Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14234

Search results for: policy development

14234 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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14233 The Role of Human Capital in Rural Development: A Critical Look at Ethiopian Education Policy

Authors: Blen Telayneh Melese

Abstract:

Rural development, the unending quest of a developing country, cannot be succeeded in deprived of human capital development. Human capital, the economic pillars of a country's development, appeals a policy-based supports while fulfilling what is expected. Ethiopia, one of the rural countries with untouched and forgotten land and human force, owes historical experiences of educational policy intending for mobilization of its citizen for the advancement of the overall economy. Rural Ethiopia as well has been the focus of those educational policies, considering the economic resources entrenched with in. In this literature review paper, Ethiopian educational policy and its contribution to human capital development, as well as its role in generating quality human labor force, is assessed concisely. The author argues that the foundation of rural development such as technology, knowledge, infrastructure, market chain, communication and etc., can only be achieved through enhanced education policy that conciliates the existing reality of rural communities. Ethiopia still needs an education policy that enables it to generate a human capital that is oriented with the rural areas economic opportunities and challenges.

Keywords: Ethiopia, rural development, human capital development, education policy

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14232 The Development of Digital Economy in Thailand

Authors: Danuvasin Charoen

Abstract:

This study investigates the development of the digital economy policy in Thailand. The researcher describes the importance of digital technologies for competitiveness development of the country. In addition, the researcher analyzes the components and roadmap of the digital economy policy in Thailand. Main problems and challenges of the policy were identified. The data were gathered and analyzed from secondary sources. The finding can be used to guide the implementation of the digital economy in Thailand and other developing economies.

Keywords: digital economy, ICT in developing countries, Thailand, ICT development

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14231 Small Entrepreneurship Supporting Economic Policy in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses small entrepreneurship development strategy in Georgia and the tools and regulations that will encourage development of small entrepreneurship. The current situation in the small entrepreneurship sector, as well as factors affecting growth and decline in the sector and the priorities of state support, are studied and analyzed. The objective of this research is to assess the current situation of the sector to highlight opportunities and reveal the gaps. State support of small entrepreneurship should become a key priority in the country’s economic policy, as development of the sector will ensure social, economic and political stability. Based on the research, a small entrepreneurship development strategy is presented; corresponding conclusions are made and recommendations are developed.

Keywords: economic policy for small entrepreneurship development, small entrepreneurship, regulations, small entrepreneurship development strategy

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14230 Climate Policy Actions for Sustaining International Agricultural Development Projects: The Role of Non-State, Sub-National Stakeholder Engagements, and Monitoring and Evaluation

Authors: EMMANUEL DWAMENA SASU

Abstract:

International climate policy actions require countries under Paris Agreement to design instruments, provide support (financial and technical), and strengthen institutional capacity with tendency to transcending policy formulation to implementation and sustainability. Changes associated with moisture depletion has been a growing phenomenon; especially in developing countries with projected global GDP drop from 7% to 2% between 2005 and 2050. These developments have potential to adversely affect food production in feeding the growing world population, with corresponding rise in global hunger. Incongruously, there is global absence of a harmonized policy direction; capable of providing the required indicators on climate policies for monitoring sustainability of international agricultural development projects. We conduct extensive review and synthesis on existing limitations on global climate policy governance, agricultural food security and sustainability of international agricultural development projects, and conjecture the role of non-state and sub-national climate stakeholder engagements, and monitoring and evaluation strategies for improved climate policy action for sustaining international agricultural development projects.

Keywords: climate policy, agriculture, development projects, sustainability

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14229 Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Authors: Lina Sinevičienė

Abstract:

Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s economic development in the context of sustainable development. Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012 years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of environment protection.

