Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6835

Search results for: power plants

6835 [Keynote Speech]: Competitive Evaluation of Power Plants in Energy Policy

Authors: Beril Tuğrul

Abstract:

Electrical energy is the most important form of energy and electrical power plants have highest impact factor in energy policy. This study is in relation with evaluation of various power plants including fossil fuels, nuclear and renewable energy based power plants. The power plants evaluated with regard to their overall impact that considered for establishing of the plants. Both positive and negative impacts of power plant operation are compared view of different arguments. Then calculate the impact factor by using variation linear extrapolation for each argument. With this study, power plants assessed with the different point of view and clarified objectively.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
6834 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: distributed generation, renewable energy sources, energy policy, curriculum

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6833 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali

Abstract:

This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: power plant, efficiency improvement, carbon dioxide emissions, energy situation in Libya

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6832 Reliability, Availability and Capacity Analysis of Power Plants in Kuwait

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

One of the most important factors affecting power plant performance is the reliability of the turbine units operated under different conditions. Reliability directly affects plant availability and performance. Therefore, it is very important to be able to analyze turbine units, as well as power plant system reliability and availability under various operational conditions. In this paper, data related to power station failures are collected and analyzed in detail for all power stations in the state of Kuwait. Failures are characterized and categorized. Reliabilities of various power plants are analyzed and availabilities are quantified. Based on calculated availabilities of all installed power plants, actual power output is estimated. Furthermore, based on the past 15 years of data, power consumption trend is determined and the demand for power in the future is forecasted. Estimated power output is compared to the forecasted demand in order to determine the need for future capacity expansion.

Keywords: power plants, reliability, availability, capacity, preventive maintenance, forecasting

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6831 Improving the Efficiency of Pelton Wheel and Cross-Flow Micro Hydro Power Plants

Authors: Loice K. Gudukeya, Charles Mbohwa

Abstract:

The research investigates hydropower plant efficiency with a view to improving the power output while keeping the overall project cost per kilowatt produced within an acceptable range. It reviews the commonly used Pelton and Cross-flow turbines which are employed in the region for micro-hydro power plants. Turbine parameters such as surface texture, material used and fabrication processes are dealt with the intention of increasing the efficiency by 20 to 25 percent for the micro hydro-power plants.

Keywords: hydro, power plant, efficiency, manufacture

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
6830 Determining Efficiency of Frequency Control System of Karkheh Power Plant in Main Network

Authors: Ferydon Salehifar, Hassan Safarikia, Hossein Boromandfar

Abstract:

Karkheh plant in Iran's Khuzestan province and is located in the city Andimeshk. The plant has a production capacity of 400 MW units with water and three hours. One of the important parameters of each country's power grid stability is the stability of the power grid is affected by the voltage and frequency In plants, the amount of active power frequency control is done so that when the unit is placed in the frequency control their productivity is a function of frequency and output power varies with frequency. Produced by hydroelectric power plants with the water level behind the dam has a direct relationship And to decrease and increase the water level behind the dam in order to reduce the power output increases But these changes have a different interval is due to some mechanical problems such as turbine cavitation and vibration are limited. In this study, the range of the frequency control can be Karkheh manufacturing plants have been identified and their effectiveness has been determined.

Keywords: Karkheh power, frequency control system, active power, efficiency

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6829 A Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of the Use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in Desalination Plants on the Kenyan Coast

Authors: Kathy Mwende Kiema, Remember Samu, Murat Fahrioglu

Abstract:

Despite the implementation of a Feed in Tariff (FiT) for solar power plants in Kenya, the uptake and subsequent development of utility scale power plants has been slow. This paper, therefore, proposes a Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant configuration that can supply both power to the grid and operate a sea water desalination plant, thus providing an economically viable alternative to Independent Power Producers (IPPs). The largest city on the coast, Mombasa, has a chronic water shortage and authorities are looking to employ desalination plants to supply a deficit of up to 100 million cubic meters of fresh water per day. In this study the desalination plant technology was selected based on an analysis of operational costs in $/m3 of plants that are already running. The output of the proposed CSP plant, Net Present Value (NPV), plant capacity factor, thermal efficiency and quantity of CO2 emission avoided were simulated using Greenius software (Green energy system analysis tool) developed by the institute of solar research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Data on solar irradiance were derived from the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) for Kenya.

