Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3342

Search results for: indigenous language

3342 Towards an Indigenous Language Policy for National Integration

Authors: Odoh Dickson Akpegi

Abstract:

The paper is about the need for an indigenous language in order to meaningfully harness both our human and material resources for the nation’s integration. It then examines the notty issue of the national language question and advocates a piece meal approach in solving the problem. This approach allows for the development and use of local languages in minority areas, especially in Benue State, as a way of preparing them for consideration as possible replacement for English language as Nigeria’s national or official language. Finally, an arrangement to follow to prepare the languages for such competition at the national level is presented.

Keywords: indigenous language, English language, official language, National integration

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3341 Teaching Vietnamese as the Official Language for Indigenous Preschool Children in Lai Chau, Vietnam: Exploring Teachers' Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Thao Thi Vu, Libby Lee-Hammond, Andrew McConney

Abstract:

In Vietnam, the Vietnamese language is normally used as the language of instruction. The dominance of this language places children who have a different first language such as Indigenous children at a disadvantage when commencing school. This study explores preschool teachers’ beliefs about second language acquisition in Lai Chau provinces where is typical of highland provinces of Vietnam and the proportion of Indigenous minority groups in high. Data were collected from surveys with both closed-end questions and opened-end questions. The participants in this study were more than 200 public preschool teachers who come from eight different districts in Lai Chau. An analysis of quantitative data survey is presented to indicate several practical implications, such as the connection between teachers’ knowledge background that gained from their pre-service and in-service teacher education programs regarding second language teaching for Indigenous children and their practice. It also explains some factors that influence teachers’ beliefs and perspective about Indigenous children and pedagogies in their classes.

Keywords: indigenous children, learning Vietnamese, preschool, teachers’ beliefs

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3340 (Re)connecting to the Spirit of the Language: Decolonizing from Eurocentric Indigenous Language Revitalization Methodologies

Authors: Lana Whiskeyjack, Kyle Napier

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The Spirit of the language embodies the motivation for indigenous people to connect with the indigenous language of their lineage. While the concept of the spirit of the language is often woven into the discussion by indigenous language revitalizationists, particularly those who are indigenous, there are few tangible terms in academic research conceptually actualizing the term. Through collaborative work with indigenous language speakers, elders, and learners, this research sets out to identify the spirit of the language, the catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language, and the sources of reconnection to the spirit of the language. This work fundamentally addresses the terms of engagement around collaboration with indigenous communities, itself inviting a decolonial approach to community outreach and individual relationships. As indigenous researchers, this means beginning, maintain, and closing this work in the ceremony while being transparent with community members in this work and related publishing throughout the project’s duration. Decolonizing this approach also requires maintaining explicit ongoing consent by the elders, knowledge keepers, and community members when handling their ancestral and indigenous knowledge. The handling of this knowledge is regarded in this work as stewardship, both in the handling of digital materials and the handling of ancestral Indigenous knowledge. This work observes recorded conversations in both nêhiyawêwin and English, resulting from 10 semi-structured interviews with fluent nêhiyawêwin speakers as well as three structured dialogue circles with fluent and emerging speakers. The words were transcribed by a speaker fluent in both nêhiyawêwin and English. The results of those interviews were categorized thematically to conceptually actualize the spirit of the language, catalysts of disconnection to thespirit of the language, and community voices methods of reconnection to the spirit of the language. Results of these interviews vastly determine that the spirit of the language is drawn from the land. Although nêhiyawêwin is the focus of this work, Indigenous languages are by nature inherently related to the land. This is further reaffirmed by the Indigenous language learners and speakers who expressed having ancestries and lineages from multiple Indigenous communities. Several other key differences embody this spirit of the language, which include ceremony and spirituality, as well as the semantic worldviews tied to polysynthetic verb-oriented morphophonemics most often found in indigenous languages — and of focus, nêhiyawêwin. The catalysts of disconnection to the spirit of the language are those whose histories have severed connections between Indigenous Peoples and the spirit of their languages or those that have affected relationships with the land, ceremony, and ways of thinking. Results of this research and its literature review have determined the three most ubiquitously damaging interdependent factors, which are catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language as colonization, capitalism, and Christianity. As voiced by the Indigenous language learners, this work necessitates addressing means to reconnect to the spirit of the language. Interviewees mentioned that the process of reconnection involves a whole relationship with the land, the practice of reciprocal-relational methodologies for language learning, and indigenous-protected and -governed learning. This work concludes in support of those reconnection methodologies.

Keywords: indigenous language acquisition, indigenous language reclamation, indigenous language revitalization, nêhiyawêwin, spirit of the language

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3339 Management of Indigenous Knowledge: Expectations of Library and Information Professionals in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Pearl C. Akanwa, Oyemike Victor Benson

Abstract:

This paper examines the challenges facing library and information centers (LICs) in managing indigenous knowledge in academic libraries in developing countries. The need for managing an indigenous knowledge in library and information centers in developing nations is becoming more critical. There is an ever increasing output of indigenous knowledge; effective management of indigenous knowledge becomes necessary to enable the next generation benefit from them. This paper thus explores the concept of indigenous knowledge (IK), nature of indigenous knowledge (IK), the various forms of indigenous knowledge (IK), sources of indigenous knowledge (IK), and relevance of indigenous knowledge (IK). The expectations of library and information professionals towards effective management of indigenous knowledge and the challenges to effective management of indigenous knowledge were highlighted. Recommendations were made based on the identified challenges.

