta Attahir

Abstract:

Classroom discourse is important, and it is worth examining what the phenomena is and how it helps both the teacher and students in a classroom situation. This paper looks at the classroom as a traditional social setting which has its own norms and values. The paper also explains what discourse is, as extended communication in speech or writing often interactively dealing with some particular topics. It also discusses classroom discourse as the language which teachers and students use to communicate with each other in a classroom situation. The paper also looks at some strategies for effective classroom discourse. Finally, implications and recommendations were drawn.

Keywords: classroom, discourse, learning, student, strategies, communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
2066 The Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law on Information Access and Dissemination by Egyptian Journalists

Authors: Miral Sabry AlAshry

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of Egyptian Journalists through the Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law, as well as its implications for journalistic practice and the implications for press freedom in Egypt. Questionnaires were undertaken with 192 journalists representing four official newspapers, and in-depth interviews were held with 15 journalists. The study used an Authoritarian theory as a theoretical framework. The study revealed that the government placed restrictions on journalists by using the law to oppress them.

Keywords: anti-cyber and information technology crimes law, media legislation, personal information, Egyptian constitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
2065 Management and Marketing Implications of Tourism Gravity Models

Authors: Clive L. Morley

Abstract:

Gravity models and panel data modelling of tourism flows are receiving renewed attention, after decades of general neglect. Such models have quite different underpinnings from conventional demand models derived from micro-economic theory. They operate at a different level of data and with different theoretical bases. These differences have important consequences for the interpretation of the results and their policy and managerial implications. This review compares and contrasts the two model forms, clarifying the distinguishing features and the estimation requirements of each. In general, gravity models are not recommended for use to address specific management and marketing purposes.

Keywords: gravity models, micro-economics, demand models, marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2064 Production of Oral Vowels by Chinese Learners of Portuguese: Problems and Didactic Implications

Authors: Adelina Castelo

Abstract:

The increasing number of learners of Portuguese as Foreign Language in China justifies the need to define the phonetic profile of these learners and to design didactic materials that are adjusted to their specific problems in pronunciation. Different aspects of this topic have been studied, but the production of oral vowels still needs to be investigated. This study aims: (i) to identify the problems the Chinese learners of Portuguese experience in the pronunciation of oral vowels; (ii) to discuss the didactic implications drawn from those problems. The participants were eight native speakers of Mandarin Chinese that had been learning Portuguese in College for almost a year. They named pictured objects and their oral productions were recorded and phonetically transcribed. The selection of the objects to name took into account some linguistic variables (e.g. stress pattern, syllable structure, presence of the Portuguese oral vowels in different word positions according to stress location). The results are analysed in two ways: the impact of linguistic variables on the success rate in the vowels' production; the replacement strategies used in the non-target productions. Both analyses show that the Chinese learners of Portuguese (i) have significantly more difficulties with the mid vowels as well as the high central vowel and (ii) do not master the vowel height feature. These findings contribute to define the phonetic profile of these learners in terms of oral vowel production. Besides, they have important didactic implications for the pronunciation teaching to these specific learners. Those implications are discussed and exemplified.

Keywords: Chinese learners, learners’ phonetic profile, linguistic variables, Portuguese as foreign language, production data, pronunciation teaching, oral vowels

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
2063 Sea Border Dispute between Greece and Turkey in the Mediterrenean: Implications for Turkey’s Maritime Security and Its Military Spending

Authors: Aslihan Caliskan

Abstract:

The term Mediterranean comes from the Latin “mediterraneus” (Medius, "middle" plus Terra, "land, earth"). For the ancient Romans, the Mediterranean was the center of the earth as they knew it. The desire to gain control of the Mediterranean has led to disputes between many nations throughout history, some of which continue to this day. The recent major natural gas discoveries in the Mediterranean have aggravated ongoing tensions in some neighboring countries. The sea border dispute between Turkey and Greece & Greek-Cypriot side is one of the most critical conflicts in the Mediterranean Sea region. This unresolved dispute has many implications for all countries involved, as well as for third parties that have direct or indirect interests in the region. The research question of this context is what are the implications of this controversial sea border problem on the maritime security of Turkey and its military spending. In this paper, the quantitative method is used. Records from the Turkish Defense Ministry, data from the Turkish naval forces have been obtained. In addition, literature research and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) application cases were evaluated, and an incident analysis was carried out. This research shows that the sea border dispute issue has a significant impact on the Turkish military both in terms of the structures required to ensure maritime and border security, as well as rising military costs and its macroeconomic implications. The paper begins with a brief overview of relevant principles and methods applied for delimiting th esea borders. The paper continues with a brief description and a background of the sea border dispute between Turkey and Greece & Greek-Cypriot side in the light of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). An analysis of the implications of the dispute on Turkey’s maritime security and its military spending is provided in the following chapters. The paper ends with concluding remarks of the author, including suggestions for the way forward.

