Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2241

Search results for: digital games

2241 Evaluating Key Attributes of Effective Digital Games in Tertiary Education

Authors: Roopali Kulkarni, Yuliya Khrypko


A major problem in educational digital game design is that game developers are often focused on maintaining the fun and playability of an educational game, whereas educators are more concerned with the learning aspect of the game rather than its entertaining characteristics. There is a clear need to understand what key aspects of digital learning games make them an effective learning medium in tertiary education. Through a systematic literature review and content analysis, this paper identifies, evaluates, and summarizes twenty-threekey attributes of digital games used in tertiary education and presents a summary digital game-based learning (DGBL) modelfor designing and evaluating an educational digital game of any genre that promotes effective learning in tertiary education. The proposed solution overcomes limitations of previously designed models for digital games evaluation, such as a small number of game attributes considered or applicability to a specific genre of digital games. Proposed DGBL modelcan be used to assist game designers and educators with creating effective and engaging educational digital games for the tertiary education curriculum.

Keywords: DGBL model, digital games, educational games, game-based learning, tertiary education

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2240 Improving Young Learners' Vocabulary Acquisition: A Pilot Program in a Game-Based Environment

Authors: Vasiliki Stratidou


Modern simulation mobile games have the potential to enhance students’ interest, motivation and creativity. Research conducted on the effectiveness of digital games for educational purposes has shown that such games are also ideal at providing an appropriate environment for language learning. The paper examines the issue of simulation mobile games in regard to the potential positive impacts on L2 vocabulary learning. Sixteen intermediate level students, aged 10-14, participated in the experimental study for four weeks. The participants were divided into experimental (8 participants) and control group (8 participants). The experimental group was planned to learn some new vocabulary words via digital games while the control group used a reading passage to learn the same vocabulary words. The study investigated the effect of mobile games as well as the traditional learning methods on Greek EFL learners’ vocabulary learning in a pre-test, an immediate post-test, and a two-week delayed retention test. A teacher’s diary and learners’ interviews were also used as tools to estimate the effectiveness of the implementation. The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in acquiring new words through mobile games. Therefore, digital games proved to be an effective tool in learning English vocabulary.

Keywords: control group, digital games, experimental group, second language vocabulary learning, simulation games

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2239 A Review of Applying Serious Games on Learning

Authors: Carlos Oliveira, Ulrick Pimentel


Digital games have conquered a growing space in the lives of children, adolescents and adults. In this perspective, the use of this resource has shown to be an important strategy that facilitates the learning process. This research is a literature review on the use of serious games in teaching, which shows the characteristics of these games, the benefits and possible harms that this resource can produce, in addition to the possible methods of evaluating the effectiveness of this resource in teaching. The results point out that Serious Games have significant potential as a tool for instruction. However, their effectiveness in terms of learning outcomes is still poorly studied, mainly due to the complexity involved in evaluating intangible measures.

Keywords: serious games, learning, application, literature review

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2238 Perceptions of Senior Academics in Teacher Education Colleges Regarding the Integration of Digital Games during the Pandemic

Authors: Merav Hayakac, Orit Avidov-Ungarab


The current study adopted an interpretive-constructivist approach to examine how senior academics from a large sample of Israeli teacher education colleges serving general or religious populations perceived the integration of digital games into their teacher instruction and what their policy and vision were in this regard in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Half the participants expressed a desire to integrate digital games into their teaching and learning but acknowledged that this practice was uncommon. Only a small minority believed they had achieved successful integration, with doubt and skepticism expressed by some religious colleges. Most colleges had policies encouraging technology integration supported by ongoing funding. Although a considerable gap between policy and implementation remained, the COVID-19 pandemic was viewed as having accelerated the integration of digital games into pre-service teacher instruction. The findings suggest that discussions around technology-related vision and policy and their translation into practice should relate to the specific cultural needs and academic preparedness of the population(s) served by the college.