Keywords: library, indigenous knowledge, information centres, information professionals

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3338 Characteristics of an Indigenous Entrepreneur, in the Post-Apartheid South Africa

Authors: Ndivhuho Tshikovhi

Abstract:

The debate about indigenous people throughout the world has been necessitated by different circumstances that indigenous communities continue to suffer. Indigenous people of the world suffer chronic diseases, poor education, high unemployment and slow economic developments. This paper contributes to the continuous debate by studying the common elements of indigenous entrepreneur of the world and that of the South African indigenous entrepreneur. The research objective of this paper is to understand what constitute an indigenous status in the South African context as opposed to the indigenous people of the world. Furthermore, the study will explore the indigenous status through their entrepreneurial engagements. The paper will adopt a secondary data research method, by utilising the literature on indigenous entrepreneurship practice and theory of indigenous entrepreneurship. The implications of this paper is to bring about an African indigenous entrepreneurship debate rooted from the correct circumstances rather than generalised definitions. Recommendations for future research will be outlined, together with further readings on circumstantial evidence that necessitate indigenous entrepreneurs status in South Africa.

Keywords: indigenous entrepreneur, indigenous, entrepreneurship, indigenous people, entrepreneurship development

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3337 Attrition of Igbo Indigenous Wives' Given Pet Names: Implications for the Igbo Language Endangerment

Authors: Ogbonna Anyanwu

Abstract:

Language attrition describes the non-pathological decrease in language that had previously been acquired by an individual. It can affect some aspects of a language use or all aspects of a language use. The Igbo language, (despite its status as one of the major Nigerian languages) based on recent studies is fast losing its population of first generation speakers and therefore, increasingly becoming endangered and may be heading to extinction as warned by UNESCO if there are no conscious efforts to reverse the situation. The present paper, which contributes to the Igbo endangerment studies, examines the attrition of an aspect of the Igbo language use and practice: the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names. It surveys the level of attrition of indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names; names which Igbo married men christen their wives upon marriage. The wives’ pet names under investigation here are specifically those which a husband traditionally christens his wife to reflect the intimate marital bond between them and also to extol his wife as an integral part of him. These pet names morphologically, are always suffixed with the compound morpheme diya which is translated as 'her husband' as in enyidiya 'her husband’s friend', obidiya 'her husband’s heart', ahudiya 'her husband’s body', ugwudiya 'her husband’s honour’, etc. The data for the study were collected through questionnaire, and oral interview from 300 male and 100 female respondents of different age groups who are married, indigenous Igbo speakers and are resident in the study areas (two Local Government Areas from two different Senatorial Zones in Abia and Imo States, south-eastern, Nigeria). Findings from the study show almost a total attrition of the Igbo indigenous wives’ pet names under study across the different age groups. For the respondents within the age group of 25-54 years, there is no more christening and bearing of the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names by men and women respectively. This age group gives and bears pet names which the group members feel are contemporary and in line with modernity. This is a piece of evidence that the Igbo indigenous pet names’ use and practice are no longer part of the lifestyle of this group of respondents and therefore, they cannot transmit such names to their own children. For the respondents within the age group of 55-74 years, the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names are also fading fast with less than 20% retention within the age group of 65-74 years with very few traces within the group of 55-64 years. These findings are further evidence that this aspect of Igbo language use and culture is severely threatened and may be on the verge of being lost. The loss of this aspect of the Igbo language or any aspect of the language has huge implications for the gradual and steady endangerment of the language as predicted by UNESCO.

Keywords: attrition, endangerment, practice, Igbo

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3336 Analyzing the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Indigenous Tourism on the Indigenous Communities: Case Study of the Nubian Community in Egypt

Authors: M. Makary

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Indigenous tourism is nowadays one of the fastest growing sections of the tourism industry. Nevertheless, it does not yet receive attention on the agenda of public tourism policies in Egypt; however, there are various tourism initiatives in indigenous areas throughout the country mainly in the Nubia region, which located in Upper Egypt, where most of Egypt's indigenous Nubians are concentrated. Considering indigenous tourism can lead to both positive and negative impacts on the indigenous communities the main aim of this study is to analyze the socio-cultural and economic impacts of the indigenous tourism on the indigenous communities in Egypt: the case study of Nubians. Qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection were designed and applied in conducting this study. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and the observations are the main preliminary data collection techniques used in this study while, the secondary data were sourced from articles, statistics, dissertations, and websites. The research concludes that indigenous tourism offers a strong motivation to save the identity of the indigenous communities and to foster their economic development. However, it also has negative impacts on their society.