Keywords: economic development, economic growth, government expenditure, sustainable development

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14228 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed

Abstract:

Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: sport development, sport policy, personnel, program, facilities, funding, sponsorship

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14227 Policy of Tourism and Opportunities of Development of Wellness Industry in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, R. Gvelesiani, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The topic reviews the situation existing currently in Georgia in the field of tourism in conditions of globalization: Touristic resources, the paces of development of the tourism infrastructure, tourism policy, possibilities of development of the Wellness industry in Georgia that is the newest direction of the medical tourism. The factors impeding the development of the industry of tourism, namely-existence of the conflict zones, high rates of the bank credits, deficiencies associated with the tax laws, a level of infrastructural development, quality of services, deficit in the competitive staff, increase of prices in the peak seasons, insufficient promotion of the touristic opportunities of Georgia on the international markets are studied and analyzed. Besides, the levels of development of tourism in Georgia according to the World Economic Forum, aspects of cooperation with the European Union etc. are reviewed. As a result of these studies, a strategy of development of tourism and one of its directions-Wellness industries in Georgia is introduced with the relevant conclusions, on which basis the recommendations are provided.

Keywords: about tourism, tourism policy, wellness industry, business, innovation, technology

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14226 Tourism Economics and Tourism Development in Greece, in the Period of the Economic Adjustment Programmes

Authors: Aimilia Vlami

Abstract:

This paper examines the tourist economic development of Greece on the basis of the analysis of the main characteristics of the financing and development processes and the spatial and temporal structure of supply and demand. Taking into consideration the evolution of the economic planning and the policy for the tourist development of Greece over time, we study at the same time: the composition, the changes and the dynamics of the hotel industry in the last 20 years and especially the period of the economic adjustment programmes, where tourism has become a key pillar of development. It is clearly evident that this paper is written in a specific economic situation, which directs as much the emphases as the flow of arguments around the central question of balance of interventions in the tourist space, between the need for planning and practice of policy for sustainable tourist growth and in the de facto adaptation of fragmentary and urgent interventions of shaping and transforming the tourist space, as they are shaped by the requirements of various institutions and interest groups.

Keywords: development, Greece, hospitality, economic policy, tourism investments

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14225 Developing an IT Management Policy: A Proposal

Authors: Robert Gilliland

Abstract:

In any organization, a potential issue can arise and become a problem when management deviates from the standard norms set in the system development process of an IT system and the policies that pertain to it. In these instances, cybersecurity is a big challenge that organizations have to face in safeguarding the data that they generate and use. When a new idea, task, or process begins, specific standards must be followed, along with the policies and procedures that ensure the safeguard of data in the information system within the company. A good IT Strategy and Policy should have individuals who are in charge of overseeing the design, development, implementation, and auditing of these policies. Auditors are people who check to make sure that the issue conforms with the plan that is in place. Management has the ability through the role of the manager to potentially abuse power is given and to direct specific ideas, events, projects, and outcomes that are contrary to the vision or goals of the company.

Keywords: strategic policy, policy management, new policy, strategic planning

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14224 Examining Renewable Energy Policy Implementation for Sustainable Development in Kenya

Authors: Eliud Kiprop, Kenichi Matsui, Joseph Karanja, Hesborn Ondiba

Abstract:

To double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 as part of actions for the Paris Agreement, policymakers in each ratifying country must accelerate their efforts within the next few years by implementing their own renewable energy strategies. Kenya has increased its funding for research and development in renewable energy sources largely because it intends to reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions by 30% from business as usual (BAU) levels (143 MtCO₂eq) by 2030. In 2013, the Kenyan government launched an ambitious plan to increase the installed power generation capacity from 1,768MW to more than 5,000MW by the end of 2017. This paper examines the formulation and implementation process of this plan and shows how this plan will affect Kenya’s renewable energy industry and national policy implementation in general. Results demonstrate that, despite having a well- documented policy in place, the Kenyan government cannot meet its target of 5000MW by the end of 2017. Among other factors, we find that the main reason is attributable to the failure in adhering to the main principles of the policy plan. We also find that the government has failed to consider the future energy demand. Had the policy been implemented on time, we argue that there would have been excess power.