Keywords: COVID-19, digital games, pedagogy, teacher education colleges

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2237 On the Analysis of Strategies of Buechi Games

Authors: Ahmad Termimi Ab Ghani, Kojiro Higuchi


In this paper, we present some results of simultaneous infinite games. We mainly work with generalized reachability games and Buechi games. These games are two-player concurrent games where each player chooses simultaneously their moves at each step. Our goal is to give simple expressions of values for each game. Moreover, we are interested in the question of what type of optimal (ε-optimal) strategy exists for both players depending on the type of games. We first show the determinacy (optimal value) and optimal (ε-optimal) strategies in generalized reachability games. We provide a simple expressions of value of this game and prove the existence of memoryless randomized ε-optimal strategy for Player I in any generalized reachability games. We then observe games with more complex objectives, games with Buechi objectives. We present how to compute an ε-optimal strategies and approximate a value of game in some way. Specifically, the results of generalized reachability games are used to show the value of Buechi games can be approximated as values of some generalized reachability games.

Keywords: optimal Strategies, generalized reachability games, Buechi games

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2236 The Effect of Video Games on English as a Foreign Language Students' Language Learning Motivation

Authors: Shamim Ali


Researchers and teachers have begun developing digital games and model environments for educational purpose; therefore this study examines the effect of a videos game on secondary school students’ language learning motivation. Secondly, it tries to find out the opportunities to develop a decision making process and simultaneously it analyzes the solutions for further implementation in educational setting. Participants were 30 male students randomly assigned to one of the following three treatments: 10 students were assigned to read the game’s story; 10 students were players, who played video game; and, and the last 10 students acted as watchers and observers, their duty was to watch their classmates play the digital video game. A language learning motivation scale was developed and it was given to the participants as a pre- and post-test. Results indicated a significant language learning motivation and the participants were quite motivated in the end. It is, thus, concluded that the use of video games can help enhance high school students’ language learning motivation. It was suggested that video games should be used as a complementary activity not as a replacement for textbook since excessive use of video games can divert the original purpose of learning.

Keywords: EFL, English as a Foreign Language, motivation, video games, EFL learners

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
2235 The Effects of a Digital Dialogue Game on Higher Education Students’ Argumentation-Based Learning

Authors: Omid Noroozi


Digital dialogue games have opened up opportunities for learning skills by engaging students in complex problem solving that mimic real world situations, without importing unwanted constraints and risks of the real world. Digital dialogue games can be motivating and engaging to students for fun, creative thinking, and learning. This study explored how undergraduate students engage with argumentative discourse activities which have been designed to intensify debate. A pre-test, post-test design was used with students who were assigned to groups of four and asked to debate a controversial topic with the aim of exploring various 'pros and cons' on the 'Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)'. Findings reveal that the Digital dialogue game can facilitate argumentation-based learning. The digital Dialogue game was also evaluated positively in terms of students’ satisfaction and learning experiences.

Keywords: argumentation, dialogue, digital game, learning, motivation

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2234 Mental Health Representation in Video Games

Authors: Leonid Rybakovski


Contemporary media offer a variety of themes for the diverse tastes of their audiences. The Digital games medium was mostly perceived as an instrument of entertainment. But being a part of global trends while constantly pushing the boundaries of storytelling in virtual reality and standing on the edge of technology also brings huge responsibility for game designers around the globe. A very recent emerging topic over the last years was an individual's mental state. In recent years there has been a shift in mental problems representations in commercial game releases such as Hell blade: Senua's Sacrifice and Sea of Solitude. The aim of this study is to research the approach of mental illness representation in media and digital games over the years and to suggest alternatives for putting characters who suffer from mental illness at the forefront of the storyline. This study traces dominant representations of characters with mental illness in digital games, reflecting the major change of the game industry toward inclusiveness. At the same time, the research embraces a hybrid approach to the academic study of digital games and includes the development of a game that follows a post-traumatic young girl, forcing the users to live her life through her eyes. The game prototype was developed as part of the Mdes Game Design and Development program and consisted of academic research and game development practices.