Keywords: indigenous tourism, sustainable tourism, Indigenous communities, Nubians

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3335 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel

Abstract:

Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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3334 Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Society in Indonesia

Authors: Triyanto, Rima Vien Permata Hartanto

Abstract:

Indonesia is a legal state. The consequence of this status is the recognition and protection of the existence of indigenous peoples. This paper aims to describe the dynamics of legal recognition and protection for indigenous peoples within the framework of Indonesian law. This paper is library research based on literature. The result states that although the constitution has normatively recognized the existence of indigenous peoples and their traditional rights, in reality, not all rights were recognized and protected. The protection and recognition for indigenous people need to be strengthened.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, customary law, state law, state of law

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3333 The Europeanization of Indigenous Tradition: Inventing Classical Wise Men in Prehispanic Mexico

Authors: Jongsoo Lee

Abstract:

From the beginning of the conquest, the Spanish missionaries promoted indigenous intellectuality to prove that indigenous people were capable of receiving Christian doctrine. To prove indigenous intellectuality, Spanish missionaries focused on the highly advanced and complex level of indigenous political, religious, moral, artistic, and cultural practices. In this context, they frequently compared the Aztecs with European gentiles such as Greeks and Romans. In the chronicles of the Spanish missionaries such as Bernardino de Sahagún, indigenous wise men (tlamatinime) appear as clear evidence of indigenous civility and capability. As the pagan Greek and Roman philosophers, orators, rhetoricians, theologians, and physicians known as wise men in European history were responsible for the advanced level of social systems, some Spanish missionaries tried to identify those types of people, tlamatinime, in Aztec society. This paper examines how the Spanish colonizers invented European-style wise men in Prehispanic Mexico.

Keywords: Aztec, indigenous tradition, prehispanic Mexico, wise men

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3332 A Strategic Communication Design Model for Indigenous Knowledge Management

Authors: Dilina Janadith Nawarathne

Abstract:

This article presents the initial development of a communication model (Model_isi) as the means of gathering, preserving and transferring indigenous knowledge in the field of knowledge management. The article first discusses the need for an appropriate complimentary model for indigenous knowledge management which differs from the existing methods and models. Then the paper suggests the newly developed model for indigenous knowledge management which generate as result of blending key aspects of different disciplines, which can be implemented as a complementary approach for the existing scientific method. The paper further presents the effectiveness of the developed method in reflecting upon a pilot demonstration carried out on selected indigenous communities of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge management, knowledge transferring, tacit knowledge, research model, asian centric philosophy

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3331 A Contrastive Study of Affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages: Implications for English Language Pedagogy

Authors: Tosin Samson Olagunju

Abstract:

This study is a contrastive study of affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages with the aim of looking at the implications for English pedagogy. This study, with the use of Hocket's Theory of Item and Arrangement and Word and Paradigm (as expatiated by Crystal), examines the aspect of affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages with the help of contrastive analysis which provides a basis for contrasting the morphological patterns of two different indigenous languages. It examines four affixes: prefix, infix, interfix, and suffix with numerous examples in the languages under investigation. The study is corpus based as it depends primarily on the words available in the lexicon of the languages under examination. Data were elicited from both monolingual and bilingual native-speakers of Ipe Language and Yoruba Language in Ipe-Akoko and Oyo respectively. Ibadan 400-wordlist was utilised as a tool for collecting data from informants who are between age fifty and seventy through audio recording as it is believed that they are the custodians of culture and tradition. Consequently, the study reveals that Ipe and Yoruba morphology have affixation such as prefix, interfix, and suffix. It also finds out that 'infix' is an unproductive aspect in English, Ipe, and Yoruba; although a few examples are in English. Interfix is very productive in Ipe and Yoruba but not in English at all. Phonologically, it is discovered that Ipe language has the two dental fricative consonants just like the English language, i.e., /Ɵ/ and /ð/. This is rare among the indigenous languages in Nigeria. This research believes that in the teaching of English consonants to the people of Ipe-Akoko, such areas will be taught with ease. The study concludes that morphological processes of Nigerian indigenous languages are studied the more so that they will not face endangerment which can lead to extinction.

Keywords: affixation, contrastive study, Ipe, morphology, pedagogy, Yoruba

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3330 The Folksongs of Jharkhand: An Intangible Cultural Heritage of Tribal India

Authors: Walter Beck

Abstract:

Jharkhand is newly constituted 28th State in the eastern part of India which is known for the oldest settlement of the indigenous people. In the State of Jharkhand in which broadly three language family are found namely, Austric, Dravidian, and Indo-European. Ex-Mundari, kharia, Ho Santali come from the Austric Language family. Kurukh, Malto under Dravidian language family and Nagpuri Khorta etc. under Indo-European language family. There are 32 Indigenous Communities identified as Scheduled Tribe in the State of Jharkhand. Santhal, Munda, Kahria, Ho and Oraons are some of the major Tribe of the Jharkhand state. Jharkhand has a Rich Cultural heritage which includes Folk art, folklore, Folk Dance, Folk Music, Folk Songs for which diversity can been seen from place to place, season to season and all traditional Culture and practices. The languages as well as the songs are vulnerable to dominant culture and hence needed to be protected. The collection and documentation of these songs in their natural setting adds significant contribution to the conservation and propagation of the cultural elements. This paper reflects to bring out the Originality of the Collected Songs from remote areas of the plateau of Sothern Jharkhand as a rich intangible Cultural heritage of the Country. The research was done through participatory observation. In this research project more than 100 songs which were never documented before.

