Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5556

Search results for: narrative techniques

5556 The Genre Narrative in Beethoven's E-Flat Piano Sonata, Op.31/3

Authors: Yan Zou

Abstract:

Approach to the theory of Musical Narrative, as well as the three criteria of the 'explicit narrative', 'potential narrative' and 'image narrative' which are used to analyze the music, the author put Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in E-flat major, Op.31/3, into the context of the music genre and Western music history, and interpreted the programmatic contents that were embodied and hid in the special music genres.

Keywords: analysis, genre, narrative, rhetoric

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5555 Rewriting, Reframing, and Restructuring the Story: A Narrative and Solution Focused Therapy Approach to Family Therapy

Authors: Eman Tadros

Abstract:

Solution Focused Therapy sheds a positive light on a client’s problem(s) by instilling hope, focusing on the connection with the client, and describing the problem in a way to display change being possible. Solution focused therapists highlight clients’ positive strengths, reframe what clients say, do, or believe in a positive statement, action, or belief. Narrative Therapy focuses on the stories individuals tell about their past in which shape their current and future lives. Changing the language used aids clients in reevaluating their values and views of themselves, this then constructs a more positive way of thinking about their story. Both therapies are based on treating each client as an individual with a problem rather than that the individual is a problem and being able to give power back to the client. The purpose of these ideologies is to open a client to alternative understandings. This paper displays how clinicians can empower and identify their clients’ positive strengths and resiliency factors. Narrative and Solution-Focused Techniques will be integrated to instill positivity and empowerment in clients. Techniques such as deconstruction, collaboration, complimenting, miracle/exception/scaling questioning will be analyzed and modeled. Furthermore, bridging Solution Focused Therapy and Narrative Therapy gives a voice to unheard client(s).

Keywords: solution focused therapy, narrative therapy, empowerment, resilience

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5554 Wisdom Can Be the Expression of the Self

Authors: Jaypraksh Show, Pooja Rawat

Abstract:

Experiences are the fundamental aspects of understanding of ourslves and the world around, leading to wisdom. In the path of wisdom, explorative reflection is the process through which we integrate our experiences, weave them into autobiographical narratives. Further, Neisser, a psychologist, and philosopher, thinks ‘ourselves’ is the wide web of different concepts which help us to understand the world, he called it the conceptual self. The conceptual self, as the storehouse of experiences and different concepts, develops a wiser individual narrative. Thus, Wisdom can be conceived as the expression of the Self. Drawing from this, the current work explores the autobiographies of young adults, focusing on their narrative self and foundations of wisdom through narrative analysis. Using the corresponding interview data, we will shed light on the way they exploratively reflect on challenging situations and use their narrative experiences and conceptual understanding. The aim of this study is to understand the ‘conceptual wiser-self’.

Keywords: wisdom, self, conceptual self, narrative self, autobiography, narrative analysis

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5553 The Narrative Coherence of Autistic Children’s Accounts of an Experienced Event over Time

Authors: Fuming Yang, Telma Sousa Almeida, Xinyu Li, Yunxi Deng, Heying Zhang, Michael E. Lamb

Abstract:

Twenty-seven children aged 6-15 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 32 typically developing children were questioned about their participation in a set of activities after a two-week delay and again after a two-month delay, using a best-practice interview protocol. This paper assessed the narrative coherence of children’s reports based on key story grammar elements and temporal features included in their accounts of the event. Results indicated that, over time, both children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children decreased their narrative coherence. Children with ASD were no different from TD peers with regards to story length and syntactic complexity. However, they showed significantly less coherence than TD children. They were less likely to use the gist of the story to organize their narrative coherence. Interviewer prompts influenced children’s narrative coherence. The findings indicated that children with ASD could provide meaningful and reliable testimony about an event they personally experienced, but the narrative coherence of their reports deteriorates over time and is affected by interviewer prompts.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, delay, eyewitness testimony, narrative coherence

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5552 Narrative Family Therapy and the Treatment of Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Authors: Jamie E. Banker

Abstract:

For many families, pregnancy and the postpartum time are filled with both anticipation and change. For some pregnant or postpartum women, this time is marked by the onset of a mood or anxiety disorder. Experiencing a mood or anxiety disorders during this time of life differs from depression or anxiety at other times of life. Not only because of the physical changes occurring in the mother’s body but also the mental and physical preparation necessary to redefine family roles, responsibilities, and develop new identities in the life transition. The presence of a mood or anxiety disorder can influence the way in which a mother defines herself and can complicate her understanding of her abilities and competencies as a mother. The complexity of experiencing a mood or anxiety disorder in the midst of these changes necessitates specific treatment interventions to match both the symptomatology and psychological adjustments. This study explores the use of narrative family therapy techniques when treating a mother who is experiencing postpartum depression. Externalization is a common technique used in narrative family therapy and can help client’s separate their identity from the problems they are experiencing. This is crucial to a new mom who is in the middle of defining her identity during her transition to parenthood. The goal of this study is to examine how the use of externalization techniques help postpartum women separate their mood and anxiety symptoms from their identity as a mother. An exploratory case study design was conducted in a single setting, private practice therapy office, and explored how a narrative family therapy approach can be used to treat perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The therapy sessions were audio recorded and transcribed. Constructivism and narrative theory are used as theoretical frameworks and data from the therapy sessions, and a follow-up survey was triangulated and analyzed. During the course of the treatment, the participant reports using the new externalizing labels for her symptoms. Within one month of treatment, the participant reports that she could stop herself from thinking the harmful thoughts faster, and within three months, the harmful thoughts went away. The main themes in this study were building courage and less self-blame. This case highlights the role narrative family therapy can play in the treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and the importance of separating a women’s mood from her identity as a mother. This conceptual framework was beneficial to the postpartum mother when treating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder symptoms.

Keywords: externalizing techniques, narrative family therapy, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, postpartum depression

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5551 Teaching in the Post Truth Era: A Narrative Analysis of Modern Anti-Scientific Discourses in the Classroom

Authors: Jason T. Hilton

Abstract:

The ‘post-truth era’ is marked by a shift toward a period in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief. Applying narrative analysis techniques to current public discourses in education that run counter to scientific findings, it becomes possible to identify weakness in modern pedagogy and suggest ways to counter false narratives in the classroom. Results of this study indicate that a failure to engage with popular narratives lessens teachers’ ability to be convincing in the classroom, even when presenting information supported by scientific evidence. This study seeks to empower teachers by illustrating the influence of story within the post-truth era and the ways in which narrative and rhetorical elements take hold in social media contexts. Equipped with this knowledge, teachers can create a shift in pedagogy, away from transmission of knowledge toward the crafting of powerful narratives, built upon evidence, and connected to the lives of modern learners.

Keywords: 21st century learner, critical pedagogy, culture, narrative, post-truth era, social media

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5550 The Use of Mnemonic and Mathematical Mnemonic Method in Improving Historical Understanding

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Nurul Asyikin Binti Hassan

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of mnemonic and mathematical methods in enhancing the understanding of history. Mnemonics can help students from all levels including high school and in various disciplines including language, math and history. At the secondary level, students are exposed to various courses that require them to remember many facts that can be mastered through the application of mnemonic techniques. Researchers use narrative literature studies to illustrate the current state of art and science in the field of research focused. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific base of knowledge. Researchers gather all the key points in the discussion, and put it here by referring to the specific field where the paper is essentially based. The findings suggest that the use of mnemonic techniques can improve the individual's memory by adding little effort. In implementing mnemonic techniques, it is important to integrate mathematics and history in the course as both are interconnected as mathematics has shaped our history and vice versa. This study shows that memory skills can actually be improved; the human mind can remember something more than expected.

Keywords: cognitive strategy, mnemonic technique, secondary school level study, mathematical mnemonic

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5549 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi

Abstract:

It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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5548 Earnings Management and Tone Management: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Salah Kayed Kayed, Jessica Hong Yang

Abstract:

This study investigates, whether earnings management in the audited financial statements is associated with tone management in the narrative sections of the annual report in the UK. Earnings management and narrative disclosure are communication strategies used from managers to communicate with investors or other users. Because earnings management and narrative disclosure stem from managers, they can exploit this by doing manipulation in their earnings, and simultaneously disclosing qualitative text (narrative information) in their reports as a tone of words, which will affect users’ perception, and hence users will be misinformed. The association between earnings and tone management can be explained by the self-serving, through cognitive reference points, theory. The sample period lasts from 2010 to 2015, and the sample comprises all non-financial firms that consider under FTSE 350 in any year during the sample period. A list of words from previous research is used to measure the tone in the narrative sections of the annual report. Because this study focuses on the managerial strategic choice and the subjective issues that come from management, it uses the abnormal tone to capture the managerial discretion on tone, and a number of different discretionary accruals proxies to measure earnings management, where accruals management is considered as a manipulation tool from managers to change the users' perception. This research is motivated to fulfil the literature gap by examining the association between earnings and tone management. Moreover, if firms that apply earnings management use tone management to mislead investors, it is beneficial for investors, policy makers, standard setters, or other users to know whether there is an association between earnings management and tone management. Clearly, we believe that this study is fundamental in the accounting context, where it evaluates the communication strategies that are used in firms' financial reports. Consistent with prior research, it is expected that tone management is positively associated with earnings management. This means that firms that use earnings management have incentives to manipulate in their narrative disclosure through tone of words, to reflect a good perception for users, which will conceal the earnings management techniques used in their reporting.

Keywords: earnings management, FTSE 350, narrative disclosure, tone management

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5547 Narrative Psychology and Its Role in Illuminating the Experience of Suffering

Authors: Maureen Gibney

Abstract:

The examination of narrative in psychology has a long tradition, starting with psychoanalytic theory and embracing over time cognitive, social, and personality psychology, among others. Narrative use has been richly detailed as well in medicine, nursing, and social service. One aspect of narrative that has ready utility in higher education and in clinical work is the exploration of suffering and its meaning. Because it is such a densely examined topic, suffering provides a window into identity, sense of purpose, and views of humanity and of the divine. Storytelling analysis permits an exploration of a host of specific manifestations of suffering such as pain and illness, moral injury, and the impact of prolonged suffering on love and relationships. This presentation will review the origins and current understandings of narrative theory in general, and will draw from psychology, medicine, ethics, nursing, and social service in exploring the topic of suffering in particular. It is suggested that the use of narrative themes such as meaning making, agency and communion, generativity, and loss and redemption allows for a finely grained analysis of common and more atypical sources of suffering, their resolution, and the acceptance of their continuation when resolution is not possible. Such analysis, used in professional work and in higher education, can enrich one’s empathy and one’s sense of both the fragility and strength of everyday life.

Keywords: meaning making, narrative theory, suffering, teaching

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5546 Analyzing Architectural Narrative in 21st-Century Museums

Authors: Ihjaz Zubair Pallakkan Tharammal, Lakshmi S. R.

Abstract:

Storytelling has been an important part of human life throughout history. It allows communities to unlearn, learn and relearn. There are different mediums of storytelling that are used in an individual's day to day life. For instance, ideas are shared through oral stories, comics, music, art, architecture, etc. This paper explores the concept of architectural narrative and its significance in conveying messages and stories. The research aims to study and analyse the potential of museums and the importance of incorporating architectural narratives in museums, particularly in 21st century India. The research is also an exploratory and comparative analysis of narrative elements like semiotics, symbolism, spatial structure, etc., and finally derives strategies to design spaces that speak to the users.

Keywords: museum, architectural narrative, narratology, spatial storytelling

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5545 Focalization Used as a Narrative Strategy Mirroring Fadia Faqir’s Ideology in Pillars of Salt 1996

Authors: Malika Hammouche

Abstract:

The novel Pillars of Salt, written by Fadia Faqir in 1996, is a good example where storytelling is utilized as a traditional material to underline the author’s womanist ideology. A study of narrative could be fruitfully combined with that of ideology in this case. This combination could be demonstrated through the narrative technique used by Fadia Faqir in Pillars of Salt (1996), reflecting her anti-colonial ideology. The first step of this work will highlight the storyteller’s narrative in the novel representing, on the one hand, the imperial voice, and on the other exoticism and orientalism. The second step will demonstrate how Faqir’s narrative technique uses focalization as a narratological tool to negotiate her space. Faqir gives a voice to the female protagonist of the novel within the androcentric bias of Arab narrative theory to point to and amend the orientalist discourse typical to colonial literature. The orientalist discourse is represented through the voice of the storyteller in the novel. The juxtaposition of the storyteller’s and the female protagonist narratives is borrowed from the Arab literary background. It is a postcolonial counter-discursive strategy used by the author as a traditional material to underline her Arabo Islamic Womanist ideology in this novel.