Keywords: framing analysis, mental condition, up keying, game mechanics

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2233 Approach-Avoidance and Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation of Adolescent Computer Games Players

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska


The period of adolescence is a time when young people are becoming more and more active and conscious users of the digital world. One of the most frequently undertaken activities by them is computer games. Young players can choose from a wide range of games, including action, adventure, strategy, and logic games. The main aim of this study is to answer the question about the motivation of teenage players. The basic question is what motivates young players to play computer games and what motivates them to play a particular game. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire in which they determined what motivates them to play, how often they play computer games, and what type of computer games they play most often. It was found that entertainment and learning English are among the most important motives. The most important specific features related to a given game are the knowledge of its previous parts and the ability to play for free. The motives chosen by the players will be described in relation to the concepts of internal and external as well as approach and avoidance motivation. An additional purpose of this study is to present data concerning preferences regarding the type of games and the amount of time they spend playing.

Keywords: computer games, motivation, game preferences, adolescence

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2232 Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies

Authors: B. A. A. Paixão, J. V. B. Gomide


This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.

Keywords: cities representation, cities simulation, games simulation, immersion, locative games

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2231 Player Experience: A Research on Cross-Platform Supported Games

Authors: Salih Akkemik


User Experience has a characterized perspective based on two fundamentals: the usage process and the product. Digital games can be considered as a special interactive system. This system has a very specific purpose and this is to make the player feel good while playing. At this point, Player Experience (PX) and User Experience (UX) are similar. UX focuses on the user feels good, PX focuses on the player feels good. The most important difference between the two is the action taken. These are actions of using and playing. In this study, the player experience will be examined primarily. PX may differ on different platforms. Nowadays, companies are releasing the successful and high-income games that they have developed with cross-platform support. Cross-platform is the most common expression that an application can run on different operating systems, in other words, be developed to support different operating systems. In terms of digital games, cross-platform support means that a game can be played on a computer, console or mobile device environment, more specifically, the game developed is designed and programmed to be played in the same way on at least two different platforms, such as Windows, MacOS, Linux, iOS, Android, Orbis OS or Xbox OS. Different platforms also accommodate different player groups, profiles and preferences. This study aims to examine these different player profiles in terms of player experience and to determine the effects of cross-platform support on player experience.

Keywords: cross-platform, digital games, player experience, user experience

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2230 Freedom and the Value of Games: How to Overcome the Challenges in the Gamification of Necessary Learning Tasks

Authors: Jonathan May


This paper argues that the value of games relates to the sensation of freedom they create, and this in turn results from their nature as voluntary, non-necessary tasks. Attempts to gamify necessary learning tasks are therefore challenged to create this sensation of freedom and so they often fail to create the pleasure and value found in traditional games. It then demonstrates a route to creating this sensation of freedom through the maximization of varied and creative solutions to such problems.

Keywords: gamification, games, philosophy of games, freedom, voluntary action, necessity, motivation, value of games

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2229 Prevalence and the Results of the Czech Nationwide Survey and Personality Traits of Adolescence Playing Computer Games

Authors: Jaroslava Sucha, Martin Dolejs, Helena Pipova, Panajotis Cakirpaloglu


The paper introduces the research project which is focused on evaluating the level of pathological relation towards computer or video games playing (including any games played by using a screen such as a mobile or a tablet). The study involves representative sample of the Czech adolescents between ages 11 and 19. This poster presents the psychometric indicators of the new psychologic assessment method (mean, standard deviation, reliability, validity) which will be able to detect an acceptable level of games’ playing and at the same time will detect and describe the level of gaming which might be potentially risky. The prevalence of risky computer game playing at Czech adolescents in age 11 to 19 will be mentioned. The research study also aims to describe the personality profile of the problematic players with respect to the digital games. The research area will encompass risky behaviour, aggression, the level of self-esteem, impulsivity, anxiety and depression. The contribution will introduce a new test method for the assessment of pathological playing computer games. The research will give the first screening information of playing computer games in the Czech Republic by adolescents between 11-19 years. The results clarify what relationship exists between playing computer games and selected personality characteristics (it will describe personality of the gamer, who is in the category of ‘pathological playing computer games’).

