Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2305

Search results for: plot and visual schemes

2305 Dying and Sexuality − Controversial Motive in Contemporary Cinema

Authors: Małgorzata Jakubowska, Monika Michałowska

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the cinematographic industry, there has been a visible interest in two leading themes: death and sexuality. One of the reasons of the unfading popularity of these motives was the fact that death or sex employed as leitmotivs attracted great attention of the viewers, and this guaranteed a financial success. What seems interesting is the fact that the themes of death and sexuality/eroticism seem to be mutually exclusive in the mainstream movies to such extent that they almost never appear together on the screen. As leitmotivs they describe opposite experiences of human life, one refers to affirmation of life, the other points to atrophy and decay. This film paradigm is rarely challenged. Thus, a relatively less attention has been devoted so far to entwining dying and sexuality/eroticism in one movie. In our paper, we wish to have a closer look at the visualizations of dying with focus on the aspect of sexuality/eroticism. Our analysis will concentrate on the contemporary European and American cinema, and especially the recent productions that contribute to the cultural phenomenon of entwining the two realms of human life. We will investigate the main clichés, plot and visual schemes, motives and narrative techniques on the examples of Sweet November (2001), A Little Bit of Heaven (2011) and Now is good (2012). We will also shed some light on the recent film productions that seem to provide a shift in portraying the realms of dying and sexuality concentrating on The Garden of Earthly Delights (2003) as the most paradigmatic example.

Keywords: contemporary cinema, dying and sexuality, narrative techniques, plot and visual schemes

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2304 Combination Urea and KCl with Powder Coal Sub-Bituminous to Increase Nutrient Content of Ultisols in Limau Manis Padang West Sumatra

Authors: Amsar Maulana, Rafdea Syafitri, Topanal Gustiranda, Natasya Permatasari, Herviyanti

Abstract:

Coal as an alternative source of humic material that has the potential of 973.92 million tons (sub-bituminous amounted to 673.70 million tons) in West Sumatera. The purpose of this research was to study combination Urea and KCl with powder coal Sub-bituminous to increase nutrient content of Ultisols In Limau Manis Padang West Sumatera. The experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications, those were T1) 0.5% (50g plot-1) of powder coal Sub-bituminous; T2) T1 and 125% (7.03g plot-1 ) of Urea recommendation; T3) T1 and 125% (5.85g plot-1) of KCl recommendation; T4) 1.0% (100g plot-1) of powder coal Sub-bituminous; T5) T4 and 125% (7.03g plot-1 ) of Urea recommendation; T6) T4 and 125% (5.85g plot-1) of KCl recommendation; T7) 1.5% (150g plot-1) of powder coal Sub-bituminous; T8) T7 and 125% (7.03g plot-1 ) of Urea recommendation; T9) T7 and 125% (5.85g plot-1) of KCl recommendation. The results showed that application 1.5% of powder coal Sub-bituminous and 125% of Urea recommendation could increase nutrient content of Ultisols such as pH by 0.33 unit, Organic – C by 2.03%, total – N by 0.31%, Available P by 14.16 ppm and CEC by 19.38 me 100g-1 after 2 weeks of incubation process.

Keywords: KCl, sub-bituminous, ultisols, urea

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2303 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: visual culture, contemporary, images, literacy

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2302 Effect of Inorganic Fertilization on Soil N Dynamics in Agricultural Plots in Central Mexico

Authors: Karla Sanchez-Ortiz, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, John Larsen, Felipe Garcia-Oliva

Abstract:

Due to food demand production, the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer has increased in agricultural soils to replace the N losses. Nevertheless, the intensive use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer in conventional agriculture negatively affects the soil and therefore the environment, so alternatives such as organic agriculture have been proposed for being more environmentally friendly. However, further research in soil is needed to see how agricultural management affects the dynamics of C and N. The objective of this research was to evaluate the C and N dynamics in the soil with three different agricultural management: an agricultural plot with intensive inorganic fertilization, a plot with semi-organic management and an agricultural plot with recent abandonment (2 years). For each plot, the soil C and N dynamics and the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase were characterized. Total C and N concentration of the plant biomass of each site was measured as well. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was higher in abandoned plot, as well as this plot had higher total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN), besides microbial N and microbial C. While the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase was greater in the agricultural plot with inorganic fertilization, as well as nitrate (NO₃) was higher in fertilized plot, in comparison with the other two plots. The aboveground biomass (AB) of maize in the plot with inorganic fertilization presented higher TC and TN concentrations than the maize AB growing in the semiorganic plot, but the C:N ratio was highest in the grass AB in the abandoned plot. The C:N ration in the maize grain was greater in the semi-organic agricultural plot. These results show that the plot under intensive agricultural management favors the loss of soil organic matter and N, degrading the dynamics of soil organic compounds, promoting its fertility depletion.