Keywords: sea border security, mediterranean sea, greece-turkey dispute, limitation of sea, united nations convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
2062 Post 2014 Afghanistan and Its Implications on Pakistan

Authors: Naad-E-Ali Sulehria

Abstract:

This paper unfolds the facts and findings of Afghan scenario particularly its implications on Pakistan. At present, the Post 2014 withdrawal of US and ISAF combat forces from Afghan land is one of the up-to-the-minute issues among analysts of international relations. Deliberating from the current situation of Afghanistan towards its future prospects and the elements vibrating Afghanistan's internal dynamics, as well as exploitation of its resources by other states and non-state actors, are discussed accordingly. Moreover, the reasons behind such a paradigm shift in US foreign policy are tried to be contemplated with first hand knowledge. It is investigated that 'what is the current image of Afghanistan in today's world?', 'what will be its future aspects?', and 'what sort of Afghanistan does Pakistan foresees' as the concerned area of discussion.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Pakistan, new great game, taliban

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2061 An Analysis of Urban Institutional Arrangements and Their Implications on Wetlands Allocation for Development Purposes: A Case of Harare, Zimbabwe

Authors: Effort M. Magoso

Abstract:

This study analyses urban institutional arrangements and their implications on allocation of wetlands for development purposes in Zimbabwe using a case study of Harare. It was driven by the need to get to the root of the current urban assault on wetlands. The study sought to analyse institutions that influence wetlands governance in Harare, to ascertain level of wetlands loss and to determine the adequacy of the legal and regulatory framework for governing wetlands. Theories of common property resources and of institutions are the paradigms that undergird this study. A qualitative research methodology was employed, while in-depth interviews, observations and document review were used to gather data. The study found out that unchecked infrastructure developments are taking place in the city’s wetlands. Urban institutional arrangements in Harare were exposed as having negative implications on the protection of wetlands. It is the key argument of this study that good institutional arrangements are priceless in the protection of commons such as wetlands. This study also recommends a new framework that has environmentalists and technocrats as the final decision maker in land allocation as the solution to protect wetlands from undue anthropogenic activities.

Keywords: institutional arrangements, common property resources, wetlands, institutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2060 Spectral Clustering from the Discrepancy View and Generalized Quasirandomness

Authors: Marianna Bolla

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to compare spectral, discrepancy, and degree properties of expanding graph sequences. As we can prove equivalences and implications between them and the definition of the generalized (multiclass) quasirandomness of Lovasz–Sos (2008), they can be regarded as generalized quasirandom properties akin to the equivalent quasirandom properties of the seminal Chung-Graham-Wilson paper (1989) in the one-class scenario. Since these properties are valid for deterministic graph sequences, irrespective of stochastic models, the partial implications also justify for low-dimensional embedding of large-scale graphs and for discrepancy minimizing spectral clustering.

Keywords: generalized random graphs, multiway discrepancy, normalized modularity spectra, spectral clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2059 Implications of Fulani Herders/Farmers Conflict on the Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria (2000-2018)

Authors: Larry E. Udu, Joseph N. Edeh

Abstract:

Unarguably, the land is an indispensable factor of production and has been instrumental to numerous conflicts between crop farmers and herders in Nigeria. The conflicts pose a grave challenge to life and property, food security and ultimately to sustainable socio-economic development of the nation. The paper examines the causes of the Fulani herders/farmers conflicts, particularly in the Middle Belt; numerity of occurrences and extent of damage and their socio-economic implications. Content Analytical Approach was adopted as methodology wherein data was extensively drawn from the secondary source. Findings reveal that major causes of the conflict are attributable to violation of tradition and laws, trespass and cultural factors. Consequently, the numerity of attacks and level of fatality coupled with displacement of farmers, destruction of private and public facilities impacted negatively on farmers output with their attendant socio-economic implications on sustainable livelihood of the people and the nation at large. For instance, Mercy Corps (a Global Humanitarian Organization) in its research, 2013-2016 asserts that a loss of $14billion within 3 years was incurred and if the conflict were resolved, the average affected household could see increase income by at least 64 percent and potentially 210 percent or higher and that states affected by the conflicts lost an average of 47 percent taxes/IGR. The paper therefore recommends strict adherence to grazing laws; platform for dialogue bothering on compromises where necessary and encouragement of cattle farmers to build ranches for their cattle according to international standards.

Keywords: conflict, farmers, herders, Nigeria, socio-economic implications

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2058 Genre Analysis and Interview: Body Paragraphs of Student English Academic Essays

Authors: Chek Kim Loi

Abstract:

This study reports on a study examining the body paragraphs of English academic essays written by some ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students. These students took English for Academic Purposes course for one semester at a public university in Malaysia. In addition to analyzing the communicative purposes employed in the sample, for triangulation of data, student participants were interviewed on their academic writing experience in their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classroom. The present study has pedagogical implications in an EAP classroom.

Keywords: academic writing, body paragraphs, communicative purposes, pedagogical implications

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2057 Net Regularity and Its Ethical Implications on Internet Stake Holders

Authors: Nourhan Elshenawi

Abstract:

Net Neutrality (NN) is the principle of treating all online data the same without any prioritization of some over others. A research gap in current scholarship about “violations of NN” and the subsequent ethical concerns paves the way for the following research question: To what extent violations of NN entail ethical concerns and implications for Internet stakeholders? To answer this question, NR is examined using the two major action-based ethical theories, Kantian and Utilitarian, across the relevant Internet stakeholders. First some necessary IT background is provided that shapes how the Internet works and who the key stakeholders are. Following the IT background, the relationship between the stakeholders, users, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and content providers is discussed and illustrated. Then some violations of NN that are currently occurring is covered, without attracting any attention from the general public from an ethical perspective, as a new term Net Regularity (NR). Afterwards, the current scholarship on NN and its violations are discussed, that are mainly from an economic and sociopolitical perspectives to highlight the lack of ethical discussions on the issue. Before moving on to the ethical analysis however, websites are presented as digital entities that are affected by NR and their happiness is measured using functionalism. The analysis concludes that NR is prone to an unethical treatment of Internet stakeholders in the perspective of both theories. Finally, the current Digital Divide in the world is presented to be able to better illustrate the implications of NR. The implications present the new Internet divide that will take place between individuals within society. Through answering the research question using ethical analysis, it attempts to shed some light on the issue of NR and what kind of society it would lead to. NR would not just lead to a divided society, but divided individuals that are separated by something greater than distance, the Internet.

Keywords: digital divide, digital entities, digital ontology, internet ethics, internet law, net neutrality, internet service providers, websites as beings

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2056 People Management, Knowledge Sharing and Intermediary Variables

Authors: Nizar Mansour, Chiha Gaha, Emna Gara

Abstract:

The present research investigates the relationship among HRM practices, knowledge sharing behavior and a certain number of intermediary variables in the context of Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms. Results suggest that five HR practices influence either directly or indirectly the knowledge sharing behavior through enhancing the value of human capital and fostering a learning-oriented organizational climate. Results have strong theoretical implications for both the fields of knowledge management and strategic human resource management. Managerial implications are also derived.

Keywords: human capital, knowledge intensive firms, knowledge sharing, organizational climate, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2055 The New Epistemological Conditions of Literature

Authors: Lin Zou

Abstract:

This paper explores how the development of science and technology in the recent decades has created new conditions for literature and aesthetics. These are epistemological conditions that not only offer empirical understandings of the human mentality, behavior, emotions, and humanity in general but reshape how to value and the ontological questions are understood and linked with humanity. This paper will discuss the implications of these epistemological conditions for the depiction and interpretation of human subjectivity in literature. The paper will first seek to present the argument that science and technology have created new conditions for literature and aesthetics. It then outlines the implications of these new conditions for literature and aesthetics. The main methodologies used are close reading and case studies.

Keywords: science and technology, epistemological conditions, literature and aesthetics, human subjectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 5