Keywords: adolescence, computer games, personality traits, risk behaviour

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2228 Creating Gameful Experience as an Innovative Approach in the Digital Era: A Double-Mediation Model of Instructional Support, Group Engagement and Flow

Authors: Mona Hoyng


In times of digitalization nowadays, the use of games became a crucial new way for digital game-based learning (DGBL) in higher education. In this regard, the development of a gameful experience (GE) among students is decisive when examining DGBL as the GE is a necessary precondition determining the effectiveness of games. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to provide deeper insights into the GE and to empirically investigate whether and how these meaningful learning experiences within games, i.e., GE, among students are created. Based on the theory of experience and flow theory, a double-mediation model was developed considering instructional support, group engagement, and flow as determinants of students’ GE. Based on data of 337 students taking part in a business simulation game at two different universities in Germany, regression-based statistical mediation analysis revealed that instructional support promoted students’ GE. This relationship was further sequentially double mediated by group engagement and flow. Consequently, in the context of DGBL, meaningful learning experiences within games in terms of GE are created and promoted through appropriate instructional support, as well as high levels of group engagement and flow among students.

Keywords: gameful experience, instructional support, group engagement, flow, education, learning

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2227 People Abandoning Mobile Social Games: Using Candy Crush Saga as an Example

Authors: Pei-Shan Wei, Szu-Ying Lee, Hsi-Peng Lu, Jen-Chuen Tzou, Chien-I Weng


Mobile social games recently become extremely popular, spawning a whole new entertainment culture. However, mobile game players are fickle, quickly and easily picking up and abandoning games. This pilot study seeks to identify factors that influence users to discontinue playing mobile social games. We identified three sacrifices which can prompt users to abandon games: monetary sacrifice, time sacrifice and privacy sacrifice. The results showed that monetary sacrifice has a greater impact than the other two factors in causing players to discontinue usage intention.

Keywords: abandon, mobile devices, mobile social games, perceived sacrifice

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2226 From Design, Experience and Play Framework to Common Design Thinking Tools: Using Serious Modern Board Games

Authors: Micael Sousa


Board games (BGs) are thriving as new designs emerge from the hobby community to greater audiences all around the world. Although digital games are gathering most of the attention in game studies and serious games research fields, the post-digital movement helps to explain why in the world dominated by digital technologies, the analog experiences are still unique and irreplaceable to users, allowing innovation in new hybrid environments. The BG’s new designs are part of these post-digital and hybrid movements because they result from the use of powerful digital tools that enable the production and knowledge sharing about the BGs and their face-to-face unique social experiences. These new BGs, defined as modern by many authors, are providing innovative designs and unique game mechanics that are still not yet fully explored by the main serious games (SG) approaches. Even the most established frameworks settled to address SG, as fun games implemented to achieve predefined goals need more development, especially when considering modern BGs. Despite the many anecdotic perceptions, researchers are only now starting to rediscover BGs and demonstrating their potentials. They are proving that BGs are easy to adapt and to grasp by non-expert players in experimental approaches, with the possibility of easy-going adaptation to players’ profiles and serious objectives even during gameplay. Although there are many design thinking (DT) models and practices, their relations with SG frameworks are also underdeveloped, mostly because this is a new research field, lacking theoretical development and the systematization of the experimental practices. Using BG as case studies promise to help develop these frameworks. Departing from the Design, Experience, and Play (DPE) framework and considering the Common Design Think Tools (CDST), this paper proposes a new experimental framework for the adaptation and development of modern BG design for DT: the Design, Experience, and Play for Think (DPET) experimental framework. This is done through the systematization of the DPE and CDST approaches applied in two case studies, where two different sequences of adapted BG were employed to establish a DT collaborative process. These two sessions occurred with different participants and in different contexts, also using different sequences of games for the same DT approach. The first session took place at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Coimbra in a training session of serious games for project development. The second session took place in the Casa do Impacto through The Great Village Design Jam light. Both sessions had the same duration and were designed to progressively achieve DT goals, using BGs as SGs in a collaborative process. The results from the sessions show that a sequence of BGs, when properly adapted to address the DPET framework, can generate a viable and innovative process of collaborative DT that is productive, fun, and engaging. The DPET proposed framework intents to help establish how new SG solutions could be defined for new goals through flexible DT. Applications in other areas of research and development can also benefit from these findings.