Keywords: mineralization, nitrogen cycle, soil degradation, soil nutrients

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2301 On Performance of Cache Replacement Schemes in NDN-IoT

Authors: Rasool Sadeghi, Sayed Mahdi Faghih Imani, Negar Najafi

Abstract:

The inherent features of Named Data Networking (NDN) provides a robust solution for Internet of Thing (IoT). Therefore, NDN-IoT has emerged as a combined architecture which exploits the benefits of NDN for interconnecting of the heterogeneous objects in IoT. In NDN-IoT, caching schemes are a key role to improve the network performance. In this paper, we consider the effectiveness of cache replacement schemes in NDN-IoT scenarios. We investigate the impact of replacement schemes on average delay, average hop count, and average interest retransmission when replacement schemes are Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), First-In-First-Out (FIFO) and Random. The simulation results demonstrate that LFU and LRU present a stable performance when the cache size changes. Moreover, the network performance improves when the number of consumers increases.

Keywords: NDN-IoT, cache replacement, performance, ndnSIM

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2300 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed

Abstract:

The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

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2299 Institutional Design for Managing Irrigation Problems: A Case Study of Farmers'- and Agency-Managed Irrigation Systems of Nepal

Authors: Tirtha Raj Dhakal, Brian Davidson, Bob Farquharson

Abstract:

Institutional design is an important aspect in efficient water resource management. In Nepal, the water supply in both farmers’- and agency-managed irrigation systems has become sub-standard because of the weak institutional framework. This study characterizes both forms of the schemes and links existing institution and governance of the schemes with its performance with reference to cost recovery, maintenance of the schemes and water distribution throughout the schemes. For this, two types of surveys were conducted. A management survey of ten farmers’-managed and five agency-managed schemes of Chitwan valley and its periphery was done. Also, a farm survey comprising 25 farmers from each of head, middle and tail regions of both schemes; Narayani Lift Irrigation Project (agency-managed) and Khageri Irrigation System (farmers’-managed) of Chitwan Valley as a case study was conducted. The results showed that cost recovery of agency-managed schemes in 2015 was less than two percent whereas service fee collection rate in farmers’-managed schemes was nearly 2/3rd that triggered poor maintenance of the schemes and unequal distribution of water throughout the schemes. Also, the institution on practice is unable to create any incentives for farmers for economical use of water as well as willingness to pay for its use. This, thus, compels the need of refined institutional framework which has been suggested in this paper aiming to improve the cost recovery and better water distribution throughout the irrigation schemes.

Keywords: cost recovery, governance, institution, schemes' performance

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2298 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

Abstract:

The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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2297 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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2296 Compact Finite Difference Schemes for Fourth Order Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Sufyan Muhammad

Abstract:

Recently, in achieving highly efficient but at the same time highly accurate solutions has become the major target of numerical analyst community. The concept is termed as compact schemes and has gained great popularity and consequently, we construct compact schemes for fourth order parabolic differential equations used to study vibrations in structures. For the superiority of newly constructed schemes, we consider range of examples. We have achieved followings i.e. (a) numerical scheme utilizes minimum number of stencil points (which means new scheme is compact); (b) numerical scheme is highly accurate (which means new scheme is reliable) and (c) numerical scheme is highly efficient (which means new scheme is fast).