Keywords: desalination, feed in tariff, independent power producer, solar CSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
6828 A Control Model for the Dismantling of Industrial Plants

Authors: Florian Mach, Eric Hund, Malte Stonis

Abstract:

The dismantling of disused industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants or refineries is an enormous challenge for the planning and control of the logistic processes. Existing control models do not meet the requirements for a proper dismantling of industrial plants. Therefore, the paper presents an approach for the control of dismantling and post-processing processes (e.g. decontamination) in plant decommissioning. In contrast to existing approaches, the dismantling sequence and depth are selected depending on the capacity utilization of required post-processing processes by also considering individual characteristics of respective dismantling tasks (e.g. decontamination success rate, uncertainties regarding the process times). The results can be used in the dismantling of industrial plants (e.g. nuclear power plants) to reduce dismantling time and costs by avoiding bottlenecks such as capacity constraints.

Keywords: dismantling management, logistics planning and control models, nuclear power plant dismantling, reverse logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
6827 Maximizing Profit Using Optimal Control by Exploiting the Flexibility in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Daud Mustafa Minhas, Raja Rehan Khalid, Georg Frey

Abstract:

The next generation power systems are equipped with abundantly available free renewable energy resources (RES). During their low-cost operations, the price of electricity significantly reduces to a lower value, and sometimes it becomes negative. Therefore, it is recommended not to operate the traditional power plants (e.g. coal power plants) and to reduce the losses. In fact, it is not a cost-effective solution, because these power plants exhibit some shutdown and startup costs. Moreover, they require certain time for shutdown and also need enough pause before starting up again, increasing inefficiency in the whole power network. Hence, there is always a trade-off between avoiding negative electricity prices, and the startup costs of power plants. To exploit this trade-off and to increase the profit of a power plant, two main contributions are made: 1) introducing retrofit technology for state of art coal power plant; 2) proposing optimal control strategy for a power plant by exploiting different flexibility features. These flexibility features include: improving ramp rate of power plant, reducing startup time and lowering minimum load. While, the control strategy is solved as mixed integer linear programming (MILP), ensuring optimal solution for the profit maximization problem. Extensive comparisons are made considering pre and post-retrofit coal power plant having the same efficiencies under different electricity price scenarios. It concludes that if the power plant must remain in the market (providing services), more flexibility reflects direct economic advantage to the plant operator.

Keywords: discrete optimization, power plant flexibility, profit maximization, unit commitment model

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6826 Selected Ethnomedicinal Plants of Northern Surigao Del Sur: Their Antioxidant Activities in Terms of Total Phenolics, ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Power, and Ferric Reducing Ability

Authors: Gemma A. Gruyal

Abstract:

Plants can contain a wide variety of substances with antioxidative properties which are associated to important health benefits. These positive health effects are of great importance at a time when the environment is laden with many toxic substances. Five selected herbal plants namely, Mimosa pudica, Phyllanthus niruri, Ceiba pentandra, Eleusine polydactyla and Trema amboinensis, were chosen for the experiment to investigate their total phenolics content and antioxidant activities using ABTS radical cation decolorization power, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The total phenolic content of each herbal plants ranges from 0.84 to 42.59 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The antioxidant activity in the ABTS radical cation decolorization power varies from 0.005 to 0.362 mg trolox equivalent/g and the FRAP ranges from 0.30 to 28.42 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. Among the five medicinal plants, Mimosa pudica has been an excellent performer in terms of the 3 parameters measured; it is followed by Phyllanthus niruri. The five herbal plants do not have equivalent antioxidant power. The relative high values for M. pudica and P. niruri supports the medicinal value of both plants. The total phenolics, ABTS and FRAP correlate strongly with one another.

Keywords: ABTS, FRAP, Leaf extracts, phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
6825 Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Selected Small Heat and Power Plants Operating in Poland

Authors: M. Stelmachowski, M. Wojtczak

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to assess the environmental impact of the selected small and medium-sized companies supplying heat and electricity to the cities with a population of about 50,000 inhabitants. Evaluation and comparison of the impact on the environment have been carried out for the three plants producing heat and two CHP plants with particular attention to emissions into the atmosphere and the impact of introducing a system of trading carbon emissions of these companies.