Keywords: board games, design thinking, methodology, serious games

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2225 Preliminary Proposal to Use Adaptive Computer Games in the Virtual Rehabilitation Therapy

Authors: Mamoun S. Ideis, Zein Salah


Virtual Rehabilitation (VR) refers to using Virtual Reality’s hardware and simulations as means of exercising tools to rehabilitate patients in need. These patients will undergo their treatment exercises while playing different computer games, which helps achieve greater motivation for patients undergoing their therapeutic exercises. Virtual Rehabilitation systems adopt computer games as part of the treatment therapy. In this paper, we present a preliminary proposal to using adaptive computer games in Virtual Rehabilitation therapy. We also present some tips in designing those adaptive computer games by using different machine learning algorithms in order to create a personalized experience for each patient, which in turn, increases the potential benefits of the treatment that each patient receives. Furthermore, we propose a method of comparing the results of treatment using the adaptive computer games with the results of using static and classical computer games.

Keywords: virtual rehabilitation, physiotherapy, adaptive computer games, post-stroke, game design

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2224 Great Art for Little Children - Games in School Education as Integration of Polish-Language, Eurhythmics, Artistic and Mathematical Subject Matter

Authors: Małgorzata Anna Karczmarzyk


Who is the contemporary child? What are his/her distinctive features making him/her different from earlier generations? And how to teach in the dissimilar social reality? These questions will constitute the key to my reflections on contemporary early school education. For, to my mind, games have become highly significant for the modern model of education. There arise publications and research employing games to increase competence both in business, tutoring, or coaching, as well as in academic education . Thanks to games students and subordinates can be taught such abilities as problem thinking, creativity, consistent fulfillment of goals, resourcefulness and skills of communication.

Keywords: games, art, children, school education, integration

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2223 The Subcategories of Folklore Dance for Children as Didactic Games for Developing Musical Ability in the Preschool Period

Authors: Eudjen Cinc, Mircea Maran, Jasmina Stolic


Viewed through the prism of folkloristics – ethnomusicology, the majority of didactic musical games belong to the category of folklore creative work of children, such games can be extremely useful for the development of musical ability in the preschool age. The paper gives a number of examples from the Romanian children folklore which were used in practice.

Keywords: musical games, children folklore, rhythmical system, melodica

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2222 Exploring the Effect of Nursing Students’ Self-Directed Learning and Technology Acceptance through the Use of Digital Game-Based Learning in Medical Terminology Course

Authors: Hsin-Yu Lee, Ming-Zhong Li, Wen-Hsi Chiu, Su-Fen Cheng, Shwu-Wen Lin


Background: The use of medical terminology is essential to professional nurses on clinical practice. However, most nursing students consider traditional lecture-based teaching of medical terminology as boring and overly conceptual and lack motivation to learn. It is thus an issue to be discussed on how to enhance nursing students’ self-directed learning and improve learning outcomes of medical terminology. Digital game-based learning is a learner-centered way of learning. Past literature showed that the most common game-based learning for language education has been immersive games and teaching games. Thus, this study selected role-playing games (RPG) and digital puzzle games for observation and comparison. It is interesting to explore whether digital game-based learning has positive impact on nursing students’ learning of medical terminology and whether students can adapt well on this type of learning. Results can be used to provide references for institutes and teachers on teaching medical terminology. These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for the conference. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at WASET. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column. Page margins are 1,78 cm top and down; 1,65 cm left and right. Each column width is 8,89 cm and the separation between the columns is 0,51 cm. Objective: The purpose of this research is to explore respectively the impact of RPG and puzzle game on nursing students’ self-directed learning and technology acceptance. The study further discusses whether different game types bring about different influences on students’ self-directed learning and technology acceptance. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was adopted in this study so that repeated measures between two groups could be conveniently conducted. 103 nursing students from a nursing college in Northern Taiwan participated in the study. For three weeks of experiment, the experiment group (n=52) received “traditional teaching + RPG” while the control group (n=51) received “traditional teaching + puzzle games”. Results: 1. On self-directed learning: For each game type, there were significant differences for the delayed tests of both groups as compared to the pre and post-tests of each group. However, there were no significant differences between the two game types. 2. On technology acceptance: For the experiment group, after the intervention of RPG, there were no significant differences concerning technology acceptance. For the control group, after the intervention of puzzle games, there were significant differences regarding technology acceptance. Pearson-correlation coefficient and path analysis conducted on the results of the two groups revealed that the dimension were highly correlated and reached statistical significance. Yet, the comparison of technology acceptance between the two game types did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion and Recommend: This study found that through using different digital games on learning, nursing students have effectively improved their self-directed learning. Students’ technology acceptances were also high for the two different digital game types and each dimension was significantly correlated. The results of the experimental group showed that through the scenarios of RPG, students had a deeper understanding of medical terminology, which reached the ‘Understand’ dimension of Bloom’s taxonomy. The results of the control group indicated that digital puzzle games could help students memorize and review medical terminology, which reached the ‘Remember’ dimension of Bloom’s taxonomy. The findings suggest that teachers of medical terminology could use digital games to assist their teaching according to their goals on cognitive learning. Adequate use of those games could help improve students’ self-directed learning and further enhance their learning outcome on medical terminology.