Keywords: cultural heritage, India, indigenous people, songs, languages

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3329 Vietnamese Indigenous Healing’s Implication for Vietnamese Women Counseling in Korea

Authors: Youngsub Oh, Youngsoon Kim

Abstract:

As the second largest group among international marriages in Korea, Vietnamese married immigrant women have been exposed to psychological crisis like divorce and family violence. The purpose of this study is to understand how to counsel those women from the perspective of indigenous healing as their own psychological problem-solving way. To this end, this study reviewed Vietnamese cultural literatures on their mentality as well as Vietnamese medical literatures on indigenous healing. The research results are as follows: First, cultural foundations that have formed Vietnamese mentality are Confucian value system, reserved communication, and religious pluralism. These cultural backgrounds play an important role in understanding their own therapeutic tradition. Second, Vietnamese indigenous healing considers cause of mental disease as a collapse of balance between mind and body and environment. Thus, indigenous treatment deals with psychological problems through a recovery of the balance from the holistic perspective. In fact, indigenous healing has been actively practiced in everyday place as well as hospital until today. The implications of Vietnamese indigenous healing for multicultural counseling in Korea are as follows: First, Korean counselors need to interactively understand their own assumptions on indigenous healing as well as counselees’ own assumptions. Second, a variety of psychological intervention strategies can be drawn from Vietnamese indigenous healing. Third, indigenous healing needs to be integrated with modern techniques of counseling and psychotherapy, as both treatments are not mutually exclusive but complementary.

Keywords: indigenous healing, Korea, multicultural counseling, Vietnamese married immigrant women

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3328 Indigenous Childhood: Upbringing and Schooling in Two Indigenous Communities from Argentina (Qom and Mbyá)

Authors: Ana Carolina Hecht, Noelia Enriz, Mariana Garcia Palacios

Abstract:

The South American anthropology has been recently focused to research with children in different contexts. In our researches with children from indigenous communities in the lowlands and highlands of South America (Qom and Mbyá), we especially considered social categories that define the different ways of being a boy and a girl. In this way, we built an approach to disrupt monolithic models of childhood. The aim of this paper is to tackle the first stage of life, demarcated from their nominal references and from the upbringing and formative experiences in which children participate. So, we will focus on the network of social relations in the period of childhood, making especial focus on language develops, religion, schooling and games. The crossing of our different thematic interests allows us to consider the complexity of knowledge and skills that come into play during the development of children. Methodologically, this text is based on an ethnographic approach, with frequent visits and periods of cohabitation, for more than a decade with Mbyá and Qom people, who lives within indigenous communities in the provinces of Chaco, Buenos Aires and Misiones, in Argentina. We made participant observation and interviews with children and their families, with the objective to include children's voices in our researches about the whole community.

Keywords: chidhood, indigenous people, schooling, upbringing

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3327 The Role of the Indigenous Radio Today and Its Impact on the Audience: The Case of Dambana FM in Sri Lanka

Authors: Dammika Bandara Herath

Abstract:

A group of people who inherits a long history of existence within a particular country may be known as early inhabitants or indigenous peoples. In other words, they have not migrated to the particular territory from another part of the world and at the same time, they have inhabited the territory in issue prior to the time of a major invasion/migration. According to the UN, there are a number of unique attributes of the indigenous peoples: Self-identification as indigenous people,Historical continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre-settler societies, Distinct social, economic or political systems, Distinct language, culture and beliefs, Form non-dominant groups of society, Resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities. Indigenous peoples constitute 5% of the world’s population. They are also known as tribal people, first people, native people, and indigenous people. Various indigenous communities can be found in about 90 countries in the world. Asia is home to approximately 70 % of these indigenous communities who have their own unique socio-cultural identities. Most indigenous communities remain isolated from the mainstream social, cultural, and economic institutions of their homeland. Yet, they inherited their own unique rights and responsible peculiar to their own group. These include: Protecting the socio-cultural heritage of the group, Protecting the unique identity of their community from socio-cultural changes in the mainstream communities,Protecting their land, Diffusing their cultural heritage to the future generation, Co-existing peacefully with other community .However, indigenous peoples encounter a lot of challenges as a result of socio-cultural change and legal restrictions in the world today. To assist the communities to face these challenges, the mass –media can play a significant role and the radio media has a purpose-built mechanism for this mission, known as the indigenous radio. In Sri Lanka, Dambana FM is such a radio channel based on the indigenous radio model. The target audience of this channel is the vedda / indigenous community of Sri Lanka. This study intends to the current role of the indigenous radio based on Dambana FM, of which the target audience is the indigenous community of Dambana. For the purpose of this study, interviews were conducted among fifty randomly selected respondents from the indigenous community of Dambana. As far as the findings of this study are concerned, problems in the quality of the programmed broadcasted and problems of transmission are the key issues faced by the indigenous radio in Sri Lanka. Based on the findings, the researcher seeks to develop a model to enhance the impact of the indigenous radio on its listeners in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: indigenous, communities, radio, vedda, culture