Keywords: central finite differences, compact schemes, Bernoulli's equations, finite differences

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2295 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

Abstract:

Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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2294 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

Abstract:

The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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2293 Sustainability of Healthcare Insurance in India: A Review of Health Insurance Scheme Launched by States in India

Authors: Mohd Zuhair, Ram Babu Roy

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the accessibility, design, and functioning of health insurance plans launched by state governments in India. In recent years, the governments of several states in India have come forward to provide health insurance coverage for the low-income group and rural population to reduce the out of pocket expenditure (OPE) on healthcare. Different health insurance schemes have different structures and offerings which differ in the different demographic factors. This study will portray a comparative analysis of the various health insurance schemes by analyzing different offerings and finance generation of the schemes. The comparative analysis will explain the lesson to be learned from these schemes and extend the existing knowledge of the health insurance in India. This would help in recognizing tension between various drivers and identifying issues pertaining to the sustainability of health insurance schemes in India.

Keywords: health insurance, out of pocket expenditure, universal healthcare, sustainability

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2292 The Importance of Development in Laboratory Diagnosis at the Intersection

Authors: Agus Sahri, Cahya Putra Dinata, Faishal Andhi Rokhman

Abstract:

Intersection is a critical area on a highway which is a place of conflict points and congestion due to the meeting of two or more roads. Conflicts that occur at the intersection include diverging, merging, weaving, and crossing. To deal with these conflicts, a crossing control system is needed, at a plot of intersection there are two control systems namely signal intersections and non-signalized intersections. The control system at a plot of intersection can affect the intersection performance. In Indonesia there are still many intersections with poor intersection performance. In analyzing the parameters to measure the performance of a plot of intersection in Indonesia, it is guided by the 1997 Indonesian Road Capacity Manual. For this reason, this study aims to develop laboratory diagnostics at plot intersections to analyze parameters that can affect the performance of an intersection. The research method used is research and development. The laboratory diagnosis includes anamnesis, differential diagnosis, inspection, diagnosis, prognosis, specimens, analysis and sample data analysts. It is expected that this research can encourage the development and application of laboratory diagnostics at a plot of intersection in Indonesia so that intersections can function optimally.

Keywords: intersection, the laboratory diagnostic, control systems, Indonesia

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2291 Effectiveness of Management Transfer Programs for Managing Irrigation Resources in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Farmer- and Agency-Managed Schemes from Nepal

Authors: Tirtha Raj Dhakal, Brian Davidson, Bob Farquharson

Abstract:

Irrigation management transfer has been taken as the important policy instrument for effective irrigation resource management in many developing countries. The change in governance of the irrigation schemes for its day-to-day operation and maintenance has been centered in recent Nepalese irrigation policies also. However, both farmer- and agency-managed irrigation schemes in Nepal are performing well below than expected. This study tries to link the present concerns of poor performance of both forms of schemes with the institutions for its operation and management. Two types of surveys, management and farm surveys; were conducted as a case study in the command area of Narayani Lift Irrigation Project (agency-managed) and Khageri Irrigation System (farmer-managed) of Chitwan District. The farm survey from head, middle and tail regions of both schemes revealed that unequal water distribution exists in these regions in both schemes with greater percentage of farmers experiencing this situation in agency managed scheme. In both schemes, the cost recovery rate was very low, even below five percent in Lift System indicating poor operation and maintenance of the schemes. Also, the institution on practice in both schemes is unable to create any incentives for farmers’ willingness to pay as well as for its economical use in the farm. Thus, outcomes from the study showed that only the management transfer programs may not achieve the goal of efficient irrigation resource management. This may suggest water professionals to rethink about the irrigation policies for refining institutional framework irrespective of the governance of schemes for improved cost recovery and better water distribution throughout the irrigation schemes.

Keywords: cost recovery, governance, institution, irrigation management transfer, willingness to pay

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2290 On-Plot Piping Corrosion Analysis for Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSPs)

Authors: Sultan A. Al Shaqaq

Abstract:

Corrosion is a serious challenge for a piping system in our Gas and Oil Separation Plant (GOSP) that causes piping failures. Two GOSPs (Plant-A and Plant-B) observed chronic corrosion issue with an on-plot piping system that leads to having more piping replacement during the past years. Since it is almost impossible to avoid corrosion, it is becoming more obvious that managing the corrosion level may be the most economical resolution. Corrosion engineers are thus increasingly involved in approximating the cost of their answers to corrosion prevention, and assessing the useful life of the equipment. This case study covers the background of corrosion encountered in piping internally and externally in these two GOSPs. The collected piping replacement data from year of 2011 to 2014 was covered. These data showed the replicate corrosion levels in an on-plot piping system. Also, it is included the total piping replacement with drain lines system and other service lines in plants (Plant-A and Plant-B) at Saudi Aramco facility.