Keywords: digital game-based learning, medical terminology, nursing education, self-directed learning, technology acceptance model

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2221 A Comprehensive Study on Quality Assurance in Game Development

Authors: Maria Komal, Zaineb Khalil, Mehreen Sirshar


Due to the recent technological advancements, Games have become one of the most demanding applications. Gaming industry is rapidly growing and the key to success in this industry is the development of good quality games, which is a highly competitive issue. The ultimate goal of game developers is to provide player’s satisfaction by developing high-quality games. This research is the comprehensive survey of techniques followed by game industries to ensure games quality. After analysis of various techniques, it has been found that quality simulation according to ISO standards and play test methods are used to ensure games quality. Because game development requires cross-disciplined team, an increasing trend towards distributed game development has been observed. This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies used in game industry and draws a conclusion. We have also proposed quality parameters which can be used as a heuristic framework to identify those attributes which have high testing priorities.

Keywords: game development, computer games, video games, gaming industry, quality assurance, playability, user experience

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2220 Developing a Customizable Serious Game and Its Applicability in the Classroom

Authors: Anita Kéri


Recent developments in the field of education have led to a renewed interest in teaching methodologies and practices. Gamification is fast becoming a key instrument in the education of new generations and besides other methods, serious games have become the center of attention. Ready-built serious games are available for most higher education institutions to buy and implement. However, monetary restraints and the unalterable nature of the games might deter most higher education institutions from the application of these serious games. Therefore, there is a continuously growing need for a customizable serious game that has been developed based on a concrete need analysis and experts’ opinion. There has been little evidence so far of serious games that have been created based on relevant and current need analysis from higher education institution teachers, professional practitioners and students themselves. Therefore, the aim of this current paper is to analyze the needs of higher education institution educators with special emphasis on their needs, the applicability of serious games in their classrooms, and exploring options for the development of a customizable serious game framework. The paper undertakes to analyze workshop discussions on implementing serious games in education and propose a customizable serious game framework applicable in the education of the new generation. Research results show that the most important feature of a serious game is its customizability. The fact that practitioners are able to manage different scenarios and upload their own content to a game seems to be a key to the increasingly widespread application of serious games in the classroom.

Keywords: education, gamification, game-based learning, serious games

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2219 A Taxonomy of the Informational Content of Virtual Heritage Serious Games

Authors: Laurence C. Hanes, Robert J. Stone


Video games have reached a point of huge commercial success as well as wide familiarity with audiences both young and old. Much attention and research have also been directed towards serious games and their potential learning affordances. It is little surprise that the field of virtual heritage has taken a keen interest in using serious games to present cultural heritage information to users, with applications ranging from museums and cultural heritage institutions, to academia and research, to schools and education. Many researchers have already documented their efforts to develop and distribute virtual heritage serious games. Although attempts have been made to create classifications of the different types of virtual heritage games (somewhat akin to the idea of game genres), no formal taxonomy has yet been produced to define the different types of cultural heritage and historical information that can be presented through these games at a content level, and how the information can be manifested within the game. This study proposes such a taxonomy. First the informational content is categorized as heritage or historical, then further divided into tangible, intangible, natural, and analytical. Next, the characteristics of the manifestation within the game are covered. The means of manifestation, level of demonstration, tone, and focus are all defined and explained. Finally, the potential learning outcomes of the content are discussed. A demonstration of the taxonomy is then given by describing the informational content and corresponding manifestations within several examples of virtual heritage serious games as well as commercial games. It is anticipated that this taxonomy will help designers of virtual heritage serious games to think about and clearly define the information they are presenting through their games, and how they are presenting it. Another result of the taxonomy is that it will enable us to frame cultural heritage and historical information presented in commercial games with a critical lens, especially where there may not be explicit learning objectives. Finally, the results will also enable us to identify shared informational content and learning objectives between any virtual heritage serious and/or commercial games.