Keywords: policy implementation, policy plan, renewable energy, sustainable development

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14223 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

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14222 Gender Policy in Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development in the Fourth Republic

Authors: Adadu Yahaya, Abdullahi Erunke Canice

Abstract:

The study sets out to examine the interface that tends to exist in the relationship between gender policy and Nigeria’s socio-economic development. Despite Nigeria’s ratification of virtually all international instruments on the protection and promotion of gender rights and equality, it appears that the practice is honored in the breach than in observance; hence, these policies have not been adequately domesticated and implemented. The implication of this is that the women folks have generally been isolated from mainstream politics and their political rights and privileges truncated in the scheme of things. The paper observes that gender inequality and marginalization in Nigeria has practically occasioned the unwholesome subjugation of Nigerian women to the background, hence poses more critical questions and challenges to the national question. The consequence of this, to this paper, is that Nigeria’s development process will be adversely affected if this trend is not checked. The paper sums up with appropriate policy options which are believed to have the potentials of giving women the right pride of place in the socio-economic and political dynamics in the 21st century Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: development, equality, gender, policy

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14221 Developing a Cultural Policy Framework for Small Towns and Cities

Authors: Raymond Ndhlovu, Jen Snowball

Abstract:

It has long been known that the Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) have the potential to aid in physical, social and economic renewal and regeneration of towns and cities, hence their importance when dealing with regional development. The CCIs can act as a catalyst for activity and investment in an area because the ‘consumption’ of cultural activities will lead to the activities and use of other non-cultural activities, for example, hospitality development including restaurants and bars, as well as public transport. ‘Consumption’ of cultural activities also leads to employment creation, and diversification. However, CCIs tend to be clustered, especially around large cities. There is, moreover, a case for development of CCIs around smaller towns and cities, because they do not rely on high technology inputs, and long supply chains, and, their direct link to rural and isolated places makes them vital in regional development. However, there is currently little research on how to craft cultural policy for regions with smaller towns and cities. Using the Sarah Baartman District (SBDM) in South Africa as an example, this paper describes the process of developing cultural policy for a region that has potential, and existing, cultural clusters, but currently no one, coherent policy relating to CCI development. The SBDM was chosen as a case study because it has no large cities, but has some CCI clusters, and has identified them as potential drivers of local economic development. The process of developing cultural policy is discussed in stages: Identification of what resources are present; including human resources, soft and hard infrastructure; Identification of clusters; Analysis of CCI labour markets and ownership patterns; Opportunities and challenges from the point of view of CCIs and other key stakeholders; Alignment of regional policy aims with provincial and national policy objectives; and finally, design and implementation of a regional cultural policy.

Keywords: cultural and creative industries, economic impact, intrinsic value, regional development

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14220 Changes in Foreign Direct Investment Policy of India and Its Impact on Economic Development

Authors: Kishor P. Kadam

Abstract:

Foreign direct investment policy (FDI) is defined as an investment involving a long term relationship and reflecting a long duration interest and control of a resident entity in the home country (foreign direct investor or parent firm) in the host country. India has been one of the most translucent and open-minded FDI regimes among the emerging and developing economies. There is clear cut mentioned about the sectoral caps for foreign investment. The policy problems that have been identified by time to time surveys as acting as additional hurdles for FDI are laws, regulatory systems and government monopolies that do not have contemporary relevance. Foreign investment policies in the post-reforms period have emphasized greater encouragement and mobilization of non-debt creating private inflows for plunging reliance on debt flows. This paper will focus on how foreign direct investment policy changed from 1990-91 up to now. A time series data of 25 years is used for analysing the policy changes. It is observed that India has more liberal policy. The growth in number of Greenfield investments in India has been more impressive than the number of M&A deals whereas equity capital for incorporated bodies FDI inflows has been increased continuously 2014-15. India has made major changes in FDI Policy, and it has positive impact on economic development.