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3326 Hand in Hand with Indigenous People Worldwide through the Discovery of Indigenous Entrepreneurial Models: A Systematic Literature Review of International Indigenous Entrepreneurship

Authors: Francesca Croce

Abstract:

Governmental development strategies aimed at entrepreneurship as a major resource for economic development and poverty reduction of indigenous people. As initiatives and programs are local based, there is a need to better understand the contextual factors of indigenous entrepreneurial models. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to analyze and integrated the indigenous entrepreneurship literature in order to identify the main models of indigenous entrepreneurship. To answer this need, a systematic literature review was conducted. Relevant articles were identified in selected electronic databases (ABI/Inform Global, Business Source Premier, Web of Science; International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Academic Search, Sociological Abstract, Entrepreneurial Studies Sources and Bibliography of Native North America) and in selected electronic review. Beginning to 1st January 1995 (first International Day of the World’s Indigenous People), 59 academic articles were selected from 1411. Through systematic analysis of the cultural, social and organizational variables, the paper highlights that a typology of indigenous entrepreneurial models is possible thought the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystem, which includes the geographical position and the environment of the indigenous communities. The results show three models of indigenous entrepreneurship: the urban indigenous entrepreneurship, the semi-urban indigenous entrepreneurship, and rural indigenous entrepreneurship. After the introduction, the paper is organized as follows. In the first part theoretical and practical needs of a systematic literature review on indigenous entrepreneurship are provided. In the second part, the methodology, the selection process and evaluation of the articles are explained. In the third part, findings are presented and each indigenous entrepreneurial model characteristics are discussed. The results of this study bring a new theorization about indigenous entrepreneurship and may be useful for scientists in the field in search of overcoming the cognitive border of Indigenous business models still too little known. Also, the study is addressed to policy makers in charge of indigenous entrepreneurial development strategies more focused on contextual factors studies.

Keywords: community development, entrepreneurial ecosystem, indigenous entrepreneurship model, indigenous people, systematic literature review

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3325 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

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The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

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3324 Publicizing Peace Intervention and Yoruba Indigenity in Television-Driven Peacemaking in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Yetunde Bello

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Peacemaking through the television represents a symbiotic relationship between the media and the (Yoruba) society such that the functional role of the media has expanded. Studying the ‘new function’ of the television as it publicizes peacemaking, using Yoruba indigenous means, is yet to be adequately incorporated into academic discourse. Using the Social Responsibility Theory, the paper examines the essence of publicizing peacemaking, the Yoruba indigenous institutions, philosophy and language that are used on the programs as well as the effectiveness of publicity in the television-driven peacemaking. The paper is a qualitative case-study research where five peacemaking television programs from state-owned stations in South-West Nigeria are purposively selected and studied. Findings show that peacemaking publicity facilitates intervention processes as parties’ communication gap is bridged and social justice is attained. Also, Yoruba indigenous peacemaking elements are utilized and projected through the television. The paper concludes by affirming that publicizing culturally-induced interventions in civil conflicts, though with a number of challenges, is effective and that television-driven peacemaking is a modern extension of Yoruba indigenous peacemaking media. It consequently recommends that the programs incorporate the new media to enhance wider audience and faster feedbacks while simultaneously retaining Yoruba indigenous essence of peacebuilding in this modern time.

Keywords: peace intervention publicity, television, television-driven peacemaking, yoruba indigenous elements

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3323 Indigenous Knowledge Management: Towards Identification of Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Emmanuel Uwazie Anyanwu, Oyemike Victor Benson, Ogbonna Isaac-Nnadimele

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The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical discourse that highlights the challenges associated with management of indigenous knowledge with reference to developing countries. Literature review and brainstorming were used to collect relevant data and draw inferences. The findings indicate that non-existence of indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), low level of partnership drive among library and information services providers, non-uniformity of format and content of indigenous knowledge, inadequate funding, and lack of access to ICTs, lack of indigenous people with indigenous expertise and hoarding of knowledge as challenges to indigenous knowledge management. The study is based on literature review and information gathered through brain storming with professional colleagues the geographic scope as developing countries. The study has birth several implication based on the findings made. Professionally, it has necessitated the need for formulating a viable indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), creating of collaborative network through partnership, and integration of ICTs to indigenous knowledge management practices by libraries in developing countries etc. The originality of this paper is revealed in its capability as serving as an eye opener to librarians on the need for preserving and managing indigenous knowledge in developing countries. It further unlocks the possibilities of exploring empirical based researches to substantiate the theoretical issues raised in this paper. The findings may be used by library managers to improve indigenous knowledge management (IKM).