Keywords: informational content, serious games, taxonomy, virtual heritage

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2218 Inappropriate Effects Which the Use of Computer and Playing Video Games Have on Young People

Authors: Maja Ruzic-Baf, Mirjana Radetic-Paic


The use of computers by children has many positive aspects, including the development of memory, learning methods, problem-solving skills and the feeling of one’s own competence and self-confidence. Playing on line video games can encourage hanging out with peers having similar interests as well as communication; it develops coordination, spatial relations and presentation. On the other hand, the Internet enables quick access to different information and the exchange of experiences. How kids use computers and what the negative effects of this can be depends on various factors. ICT has improved and become easy to get for everyone. In the past 12 years so many video games has been made even to that level that some of them are free to play. Young people, even some adults, had simply start to forget about the real outside world because in that other, digital world, they have found something that makes them feal more worthy as a man. This article present the use of ICT, forms of behavior and addictions to on line video games. The use of computers by children has many positive aspects, including the development of memory, learning methods, problem-solving skills and the feeling of one’s own competence and self-confidence. Playing on line video games can encourage hanging out with peers having similar interests as well as communication; it develops coordination, spatial relations and presentation. On the other hand, the Internet enables quick access to different information and the exchange of experiences. How kids use computers and what the negative effects of this can be depends on various factors. ICT has improved and become easy to get for everyone. In the past 12 years so many video games has been made even to that level that some of them are free to play. Young people, even some adults, had simply start to forget about the real outside world because in that other, digital world, they have found something that makes them feal more worthy as a man. This article present the use of ICT, forms of behavior and addictions to on line video games.

Keywords: addiction to video games, behaviour, ICT, young people

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
2217 Escape Through Culture, Gamified Cultural Experiences

Authors: Spiros Papadopoulos, Avrokomi Zavitsanou, Elena Mantzari, Vassilis Bourdakis, Aristides Vagelatos


This paper presents the research project “Escape Through Culture”, which is co-funded by the European Union and national resources through the Operational Programme “Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation” 2014-2020 and the Single RTDI State Aid Action "RESEARCH - CREATE - INNOVATE". The project implementation is assumed by three partners, (1) the Computer Technology Institute and Press "Diophantus" (CTI), experienced with the design and implementation of serious games, natural language processing and ICT in education, (2) the Laboratory of Environmental Communication and Audiovisual Documentation (LECAD), part of the University of Thessaly, Department of Architecture, which is experienced with the study of creative transformation and reframing of the urban and environmental multimodal experiences through the use of AR and VR technologies, and (3) “Apoplou”, an IT Company with experience in the implementation of interactive digital applications. The research project proposes the design of innovative infrastructure of digital educational escape games for mobile devices and computers, with the use of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality for the promotion of Greek cultural heritage in Greece and abroad. In particular, the project advocates the combination of Greek cultural heritage and literature, digital technologies advancements and the implementation of innovative gamifying practices. The cultural experience of the players will take place in 3 layers: (1) In space: the digital games produced are going to utilize the dual character of the space as a cultural landscape (the real space - landscape but also the space - landscape as presented with the technologies of augmented reality and virtual reality). (2) In literary texts: the selected texts of Greek writers will support the sense of place and the multi-sensory involvement of the user, through the context of space-time, language and cultural characteristics. (3) In the philosophy of the "escape game" tool: whether played in a computer environment, indoors or outdoors, the spatial experience is one of the key components of escape games. The innovation of the project lies both in the junction of Augmented/Virtual Reality with the promotion of cultural points of interest, as well as in the interactive, gamified practices of literary texts. The digital escape game infrastructure will be highly interactive, integrating the projection of Greek landscape cultural elements and digital literary text analysis, supporting the creation of escape games, establishing and highlighting new playful ways of experiencing iconic cultural places, such as Elefsina, Skiathos etc. The literary texts’ content will relate to specific elements of the Greek cultural heritage depicted by prominent Greek writers and poets. The majority of the texts will originate from Greek educational content available in digital libraries and repositories developed and maintained by CTI. The escape games produced will be available for use during educational field trips, thematic tourism holidays, etc. In this paper, the methodology adopted for infrastructure development will be presented. The research is based on theories of place, gamification, gaming development, making use of corpus linguistics concepts and digital humanities practices for the compilation and the analysis of literary texts.