Keywords: CO2 emission, district heating, heat and power plant, impact on environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
6824 Identification of Key Parameters for Benchmarking of Combined Cycle Power Plants Retrofit

Authors: S. Sabzchi Asl, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

Benchmarking of a process with respect to energy consumption, without accomplishing a full retrofit study, can save both engineering time and money. In order to achieve this goal, the first step is to develop a conceptual-mathematical model that can easily be applied to a group of similar processes. In this research, we have aimed to identify a set of key parameters for the model which is supposed to be used for benchmarking of combined cycle power plants. For this purpose, three similar combined cycle power plants were studied. The results showed that ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, number of HRSG evaporator pressure levels and relative power in part load operation are the main key parameters. Also, the relationships between these parameters and produced power (by gas/ steam turbine), gas turbine and plant efficiency, temperature and mass flow rate of the stack flue gas were investigated.

Keywords: combined cycle power plant, energy benchmarking, modelling, retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
6823 Power Plants between Environmental Pollution and Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu, Mihai Cruceru

Abstract:

Power plants represent the main source of air pollution, through combustion processes, both by releasing large amounts of dust, greenhouse gases and acidifying, and large quantities of waste, slag and ash disposed in landfills covering significant areas. SC Turceni S.A. is one of the largest power generating unit from Romania. Their policy is focused on the production and delivery of electricity in order to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact. The paper presents environmental impact produced by slag and ash storage, while pointing out that the recovery of this waste significant improves the air quality in the area. An important aspect is the proprieties of the ash and slag evacuated by Turceni power plant in order to use them for building materials manufacturing.

Keywords: ash and slag properties, air pollution, building materials industry, power plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
6822 DG Power Plants Placement and Evaluation of its Effect on Improving Voltage Security Margin in Radial Distribution Networks

Authors: Atabak Faramarzpour, Mohsen Mohammadian

Abstract:

In this article, we introduce the stability of power system voltage and state DG power plants placement and its effect on improving voltage security margin in radial distribution networks. For this purpose, first, important definitions in voltage stability area such as small and big voltage disturbances, instability, and voltage collapse, and voltage security definitions are stated. Then, according to voltage collapse time, voltage stability is classified and each one's characteristics are stated.

Keywords: DG power plants, evaluation, voltage security, radial distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 569
6821 Nuclear Power Plant Radioactive Effluent Discharge Management in China

Authors: Jie Yang, Qifu Cheng, Yafang Liu, Zhijie Gu

Abstract:

Controlled emissions of effluent from nuclear power plants are an important means of ensuring environmental safety. In order to fully grasp the actual discharge level of nuclear power plant in China's nuclear power plant in the pressurized water reactor and heavy water reactor, it will use the global average nuclear power plant effluent discharge as a reference to the standard analysis of China's nuclear power plant environmental discharge status. The results show that the average normalized emission of liquid tritium in PWR nuclear power plants in China is slightly higher than the global average value, and the other nuclides emissions are lower than the global average values.

Keywords: radioactive effluent, HWR, PWR, nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6820 Approaches to Reduce the Complexity of Mathematical Models for the Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Virtual Power Plants in Public Energy Supply

Authors: Thomas Weber, Nina Strobel, Thomas Kohne, Eberhard Abele

Abstract:

In context of the energy transition in Germany, the importance of so-called virtual power plants in the energy supply continues to increase. The progressive dismantling of the large power plants and the ongoing construction of many new decentralized plants result in great potential for optimization through synergies between the individual plants. These potentials can be exploited by mathematical optimization algorithms to calculate the optimal application planning of decentralized power and heat generators and storage systems. This also includes linear or linear mixed integer optimization. In this paper, procedures for reducing the number of decision variables to be calculated are explained and validated. On the one hand, this includes combining n similar installation types into one aggregated unit. This aggregated unit is described by the same constraints and target function terms as a single plant. This reduces the number of decision variables per time step and the complexity of the problem to be solved by a factor of n. The exact operating mode of the individual plants can then be calculated in a second optimization in such a way that the output of the individual plants corresponds to the calculated output of the aggregated unit. Another way to reduce the number of decision variables in an optimization problem is to reduce the number of time steps to be calculated. This is useful if a high temporal resolution is not necessary for all time steps. For example, the volatility or the forecast quality of environmental parameters may justify a high or low temporal resolution of the optimization. Both approaches are examined for the resulting calculation time as well as for optimality. Several optimization models for virtual power plants (combined heat and power plants, heat storage, power storage, gas turbine) with different numbers of plants are used as a reference for the investigation of both processes with regard to calculation duration and optimality.