Keywords: developing countries, ICTs, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management

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3322 Multilingualism as an Impetus to Nigerian Religious and Political Crises: the Way Forward

Authors: Kehinde, Taye Adetutu

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The fact that Nigeria as a nation is faced by myriads of problems associated with religious crises and political insecurity is no news, the spoken statement and actions of most political giant were the major cause of this unrest. The 'unlearnt' youth within the regions has encompassed the situation. This scenario is further compounded by multilingual nature of the country as it is estimated that there exists amount 400 indigenous languages in Nigeria. It is an indisputable fact that english language which has assumed the status of an official language in Nigeria, given its status has a language of power and captivity by a few with no privilege to attend school. However, educating people in their indigenous language; crises can be averted through the proper orientation and mass literacy campaign, especially for the timid illiterate one, so as to live in unity, peace, tranquillity, and harmony as indivisible nation. In investigating the problem in this study with an emphasis on three major Nigerian language (Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa), participants observations and survey questionnaire were administered to about one hundred and twenty (120) respondents who were randomly selected throughout the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Findings from this study reveals that teaching and learning of cognitive words and information are more effective in ones mother tongue and helps in stimulating new ideas and changes. This paper was able to explore and critically examine the current state of affairs in Nigeria and proffer possible solutions to the prevailing situations by identifying how indigenous languages and linguistics can be used to ameliorate the present political and religious crisis for Nigeria, thus providing a proper recommendation to achieve meaningful stability and coexistence within a nation.

Keywords: multilingualism, political crisis, religious, Nigeria

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3321 Attitudes of the Indigenous People from Providencia, Amazon towards the Bora Language

Authors: Angela Maria Sarmiento

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Since the end of the 19th century, the Bora people struggled to survive two stages of colonial domination, which resulted in situations of forced contact with the Western world. Their inclusion in global designs altered the configuration of their local spaces and social practices; thus the Bora language was affected and prone to transformation. This descriptive, interpretive study, within the indigenous and minoritized groups’ research field, aimed at analysing the linguistic attitudes as well as the contextual situation of the Bora language in Providencia, an ancestral territory and a speech community contained in the midst of the Colombian Amazon rainforest. Through the inquiry of their sociolinguistic practices, this study also considered the effects of the course of events derived from the rubber exploitation in the late 19th century, and the arrival of the Capuchin’s mission in the early 20th century. The methodology used in this study had an ethnographic approach, which allowed the researcher to study the social phenomena from the perspective of the participants. Fieldwork, diary, field notes, and semi-structured interviews were conducted and then triangulated with participant observations. The findings of this study suggest that there is a transition from current individual bilingualism towards Spanish monolingualism; this is enhanced by the absence of a functional distribution of the three varieties (Bora, Huitoto, and Spanish). Also, the positive attitudes towards the Spanish language are based on its functionality while positive attitudes towards the Bora language mostly refer to pride and identity. Negative attitudes are only directed towards the Bora language. In the search for the roots of these negative attitudes, appeared the traumatic experiences of the rubber exploitation and the indigenous experiences at the capuchin’s boarding school. Finally, the situation of the Bora language can be configured as a social fact strongly connected to previous years of colonial dominations and to the current and continuous incursion of new global-colonial designs.

Keywords: Bora language, language contact, linguistic attitudes, speech communities

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3320 Finding a Paraguayan Voice: The Indigenous Language Guarani in Performances of Paraguayan Female Singers

Authors: Romy Martinez

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This paper focuses on the use of the indigenous language Guarani in Paraguayan popular song and on some key interpreters born between the 1930s and 1980s. It analyses two representative musical genres of Paraguay, the Polka Paraguaya and Guarania. The lyrics of these genres follow one of four poetic-linguistic forms: to be entirely in Guarani, entirely in Spanish, bilingual (alternating verses in Guarani and Spanish), or in Jopará; the last being a form where words of both languages may be mixed in a single verse. Through these forms, the lyrics alternate and combine the indigenous voice with the one introduced with colonisation, in turn reflecting how Guarani seems to constantly transit, to and from, between a position of disdain and of value within Paraguayan society. Through analysing recordings of Polkas, Paraguayas, and Guaranias, it identifies three styles of singing adopted by female singers who include these genres in their repertoires, namely Paraguayan classical folk, Paraguayan folk, and Paraguayan pop-folk. This analysis is informed by a pilot study which consisted of online interviews with several Paraguayan artists, revealing significant aspects of their backgrounds and musical influences. In addition, it draws on autoethnographic approaches, building on the experience of the music researcher and singer. From a decolonising perspective, the paper brings together the distinctive voices and sounds expressed in popular songs from a marginalised country, language, and gender.