Keywords: escape games, cultural landscapes, gamification, digital humanities, literature

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2216 Study of Education Learning Techniques and Game Genres

Authors: Khadija Al Farei, Prakash Kumar, Vikas Rao Naidu


Games are being developed with different genres for different age groups, for many decades. In many places, educational games are playing a vital role for active classroom environment and better learning among students. Currently, the educational games have assumed an important place in children and teenagers lives. The role of educational games is important for improving the learning capability among the students especially of this generation, who really live among electronic gadgets. Hence, it is now important to make sure that in our educational system, we are updated with all such advancement in technologies. Already much research is going on in this area of edutainment. This research paper will review around ten different research papers to find the relation between the education learning techniques and games. The result of this review provides guidelines for enhanced teaching and learning solutions in education. In-house developed educational games proved to be more effective, compared to the one which is readily available in the market.

Keywords: education, education game, educational technology, edutainment, game genres, gaming in education

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2215 Digital Privacy Legislation Awareness

Authors: Henry Foulds, Magda Huisman, Gunther R. Drevin


Privacy is regarded as a fundamental human right and it is clear that the study of digital privacy is an important field. Digital privacy is influenced by new and constantly evolving technologies and this continuous change makes it hard to create legislation to protect people’s privacy from being exploited by misuse of these technologies.

This study aims to benefit digital privacy legislation efforts by evaluating the awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation among computer science students. The chosen fixed variables for the population are study year and gamer classification.

The use of location based services in mobile applications and games are a concern for digital privacy. For this reason the study focused on computer science students as they have a high likelihood to use and develop this type of software. Surveys were used to evaluate awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation.

The results of the study show that privacy legislation and awareness of privacy legislation are important to people. The perception of the importance of privacy legislation increases with academic experience. Awareness of privacy legislation increases from non-gamers to pro gamers. 

Keywords: digital privacy, legislation awareness, gaming, privacy legislation

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2214 Playing Light Switching Games with Langton's Turmite

Authors: Crista Arangala


Light switching games are both popular and well studied. This paper introduces a cellular automata called Langton’s turmite to several different light switching scenarios and discusses when Langton’s turmite can solve these games.

Keywords: cellular automata, lights out, alien tiles, chaos, Langton's Turmite

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2213 Analysing the Variables That Affect Digital Game-Based L2 Vocabulary Learning

Authors: Jose Ramon Calvo-Ferrer


Video games have been extensively employed in educational contexts to teach contents and skills, upon the premise that they engage students and provide instant feedback, which makes them adequate tools in the field of education and training. Term frequency, along with metacognition and implicit corrective feedback, has often been identified as powerful variables in the learning of vocabulary in a foreign language. This study analyses the learning of L2 mobile operating system terminology by a group of students and uses the data collected by the video game The Conference Interpreter to identify the predictive strength of term frequency (times a term is shown), positive metacognition (times a right answer is provided), and negative metacognition (times a term is shown as wrong) regarding L2 vocabulary learning and perceived learning outcomes. The regression analysis shows that the factor ‘positive metacognition’ is a positive predictor of both dependent variables, whereas the other factors seem to have no statistical effect on any of them.

Keywords: digital game-based learning, feedback, metacognition, frequency, video games

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2212 The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games

Authors: Tomas Vencurik, Jiri Nykodym


This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.

Keywords: game load, heart rate, player positions, the 1st, the 2nd half of the games

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