Keywords: FDI, India, economic development, government

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14219 Industrial Policy Directions in Georgia

Authors: Nino Grigolaia

Abstract:

Introduction - The paper discusses the role of industrial policy in the development of the economy in the country. The main challenges on the way to the implementation of industrial policy are analyzed: the long-term period of industrial policy, the risk of changes in priorities, the limited scope and external shocks. Methodology - Various research methods are used in the paper. The methods of induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, analogy, correlation and statistical observation are used. Main Findings - Based on the analysis of the current situation in Georgia, the obstacles to the country's industrialization and its supporting factors are identified. Also, the challenges of the country's core industrial policies are revealed. Specific industry development strategies, ways of state support and main directions of new industrial policies are identified. Conclusion - The paper concludes that the development of the industrial sector is critical for the future growth and development of the Georgian economy, which will accelerate the industrialization and structural transformation processes, reduce the trade deficit, increase the exports and create more jobs in the country. The listed changes will guarantee the improvement of the socio-economic situation of the population. Accordingly, it is revealed that the study of industrial policy in Georgia is still actual. Based on the analysis, relevant conclusions in the field of industrialization of the country are developed and recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: industrialization , industrial policy, industrialization of the economy, Georgia priorities

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14218 Research on the Development of Ancient Cities in Wenzhou from the Historical Perspective

Authors: Ying Sun, Ji-wu Wang

Abstract:

The establishment of a city is the result of the accumulation of local historical and cultural heritage and the sublimation of settlements. Take history as a mirror, it’s known how the things rise and fall. Based on the perspective of history, the development of the ancient city of Wenzhou was combed, and the urban development history of Wenzhou in 2200 could be divided into seven stages. This paper mainly studies the four stages of germination, formation, initial development and tortuous development, explores the external and internal driving forces of urban development and the structural evolution of urban layout, and discusses how the ancient Wenzhou evolved from a remote town to an important coastal port city. This paper finds that the most important factors affecting the development of ancient cities in Wenzhou are war, policy and geographical environment, and then points out the importance of urban policies to the rise and fall of cities.

Keywords: ancient city development, history, Wenzhou city, city policy

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14217 Participation, Network, Women’s Competency, and Government Policy Affecting on Community Development

Authors: Nopsarun Vannasirikul

Abstract:

The purposes of this research paper were to study the current situations of community development, women’s potentials, women’s participation, network, and government policy as well as to study the factors influencing women’s potentials, women’s participation, network, and government policy that have on the community development. The population included the women age of 18 years old who were living in the communities of Bangkok areas. This study was a mix research method of quantitative and qualitative method. A simple random sampling method was utilized to obtain 400 sample groups from 50 districts of Bangkok and to perform data collection by using questionnaire. Also, a purposive sampling method was utilized to obtain 12 informants for an in-depth interview to gain an in-sight information for quantitative method.

Keywords: community development, participation, network, women’s right, management

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14216 An Empirical Analysis on the Evolution Characteristics and Textual Content of Campus Football Policy in China

Authors: Shangjun Zou, Zhiyuan Wang, Songhui You

Abstract:

Introduction In recent years, the Chinese government has issued several policies to promote the institutional reform and innovation of the development of campus football, but many problems have been exposed in the process of policy implementation. Therefore, this paper attempts to conduct an empirical analysis of the campus football policy texts to reveal the dynamic development of the microsystem in the process of policy evolution. Methods The selected policy contents are coded by constructing a two-dimensional analysis framework of campus football policy tool-policy objective. Specifically, the X dimension consists of three oriented policy tools: environment, supply and demand, while the Y dimension is divided into six aspects of policy objectives, including institution, competition, player teaching, coach training, resource guarantee and popularization. And the distribution differences of textual analysis units on X and Y dimensions are tested by using SPSS22.0 so as to evaluate the characteristics and development trend of campus football policy on respective subjects. Results 1) In the policy evolution process of campus football stepping into the 2.0 Era, there were no significant differences in the frequency distribution of policy tools(p=0.582) and policy objectives(p=0.603). The collaborative governance of multiple participants has become the primary trend, and the guiding role of Chinese Football Association has gradually become prominent. 2) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy tools before the evolution at a 95% confidence level(p=0.041). With environmental tools always maintaining the dominant position, the overall synergy of policy tools increased slightly. 3) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy objectives after the evolution at a 90% confidence level(p=0.069). The competition system of policy objective has not received enough attention while the construction of institution and resource guarantee system has been strengthened. Conclusion The upgraded version of campus football should adhere to the education concept of health first, promote the coordinated development of youth cultural learning and football skills, and strive to achieve more solid popularization, more scientific institution, more comprehensive resource guarantee and adequate integration. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative allocation of policy tools and reasonable planning of policy objectives so as to promote the high quality and sustainable development of campus football in the New Era. Endnote The policy texts selected in this paper are “Implementation Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Youth Campus Football” and “Action Plans for the Construction of Eight Systems of National Youth Campus Football”, which were promulgated on August 13, 2015 and September 25, 2020 respectively.