Keywords: female singers, Guarani, Paraguayan song, performance

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3319 The Traditional Roles and Place of Indigenous Musical Practices in Contemporary African Society

Authors: Benjamin Obeghare Izu

Abstract:

In Africa, indigenous musical practices are the focal point in which most cultural practices revolve, and they are the conduit mainly used in transmitting Indigenous knowledge and values. They serve as a means of documenting, preserving, transmitting indigenous knowledge, and re-enacting their historical, social, and cultural affinity. Indigenous musical practices also serve as a repository for indigenous knowledge and artistic traditions. However, these indigenous musical practices and the resulting cultural ideals are confronted with substantial challenges in the twenty-first century from contemporary cultural influence. Additionally, indigenous musical practices' educational and cultural purposes have been impacted by the broad monetisation of the arts in contemporary society. They are seen as objects of entertainment. Some young people are today unaware of their cultural roots and are losing their cultural identity due to these influences and challenges. In order to help policymakers raise awareness of and encourage the use of indigenous knowledge and musical practices among African youth and scholars, this study is in response to the need to explore the components and functions of the indigenous knowledge system, values, and musical tradition in Africa. The study employed qualitative research methods, utilising interviews, participant observation, and conducting related literature as data collection methods. It examines the indigenous musical practices in the Oba of Benin Royal Igue festival among the Benin people in Edo state, Nigeria, and the Ovwuwve festival observed by the Abraka people in Delta state, Nigeria. The extent to which the indigenous musical practices convey and protect indigenous knowledge and cultural values are reflected in the musical practices of the cultural festivals. The study looks at how indigenous musical arts are related to one another and how that affects how indigenous knowledge is transmitted and preserved. It makes recommendations for how to increase the use of indigenous knowledge and values and their fusion with contemporary culture. The study contributes significantly to ethnomusicology by showing how African traditional music traditions support other facets of culture and how indigenous knowledge might be helpful in contemporary society.

Keywords: African musical practices, African music and dance, African society, indigenous musical practices

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3318 Importance of Health and Social Capital to Employment Status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Belayet Hossain, Laura Lamb

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The study investigates the importance of health and social capital in determining the labour force status of Canada’s Indigenous population using data from 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. An instrumental variable ordered probit model has been specified and estimated. The study finds that health status and social capital are important in determining Indigenous peoples’ employment status along with other factors. The results of the study imply that human resource development initiatives of Indigenous Peoples need to be broadened by including health status and social capital. Poor health and low degree of inclusion of the Indigenous Peoples need to be addressed in order to improve employment status of Canada’s Indigenous Peoples.

Keywords: labour force, human capital, social capital, aboriginal people, Canada

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3317 Vernacular Language Origin and Student's Accent Neutralization: A Basis for BPO Employability

Authors: Elma C. Sultan

Abstract:

The study concentrated on Vernacular Language Origin and Students’ Accent Neutralization of the College of Arts and Sciences fourth students in Samar State University, Catbalogan City answering respondent’s locale profile, vernacular language origin in terms of local dialect/s and domestic language/s used; the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and accent neutralization of the respondents; and the proposed activities to adopt in neutralizing students’ accent. It utilized the descriptive-correlational method of research determining the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. The researcher used: (1) questionnaire divided into three parts: the first part identified the students’ locale; the second part determined the respondents’ domestic language/s used while the third part identified their local language/s used, (2) validated accent neutralization assessment tool, (3) statistical treatments in the analysis of data: percentage to determine the profile of the students; chi-square test for independence to determine the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. Findings of the study showed that vowel and diphthong sound production, domestic and local languages in indigenous, and native dialects are significantly related to accent neutralization. While, slow reading speed has a higher possibility in affecting accent neutralization. These caused designing a 50-hour short-term program for accent neutralization focusing in the correct vowel and diphthong sounds production and appropriate reading speed in preparation for the respondents’ search for BPO employment. This short-term program ran for 5 hours in a day for five days in a week.

Keywords: accent neutralization, dialect, diphthongs, indigenous, language origin, language, native, reading speed, vernacular, vowels

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3316 Information Sharing with Potential Users of Traditional Knowledge under Provisions of Nagoya Protocol: Issues of Participation of Indigenous People and Local Communities

Authors: Hasrat Arjjumend, Sabiha Alam

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The Nagoya Protocol is landmark international legislation governing access to genetic resources and benefit sharing from utilization of genetic resource and traditional knowledge. The field implications of the international law have been assessed by surveying academic/ research institutions, civil society organizations (CSOs) and concerned individuals, who gave their opinions on whether the provider parties (usually developing countries) would ensure effective participation of Indigenous people and local communities (ILCs) in establishing the mechanisms to inform the potential users of traditional knowledge (TK) about their obligations under art. 12.2 of Nagoya Protocol. First of all, involvement and participation of ILCs in suggested clearing-house mechanisms of the Parties are seldom witnessed. Secondly, as respondents expressed, it is doubtful that developing countries would ensure effective participation of ILCs in establishing the mechanisms to inform the potential users of TK about their obligations. Yet, as most of ILCs speak and understand local or indigenous languages, whether the Nagoya Protocol provides or not, it is a felt need that the Parties should disclose information in a language understandable to ILCs. Alternative opinions indicate that if TK held by ILCs is disclosed, the value is gone. Therefore, it should be protected by the domestic law first and should be disclosed then.