Keywords: gas and oil separation plant, on-plot piping, drain lines, Saudi Aramco

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2289 An Alternative Framework of Multi-Resolution Nested Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes for Solving Euler Equations with Adaptive Order

Authors: Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Yuchen Yang, Ning Zhao

Abstract:

In the present paper, an alternative framework is proposed to construct a class of finite difference multi-resolution nested weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes with an increasingly higher order of accuracy for solving inviscid Euler equations. These WENO schemes firstly obtain a set of reconstruction polynomials by a hierarchy of nested central spatial stencils, and then recursively achieve a higher order approximation through the lower-order precision WENO schemes. The linear weights of such WENO schemes can be set as any positive numbers with a requirement that their sum equals one and they will not pollute the optimal order of accuracy in smooth regions and could simultaneously suppress spurious oscillations near discontinuities. Numerical results obtained indicate that these alternative finite-difference multi-resolution nested WENO schemes with different accuracies are very robust with low dissipation and use as few reconstruction stencils as possible while maintaining the same efficiency, achieving the high-resolution property without any equivalent multi-resolution representation. Besides, its finite volume form is easier to implement in unstructured grids.

Keywords: finite-difference, WENO schemes, high order, inviscid Euler equations, multi-resolution

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2288 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

Abstract:

An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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2287 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Integrating Relay Node and User Equipment in LTE-A

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Hsieh-Hua Liu

Abstract:

By introduction of Relay Nodes (RNs), LTE-Advanced can provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges and hot-spot areas. The authors have been researching the issue of power saving in mobile communications technology such as WiMax and LTE for some years. Based on the idea of Load-Based Power Saving (LBPS), three efficient power saving schemes for the user equipment (UE) were proposed in the authors’ previous work. In this paper, three revised schemes of the previous work in order to integrate RN and UE in power saving are proposed. Simulation study shows the proposed schemes can achieve significantly better power saving efficiency than the standard based scheme at the cost of moderately increased delay.

Keywords: DRX, LTE-A, power saving, RN

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2286 Merging Appeal to Ignorance, Composition, and Division Argument Schemes with Bayesian Networks

Authors: Kong Ngai Pei

Abstract:

The argument scheme approach to argumentation has two components. One is to identify the recurrent patterns of inferences used in everyday discourse. The second is to devise critical questions to evaluate the inferences in these patterns. Although this approach is intuitive and contains many insightful ideas, it has been noted to be not free of problems. One is that due to its disavowing the probability calculus, it cannot give the exact strength of an inference. In order to tackle this problem, thereby paving the way to a more complete normative account of argument strength, it has been proposed, the most promising way is to combine the scheme-based approach with Bayesian networks (BNs). This paper pursues this line of thought, attempting to combine three common schemes, Appeal to Ignorance, Composition, and Division, with BNs. In the first part, it is argued that most (if not all) formulations of the critical questions corresponding to these schemes in the current argumentation literature are incomplete and not very informative. To remedy these flaws, more thorough and precise formulations of these questions are provided. In the second part, how to use graphical idioms (e.g. measurement and synthesis idioms) to translate the schemes as well as their corresponding critical questions to graphical structure of BNs, and how to define probability tables of the nodes using functions of various sorts are shown. In the final part, it is argued that many misuses of these schemes, traditionally called fallacies with the same names as the schemes, can indeed be adequately accounted for by the BN models proposed in this paper.

Keywords: appeal to ignorance, argument schemes, Bayesian networks, composition, division

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2285 Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.