Keywords: CHP, Energy 4.0, energy storage, MILP, optimization, virtual power plant

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6819 Water Saving in Electricity Generation System Considering Natural Gas Limitation

Authors: Mehdi Ganjkhani, Sobhan Badakhshan, Seyedvahid Hosseini

Abstract:

Power plants exploit striking proportion of underground water consumption. Correspondingly, natural gas-fired power plants need less water than the other conventional power plants. Therefore, shifting unit commitment planning toward these power plants would help to save water consumption. This paper discusses the impacts of water consumption limitation on natural gas consumption and vice versa as a short-term water consumption management solution. To do so, conventional unit commitment problem is extended by adding water consumption and natural gas constraints to the previous constrains. The paper presents the impact of water saving on natural gas demands as well as natural gas shortage on water demand. Correspondingly, the additional cost of electricity production according to the aforementioned constraints is evaluated. Finally, a test system is applied to investigate potentials and impacts of water saving and natural gas shortage. Different scenarios are conducted and the results are presented. The results of the study illustrate that in order to use less water for power production it needs to use more natural gas. Meanwhile, natural gas shortage causes to utilize more amount of water in aggregate.

Keywords: electric energy generation system, underground water sources, unit commitment, water consumption saving, natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
6818 Analysis of Planning Strategies for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Kenya from 2015 to 2035

Authors: Alex Maina, Mwenda Makadhimo, Adwek George, Charles Opiyo

Abstract:

This research entailed the development and simulation of three possible future power scenarios for Kenya from 2015 to 2035 Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP). These scenarios are a representation of the unfolding future electricity generation that will fully satisfy the demand while considering energy security, cost of power generation, and environmental impacts. That research commenced by first carrying out a study on the reference scenario (RS), this comprised coal, geothermal, hydro, wind, nuclear, and thermal diesel power plants. The three possible future scenarios are; (i) the nuclear scenario (NS), representing a clean technology. This scenario will be composed of thermal gas turbine plants, hydro, nuclear, wind, and geothermal power plants; (ii) the coal scenario (CS), representing a carbon-intensive pathway with a supply mix of coal, geothermal, thermal (medium-speed diesel and gas turbine), hydro, and wind power plants; (iii) the more renewable scenario (MRS), with a supply mix of hydro, geothermal, wind, pumped hydro storage and small renewable plants including hydro, solar PV, and biomass plants as non-dispatchable plants. The results obtained show that the most competitive scenario in terms of costs is the coal scenario with a net present value (NPV) of $30,052.67 million though it has the highest green house gases (GHG) emissions. On the flip side, the more renewable scenario (MRS) has the least GHG emissions, but it is the most expensive scenario to implement with an NPV of $30,733.07 million.

Keywords: energy security, Kenya, low emissions analysis platform, net-present value, green house gases

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6817 Management of Fitness-For-Duty for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

Abstract:

For the past several decades, not a few researchers have warned that even a trivial human error may result in unexpected accidents, especially in Nuclear Power Plants. To prevent accidents in Nuclear Power Plants, it is quite indispensable to make any factors under the effective control that may raise the possibility of human errors for accident prevention. This study aimed to develop a risk management program, especially in the sense that guaranteeing Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) of human beings working in Nuclear Power Plants. Throughout a literal survey, it was found that work stress and fatigue are major psychophysical factors requiring sophisticated management. A set of major management factors related to work stress and fatigue was through repetitive literal surveys and classified into several categories. To maintain the fitness of human workers, a 4-level – individual worker, team, staff within plants, and external professional - approach was adopted for FFD management program. Moreover, the program was arranged to envelop the whole employment cycle from selection and screening of workers, job allocation, and job rotation. Also, a managerial care program was introduced for employee assistance based on the concept of Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The developed program was reviewed with repetition by ex-operators in nuclear power plants, and assessed in the affirmative. As a whole, responses implied additional treatment to guarantee high performance of human workers not only in normal operations but also in emergency situations. Consequently, the program is under administrative modification for practical application.