Keywords: campus football, content analysis, evolution characteristics, policy objective, policy tool

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14215 Development Trends of the Manufacturing Industry in Georgia

Authors: Nino Grigolaia

Abstract:

Introduction. The paper discusses the role of the manufacturing industry in the Georgian economy, analyzes the current trends in the development of the manufacturing industry, reveals its impact on the Georgian economy, and justifies the essential importance of industrial transformation for the future development of the Georgian economy. Objectives. The main objective of research is to study development trends of the manufacturing industry of Georgia and estimate the industrial policy in Georgia. Methodology. The paper uses methods of induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, analogy, correlation, and statistical observation. A qualitative study was conducted based on a survey of industry experts and entrepreneurs in order to identify the factors hindering and contributing to the manufacturing industry. Conclusions. The research reveals that the development of the manufacturing industry and the formation of industrial policy are of special importance for the further growth and development of the Georgian economy. Based on the research, the factors promoting and hindering the development of the manufacturing industry are identified. The need to increase foreign direct investment in the industrial sector are highlighted. Recommendations for the development of the country's manufacturing industry are developed, taking into account the competitive advantages and international experience of Georgia.

Keywords: manufacturing, industrial policy, contributing factor, hindering factor

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14214 Human Development Outcomes and Macroeconomic Indicators Nexus in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Risikat Oladoyin S. Dauda, Onyebuchi Iwegbu

Abstract:

This study investigates the response of human development outcomes to selected macroeconomic indicators in Nigeria. Human development outcomes is measured by human development index while the selected macroeconomic variables are inflation rate, real interest rate, government capital expenditure, real exchange rate, current account balance, and savings. Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) technique is employed in examining the response of human development index to the macroeconomic shocks. The result from the forecast error variance decomposition and Impulse-Response analysis reveals that fiscal policy (government capital expenditure) shock is the greatest determinant of human development outcomes. This result reiterates the role which the government plays in improving the welfare of the citizenry. The fiscal policy tool is pivotal in human development which comes in the form of investment in education, health, housing, and infrastructure. Further conclusion drawn from this study is that human development outcome positively and significantly responds to shocks from real interest rate, a monetary policy transmission variable and is felt greatly in the short run period. The policy implication of this study is that if capital budget implementation falls below expectations, human development will be engendered. Hence, efforts should be made to ensure that full implementation and appraisal of government capital expenditure is taken sacrosanct as any shock from such plan, engenders human development outcome.

Keywords: human development outcome, macroeconomic outcomes, structural vector autoregression, SVAR

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14213 Translating Ex-landfill Development Needs and Adequacy of Open Space Provision in Malaysian Urban Development

Authors: S. Mazifah, A. Azahan, A. Kadir

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of open space provision in the context of sustainable urban development planning in Malaysia as seen from the perspective of the National Urban Policy. With a specific focus on the Action Plan DPN6 and DPN9, ex-landfill redevelopment needs and provision of open space are detailed to identify their potential and constraints in the development of sustainable cities. As a result, this paper found a link between the needs of urban ex-landfill redevelopment and approach to provide adequate urban open space. Through the proposal of the development of public park at urban ex-landfill sites, the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of urban open space provision is being 'united' and translated as an approach to create a sustainable urban development in Malaysia.