Keywords: congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll

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2284 A Comparison of Anger State and Trait Anger Among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Sibel Karacaoglu, Cengiz Sevgin, Ummuhan Bas Aslan

Abstract:

Objective: Anger expression style is an important moderator of the effects on the person and person’s environment. Anger and anger expression have become important constructs in identifying individuals at high risk for psychological difficulties. To our knowledge, there is no information about anger and anger expression of adolescents with visual impairment. The aim of this study was to compare anger and anger expression among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Methods: Thirty-eight adolescents with visual impairment (18 female, 20 male) and 44 adolescents without visual impairment (22 female, 24 male), in totally 84 adolescents aged between 12 to 15 years, participated in the study. Anger and anger expression of the participants assessed with The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). STAS, a self-report questionnaire, is designed to measure the experience and expression of anger. STAS has four subtitles including continuous anger, anger in, anger out and anger control. Reliability and validity of the STAS have been well established among adolescents. Mann-Whitney U Test was used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of continuous anger and anger out between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in scores of anger control and anger in between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p>0.05). The score of anger control in adolescents with visual impairment were higher compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Meanwhile, the adolescents with visual impairment had lower score for anger in compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is no difference in anger level among adolescents with and without visual impairment meanwhile there is difference in anger expression.

Keywords: adolescent, anger, impaired, visual

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2283 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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2282 Development of Visual Element Design Guidelines for Consumer Products Based on User Characteristics

Authors: Taezoon Park, Wonil Hwang

Abstract:

This study aims to build a design guideline for the effective visual display used for consumer products considering user characteristics; gender and age. Although a number of basic experiments identified the limits of human visual perception, the findings remain fragmented and many times in an unfriendly form. This study compiled a design cases along with tables aggregated from the experimental result of visual perception; brightness/contrast, useful field of view, color sensitivity. Visual design elements commonly used for consumer product, were selected and appropriate guidelines were developed based on the experimental result. Since the provided data with case example suggests a feasible design space, it will save time for a product designer to find appropriate design alternatives.

Keywords: design guideline, consumer product, visual design element, visual perception, emotional design

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2281 Task Distraction vs. Visual Enhancement: Which Is More Effective?

Authors: Huangmei Liu, Si Liu, Jia’nan Liu

Abstract:

The present experiment investigated and compared the effectiveness of two kinds of methods of attention control: Task distraction and visual enhancement. In the study, the effectiveness of task distractions to explicit features and of visual enhancement to implicit features of the same group of Chinese characters were compared based on their effect on the participants’ reaction time, subjective confidence rating, and verbal report. We found support that the visual enhancement on implicit features did overcome the contrary effect of training distraction and led to awareness of those implicit features, at least to some extent.

Keywords: task distraction, visual enhancement, attention, awareness, learning

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2280 Robustness of MIMO-OFDM Schemes for Future Digital TV to Carrier Frequency Offset

Authors: D. Sankara Reddy, T. Kranthi Kumar, K. Sreevani

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of carrier frequency offset (CFO) on the performance of different MIMO-OFDM schemes with high spectral efficiency for next generation of terrestrial digital TV. We show that all studied MIMO-OFDM schemes are sensitive to CFO when it is greater than 1% of intercarrier spacing. We show also that the Alamouti scheme is the most sensitive MIMO scheme to CFO.

Keywords: modulation and multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM), signal processing for transmission carrier frequency offset, future digital TV, imaging and signal processing

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2279 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer

Abstract:

This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

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2278 Evaluation of the Efficiency of Intelligent Systems in Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing as one of the demand management strategies constrains expenditure to network users so that it helps reduction in traffic congestion and environment pollution like air pollution. Despite the development of congestion pricing schemes for traffic in our country, the matters of traditional toll collection, drivers’ waste of time and delay in traffic are still widespread. Electronic toll collection as a part of the intelligent transportation system provides the possibility of collecting tolls without car-stop and traffic disruption. Unlike the satisfying outcomes of using intelligent systems in congestion pricing schemes, implementation costs and technological problems are the barriers in these schemes. In this research first, a variety of electronic pay toll systems and their components are introduced then their functional usage is discussed. In the following, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of intelligent systems are described and the results show that the choice of the best technology depends on the various parameters which, by examining them, it is concluded that in a long-term run and by providing the necessary conditions, DSRC technology as the main system in the schemes and ANPR as a major backup system of the main one can be employed.

Keywords: congestion pricing, electronic toll collection, intelligent systems, technology, traffic

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2277 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu

Abstract:

‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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2276 The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages

Authors: Xiaoying Guo, Xiangyun Wang

Abstract:

Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.

Keywords: visual fluency, cognitive fluency, visual complexity, usability

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