Keywords: fitness-for-duty (FFD), human error, work stress, fatigue, Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP)

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6816 A Study on Cleaning Mirror Technology with Reduced Water Consumption in a Solar Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Bayarjargal Enkhtaivan, Gao Wei, Zhang Yanping, He Guo Qiang

Abstract:

In our study, traditional cleaning mirror technology with reduced consumption of water in solar thermal power plants is investigated. In developed countries, a significant increase of growth and innovation in solar thermal power sector is evident since over the last decade. These power plants required higher water consumption, however, there are some complications to construct and operate such power plants under severe drought-inflicted areas like deserts where high water-deficit can be seen but sufficient solar energy is available. Designing new experimental equipments is the most important advantage of this study. These equipments can estimate various types of measurements at the mean time. In this study, Glasses were placed for 10 and 20 days at certain positions to deposit dusts on glass surface by using a common method. Dust deposited on glass surface was washed by experimental equipment and measured dust deposition on each glass. After that, experimental results were analyzed and concluded.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP) plant, high-pressure water, test equipment of clean mirror, cleaning technology of glass and mirror

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6815 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: thermal power plant, lignite coal, pretreatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, ash dampening

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6814 Performance Tracking of Thermal Plant Systems of Kuwait and Impact on the Environment

Authors: Abdullah Alharbi

Abstract:

Purpose: This research seeks to take a holistic strategic evaluation of the thermal power plants in Kuwait at both policy and technical level in order to allow a systematic retrofitting program. The new world order in energy generation and consumption demand that sources of energy can safeguard the use of natural resources and generate minimal impacts on the environment. For Kuwait, the energy used per capita is mainly associated with desalination plants. The overall impact of thermal power plant installations manifests indisposed of seawater and the health of marine life. Design/methodology/approach: The research adopts a case study based evaluation of performance data and documents of thermal plant installations in Kuwait. Findings: Research findings on the performance of existing thermal plants demand policy benchmarking with internationally acceptable standards in order to create clarity on decisions regarding demolition, retrofitting, or renewal. Research implications: This research has the potential to strategically inform and influence the piecemeal changes to power plants, including the replacement of power generation equipment, considering the varied technologies for thermal plants. Originality/value: This research provides evidence based data that can be useful for influencing operational efficiency after a holistic evaluation of existing capacity in comparison with future demands.

Keywords: energy, Kuwait, performance, stainability, tracking, thermal plant

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6813 Optimal Design of the Power Generation Network in California: Moving towards 100% Renewable Electricity by 2045

Authors: Wennan Long, Yuhao Nie, Yunan Li, Adam Brandt

Abstract:

To fight against climate change, California government issued the Senate Bill No. 100 (SB-100) in 2018 September, which aims at achieving a target of 100% renewable electricity by the end of 2045. A capacity expansion problem is solved in this case study using a binary quadratic programming model. The optimal locations and capacities of the potential renewable power plants (i.e., solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and hydropower), the phase-out schedule of existing fossil-based (nature gas) power plants and the transmission of electricity across the entire network are determined with the minimal total annualized cost measured by net present value (NPV). The results show that the renewable electricity contribution could increase to 85.9% by 2030 and reach 100% by 2035. Fossil-based power plants will be totally phased out around 2035 and solar and wind will finally become the most dominant renewable energy resource in California electricity mix.

Keywords: 100% renewable electricity, California, capacity expansion, mixed integer non-linear programming

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6812 Measurement of Operational and Environmental Performance of the Coal-Fired Power Plants in India by Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Vijay Kumar Bajpai, Sudhir Kumar Singh

Abstract:

In this study, the performance analyses of the twenty five coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) used for electricity generation are carried out through various data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Three efficiency indices are defined and pursued. During the calculation of the operational performance, energy and non-energy variables are used as input, and net electricity produced is used as desired output. CO2 emitted to the environment is used as the undesired output in the computation of the pure environmental performance while in Model-3 CO2 emissions is considered as detrimental input in the calculation of operational and environmental performance. Empirical results show that most of the plants are operating in increasing returns to scale region and Mettur plant is efficient one with regards to energy use and environment. The result also indicates that the undesirable output effect is insignificant in the research sample. The present study will provide clues to plant operators towards raising the operational and environmental performance of CFPPs.

Keywords: coal fired power plants, environmental performance, data envelopment analysis, operational performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
6811 The Nuclear Power Plant Environment Monitoring System through Mobile Units

Authors: P. Tanuska, A. Elias, P. Vazan, B. Zahradnikova

Abstract:

This article describes the information system for measuring and evaluating the dose rate in the environment of nuclear power plants Mochovce and Bohunice in Slovakia. The article presents the results achieved in the implementation of the EU project–Research of monitoring and evaluation of non-standard conditions in the area of nuclear power plants. The objectives included improving the system of acquisition, measuring and evaluating data with mobile and autonomous units applying new knowledge from research. The article provides basic and specific features of the system and compared to the previous version of the system, also new functions.