Keywords: genetic resources, indigenous people, language, Nagoya protocol, participation, traditional knowledge

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3315 An Ethnography of Language Policy in Puebla: Investigating Discourses About Multilingualism

Authors: Rosalba Karina Ortiz Saenz

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The field of language planning and policy (LPP) has been a fast-developing area of research over the past decades. Recent LPP studies have turned their attention to multilingual contexts where intercultural bilingual programmes have been implemented in an attempt to revitalise indigenous languages. This study focuses on one such programme in the multilingual state of Puebla, Mexico, where Nahuatl used to be the most widely spoken indigenous language before the Colonial Period. In the last decades, however, there has been a language shift due to migration and the influence of Spanish on younger generations. Most grandparents and parents, who experienced racial discrimination due to their indigenous roots, were forced to assimilate the colonial language and culture, and no longer speak Nahuatl to the younger generations, but use Spanish instead. Whilst previous research has focused on teaching methodologies to develop biliteracy skills, the aims, challenges and opportunities of intercultural bilingual education in Puebla and the wider Mexican context, there is scant research on the discursive links between language policy discourses and linguistic practices at the community level. To help fill this gap, this study explores 1) macro-level discourses in official policy documents, 2) school authorities, teachers, and parents’ views on education for indigenous people and use of language varieties, and 3) parents and children’s linguistic practices instantiated in diary entries. Following an Ethnography of Language Policy methodological approach, data were collected from three official language policy documents, seventeen semi-structured interviews with main stakeholders, ten diaries and diary-based interviews, and field note entries. The approach to analysing the data was the Discourse Historical Approach since it is concerned with intertextual and interdiscursive connections between discourses and texts from specific contexts and triangulates the analysis of the data by conceptualising ‘context’ in four levels. The findings shed light on three orientations towards LPP in this context: language as problem, as right and as resource. These orientations relate to linguistic discrimination, homogeneity, rights, interculturality, inclusivity, and cultural diversity, and are illustrated in the findings with reference to nomination, predication, argumentation, perspectivisation, and intensification/mitigation strategies. The limitations and implications for LPP are also considered.

Keywords: ethnography of language policy, Mexico, multilingual education, discourse-historical approach

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3314 The Interethnic Communication Apprehension Experiences of Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines

Authors: Christine Alvarez, Rio Gojar, Hannah Jimala

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The Philippines is a large country composed of geographic islands and distinct cultural groups. But what makes such a diverse country connect and communicate with one another? This case study examines the narrative of lived experiences expressed by the selected indigenous peoples through an in-depth interview. Based on the results, some indigenous peoples feel that they are motivated to engage in interethnic discussions that concern their ethnic identity and such cultural misconceptions about them. Their experiences in being involved in indigenous people centered and community/academic organizations helped them in every interethnic communication. After all, some indigenous peoples expressed that they find their own communities as a safe space. Although indigenous peoples present less interethnic communication apprehension, its existence is still manifested in their experiences in verbal communication, non-verbal communication, and mediated communication. Lastly, their Interethnic Communication Apprehension manifested on their innate and learned personality whenever there is a large crowd, and is affected by their socioeconomic status. This study mainly focuses on what are the interethnic communication apprehension experiences of indigenous peoples in the country. Concepts are applied from the Contextual Theory of Interethnic Communication theory, Interethnic Communication Apprehension, and other types of communication. Meanwhile, the participants are determined through a purposive sampling with the criteria as indigenous people who stays in Manila in pursuit of higher education.

Keywords: ethnic identity, interethnic relation, intercultural communication, indigenous people community

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3313 Barriers to Access among Indigenous Women Seeking Prenatal Care: A Literature Review

Authors: Zarish Jawad, Nikita Chugh, Karina Dadar

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Introduction: This paper aims to identify barriers indigenous women face in accessing prenatal care in Canada. It explores the differences in prenatal care received between indigenous and non-indigenous women. The objective is to look at changes or programs in Canada's healthcare system to reduce barriers to accessing safe prenatal care for indigenous women. Methods: A literature search of 12 papers was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Medline, OVID, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. The studies included were written in English only, including indigenous females between the age of 19-35, and review articles were excluded. Participants in the studies examined did not have any severe underlying medical conditions for the duration of the study, and study designs included in the review are prospective cohort, cross-sectional, case report, and case-control studies. Results: Among all the barriers Indigenous women face in accessing prenatal care, the three most significant barriers Indigenous women face include a lack of culturally safe prenatal care, lack of services in the Indigenous community, proximity of prenatal facilities to Indigenous communities and costs of transportation. Discussion: The study found three significant barriers indigenous women face in accessing prenatal care in Canada; the geographical distribution of healthcare facilities, distrust between patients and healthcare professionals, and cultural sensitivity. Some of the suggested solutions include building more birthing and prenatal care facilities in rural areas for indigenous women, educating healthcare professionals on culturally sensitive healthcare, and involving indigenous people in the decision-making process to reduce distrust and power imbalances. Conclusion: The involvement of indigenous women and community leaders is important in making decisions regarding the implementation of effective healthcare and prenatal programs for indigenous women. However, further research is required to understand the effectiveness of the solutions and the barriers that make prenatal care less accessible for indigenous women in Canada.

Keywords: indigenous, maternal health, prenatal care, barriers

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