Keywords: ex-landfill redevelopment, open spaces, National Urban Policy, sustainable urban development

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14212 Measuring the Full Impact of Culture: Social Indicators and Canadian Cultural Policy

Authors: Steven Wright

Abstract:

This paper argues that there is an opportunity for PCH to further expand its relevance within the Canadian policy context by taking advantage of the growing international trend of using social indicators for public policy evaluation. Within the mandate and vision of PCH, there is an incomplete understanding of the value that the arts and culture provide for Canadians, specifically with regard to four social indicators: community development, civic engagement, life satisfaction, and work-life balance. As will be shown, culture and the arts have a unique role to play in such quality of life indicators, and there is an opportunity for PCH to aid in the development of a comprehensive national framework that includes these indicators. This paper lays out approach to understanding how social indicators may be included in the Canadian context by first illustrating recent trends in policy evaluation on a national and international scale. From there, a theoretical analysis of the connection between cultural policy and social indicators is provided. The second half of the paper is dedicated to explaining the shortcomings of Canadian cultural policy evaluation in terms of its tendency to justify expenditures related to arts and cultural activities in purely economic terms, and surveying how other governments worldwide are leading the charge in this regard.

Keywords: social indicators, evaluation, cultural policy, arts

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14211 Embodying the Ecological Validity in Creating the Sustainable Public Policy: A Study in Strengthening the Green Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Gatot Dwi Hendro, Hayyan ul Haq

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This work aims to explore the strategy in embodying the ecological validity in creating the sustainability of public policy, particularly in strengthening the green economy in Indonesia. This green economy plays an important role in supporting the national development in Indonesia, as it is a part of the national policy that posits the primary priority in Indonesian governance. The green economy refers to the national development covering strategic natural resources, such as mining, gold, oil, coal, forest, water, marine, and the other supporting infrastructure for products and distribution, such as fabrics, roads, bridges, and so forth. Thus, all activities in those national development should consider the sustainability. This sustainability requires the strong commitment of the national and regional government, as well as the local governments to put the ecology as the main requirement for issuing any policy, such as licence in mining production, and developing and building new production and supporting infrastructures for optimising the national resources. For that reason this work will focus on the strategy how to embody the ecological values and norms in the public policy. In detail, this work will offer the method, i.e. legal techniques, in visualising and embodying the norms and public policy that valid ecologically. This ecological validity is required in order to maintain and sustain our collective life.

Keywords: ecological validity, sustainable development, coherence, Indonesian Pancasila values, environment, marine

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14210 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

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This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: globalization, public policy analysis, foreign policy, ASEAN member states

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14209 India’s Deterrence Program: Defense or Development

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

A doctrine, any doctrine, incorporates a set of beliefs or principles held by a body of persons. A national nuclear doctrine represents, therefore, the collective set of beliefs or principles held by the nation in regard to the utility of its nuclear weapons. India’s foreign policy has been profoundly affected by the nuclear explosions conducted in May 1998. The departure from the professed peaceful nuclear policies has had several implications for India’s defense and foreign policies. The explosions in Pokhran have aggravated tensions in south Asia by disrupting diplomatic initiatives with Pak and China. Diplomacy has been reduced to damage control. The object of India’s nuclear deterrence is to persuade an adversary that the costs to him of seeking a military solution to his political problems with India will far outweigh the benefits. The paper focuses on India’s guidelines governing nuclear policy, development of nuclear materials for effective deterrence as well as civil development purpose. The paper finds that security concerns and technological capabilities are important determinants of whether India develops a nuclear weapons programs, while security concerns, economic capabilities, and domestic politics help to explain the possession of nuclear weapons.