Keywords: information system, dose rate, mobile devices, nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
6810 Design of an Acoustic System for Small-Scale Power Plants

Authors: Mohammadreza Judaki, Hosein Mohammadnezhad Shourkaei

Abstract:

Usually, noise generated by industrial units, is a pollution and disturbs people and causes problems for human health and sometimes these units will be closed because they cannot eliminate this pollution. Small-scale power plants usually are built close to residential areas, and noise generated by these power plants is an important factor in choosing their location and their design. Materials used to reduce noise are studied by measuring their absorption and reflection index numerically and experimentally. We can use MIKI model (Yasushi Miki, 1990) to simulate absorption index by using software like Ansys or Soundflow and compare calculation results with experimental simulation data. We consider high frequency sounds of power plant engines octave band diagram because dB value of high frequency noise is more noticeable for human ears. To prove this, in this study we first will study calculating octave band of engines exhausts and then we will study acoustic behavior of materials that we will use in high frequencies and this will give us our optimum noise reduction plan.

Keywords: acoustic materials, eliminating engine noise, octave level diagram, power plant noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
6809 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni

Abstract:

Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
6808 Establishing Forecasts Pointing Towards the Hungarian Energy Change Based on the Results of Local Municipal Renewable Energy Production and Energy Export

Authors: Balazs Kulcsar

Abstract:

Professional energy organizations perform analyses mainly on the global and national levels about the expected development of the share of renewables in electric power generation, heating, and cooling, as well as the transport sectors. There are just a few publications, research institutions, non-profit organizations, and national initiatives with a focus on studies in the individual towns, settlements. Issues concerning the self-supply of energy on the settlement level have not become too wide-spread. The goal of our energy geographic studies is to determine the share of local renewable energy sources in the settlement-based electricity supply across Hungary. The Hungarian energy supply system defines four categories based on the installed capacities of electric power generating units. From these categories, the theoretical annual electricity production of small-sized household power plants (SSHPP) featuring installed capacities under 50 kW and small power plants with under 0.5 MW capacities have been taken into consideration. In the above-mentioned power plant categories, the Hungarian Electricity Act has allowed the establishment of power plants primarily for the utilization of renewable energy sources since 2008. Though with certain restrictions, these small power plants utilizing renewable energies have the closest links to individual settlements and can be regarded as the achievements of the host settlements in the shift of energy use. Based on the 2017 data, we have ranked settlements to reflect the level of self-sufficiency in electricity production from renewable energy sources. The results show that the supply of all the energy demanded by settlements from local renewables is within reach now in small settlements, e.g., in the form of the small power plant categories discussed in the study, and is not at all impossible even in small towns and cities. In Hungary, 30 settlements produce more renewable electricity than their own annual electricity consumption. If these overproductive settlements export their excess electricity towards neighboring settlements, then full electricity supply can be realized on further 29 settlements from renewable sources by local small power plants. These results provide an opportunity for governmental planning of the realization of energy shift (legislative background, support system, environmental education), as well as framing developmental forecasts and scenarios until 2030.

Keywords: energy geography, Hungary, local small power plants, renewable energy sources, self-sufficiency settlements

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6807 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı

Abstract:

Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
6806 Merit Order of Indonesian Coal Mining Sources to Meet the Domestic Power Plants Demand

Authors: Victor Siahaan

Abstract:

Coal still become the most important energy source for electricity generation known for its contribution which take the biggest portion of energy mix that a country has, for example Indonesia. The low cost of electricity generation and quite a lot of resources make this energy still be the first choice to fill the portion of base load power. To realize its significance to produce electricity, it is necessary to know the amount of coal (volume) needed to ensure that all coal power plants (CPP) in a country can operate properly. To secure the volume of coal, in this study, discussion was carried out regarding the identification of coal mining sources in Indonesia, classification of coal typical from each coal mining sources, and determination of the port of loading. By using data above, the sources of coal mining are then selected to feed certain CPP based on the compatibility of the coal typical and the lowest transport cost.

Keywords: merit order, Indonesian coal mine, electricity, power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 75