Keywords: foreign policy, nuclear deterrence, nuclear policy, development

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14208 Policies and Politics of Infrastructure Provisioning in Nigeria

Authors: Olufemi Adedamola Oyedele

Abstract:

Infrastructure provision in Nigeria is now at its lowest ebb in spite of its being critical to the socio-economic and political development of any nation. This is partly because the policy that will ensure its adequate provisioning is missing and partly because politics is affecting its provision. Policy is the basic principles by which a government is guided. Infrastructural development is the basis for measuring the performance of governments and it is the foundation of good governance. Demand for infrastructural development is higher and resources used in its provision are limited. Ethnic-interest agitation and lobbying for infrastructure provision are common things in multi-ethnic state like Nigeria. Most infrastructures are now decayed and need repair or replacement. Government is the system that organizes, control and sensitizes the people in a society in other for all to have an acceptable level of living. Governments have the power to put in place all measures that they deem fit will make an environment conducive for living for everybody. Infrastructure development in any environment requires needs assessment, feasibility and viability studies and carrying out physical development of the project. The challenge in Nigeria is largely carrying out development where they are not needed but where the people are loyal. There are numerous abandoned projects because they were started due to politics and not because they are feasible. Policies and politics greatly affect infrastructure provisioning in Nigeria and this is the premise of this paper.

Keywords: infrastructure challenges, infrastructure development, policy making, politics, project finance

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14207 ASEAN Air Transport Liberalization and Its Impact to Indonesian Air Service

Authors: Oentoeng Wahjoe

Abstract:

Liberalisation of air transportation practically is known as open sky policy. In the practice, the liberalisation of air transportation is divided into two group of services, i.e.: air transportation services, for passengers and goods (air service) which is categorized as hard rights and supporting services of the air transportation services (ancillary services) which is categorized as soft rights. The research in this paper focused in air transportation services for passengers and goods, consists of nine freedom of the air. The impact of the policy such as the Agreement regarding ASEAN open sky policy, is the readiness of Indonesian air transportation companies to compete with foreign air transportation companies. The goverment of Indonesia has to regulate the implementation of ASEAN Open Sky Policy to be projected in order to comply with national development, i.e. the function of air law in national development. The policy has been implemented by enact or amend the existing law as air law that regulate flight lines, the following provisions: To regulate flight line for foreign airlines to open flight lines in Indonesia region which may not or have not land and sea transportation. The regulation is intended to supprot mobility of humans, goods and services that may fulfil the needs of the people of Indonesia, which materially and spiritually and the development of the region. The regulation of flight lines of foreign air transportation for region of tourism, industrial and trade centre. The regulation is intended to support the national economic development of Indonesia.

Keywords: transport, liberalization, impact, Indonesian air service

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14206 Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: tourism, economic policy of tourism, wellness industry, medical wellness resorts

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14205 The Development Stages of Transformation of Water Policy Management in Victoria

Authors: Ratri Werdiningtyas, Yongping Wei, Andrew Western

Abstract:

The status quo of social-ecological systems is the results of not only natural processes but also the accumulated consequence of policies applied in the past. Often water management objectives are challenging and are only achieved to a limited degree on the ground. In choosing water management approaches, it is important to account for current conditions and important differences due to varied histories. Since the mid-nineteenth century, Victorian water management has evolved through a series of policy regime shifts. The main goal of this research to explore and identify the stages of the evolution of the water policy instruments as practiced in Victoria from 1890-2016. This comparative historical analysis has identified four stages in Victorian policy instrument development. In the first stage, the creation of policy instruments aimed to match the demand and supply of the resource (reserve condition). The second stage begins after natural system alone failed to balance supply and demand. The focus of the policy instrument shifted to an authority perspective in this stage. Later, the increasing number of actors interested in water led to another change in policy instrument. The third stage focused on the significant role of information from different relevant actors. The fourth and current stage is the most advanced, in that it involved the creation of a policy instrument for synergizing the previous three focal factors: reserve, authority, and information. When considering policy in other jurisdiction, these findings suggest that a key priority should be to reflect on the jurisdictions current position among these four evolutionary stages and try to make improve progressively rather than directly adopting approaches from elsewhere without understanding the current position.

Keywords: policy instrument, policy transformation, socio-ecolgical system, water management

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