Keywords: Arabo Islamic womanism, focalization, ideology, narrative technique, orientalist

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5544 A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Narrative Therapy in Individual and Group Counseling on Promoting Hope in With Breast Cancer’s Women

Authors: Sajadian Akram, Tavasoli F.

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and certainly the most frequent cancer mostly among women. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of individual counseling and group narrative therapy on female patients' life expectancy afflicted by breast cancer. The present study is a pre-test-post-test clinical trial. Fifty-five patients with breast cancer were randomly selected in the follow-up period and after their active medical treatment completion. Then, they were randomly divided into two groups: individual counseling and group counseling. Herth hope index (HHI) was used to measure the patients' hope level. Data were analyzed using t-test and SPSS software. hope rate was statistically significant in both groups receiving individual and group narrative therapy in the post-test compared to the pre-test (P <00000). Moreover, the comparative evaluation of hope in both groups (individual & group counseling) in the post-test showed that group narrative counseling is more effective than individual narrative counseling (P <00000). Conclusion: Narrative therapy promotes hope in breast cancer patients effectively. Due to the nature of breast cancer and its psychological effects in the post-treatment period, providing narrative group therapy can improve life quality. Patients' life quality changes in tandem with changes in hope.

Keywords: hope, narrative therapy, counseling, breast cancer

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5543 Elderly Blacks: Exception Narrative in Soap Operas

Authors: Valmir Moratelli

Abstract:

This paper discusses the construction of the narrative of television fiction from the point of view of the invisibility of the representation of elderly black characters. Through the appointment of social and contemporary elements, we analyze why the theme of old age of black people is practically non-existent in brazilian soap operas of TV Globo. By raising characteristic aspects of the leaflet narrative, we want to discuss how the cancellation of identity discourses about elderly blacks and their relationship with aspects of social life is constructed.

Keywords: audiovisual, black, erderly, television

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5542 Using Visualization Techniques to Support Common Clinical Tasks in Clinical Documentation

Authors: Jonah Kenei, Elisha Opiyo

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Electronic health records, as a repository of patient information, is nowadays the most commonly used technology to record, store and review patient clinical records and perform other clinical tasks. However, the accurate identification and retrieval of relevant information from clinical records is a difficult task due to the unstructured nature of clinical documents, characterized in particular by a lack of clear structure. Therefore, medical practice is facing a challenge thanks to the rapid growth of health information in electronic health records (EHRs), mostly in narrative text form. As a result, it's becoming important to effectively manage the growing amount of data for a single patient. As a result, there is currently a requirement to visualize electronic health records (EHRs) in a way that aids physicians in clinical tasks and medical decision-making. Leveraging text visualization techniques to unstructured clinical narrative texts is a new area of research that aims to provide better information extraction and retrieval to support clinical decision support in scenarios where data generated continues to grow. Clinical datasets in electronic health records (EHR) offer a lot of potential for training accurate statistical models to classify facets of information which can then be used to improve patient care and outcomes. However, in many clinical note datasets, the unstructured nature of clinical texts is a common problem. This paper examines the very issue of getting raw clinical texts and mapping them into meaningful structures that can support healthcare professionals utilizing narrative texts. Our work is the result of a collaborative design process that was aided by empirical data collected through formal usability testing.

Keywords: classification, electronic health records, narrative texts, visualization

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5541 The Representation of J. D. Salinger’s Views on Changes in American Society in the 1940s in The Catcher in the Rye

Authors: Jessadaporn Achariyopas

Abstract:

The objectives of this study aim to analyze both the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye in terms of ideological concepts and narrative techniques which influence the construction of the representation and the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s. This area of study might concern two theories: namely, a theory of representation and narratology. In addition, this research is intended to answer the following three questions. Firstly, how is the production of meaning through language in The Catcher in the Rye constructed? Secondly, what are J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s? Lastly, how is the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views? The findings showed that the protagonist’s views, J. D. Salinger’s views, and changes in American society in the 1940s are obviously interrelated. The production of meaning which is the representation of the protagonist’s views was constructed of narrative techniques. J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s were the same antisocial perspectives as Holden Caulfield’s which are phoniness, alienation and meltdown.

Keywords: representation, construction of the representation, systems of representation, phoniness, alienation, meltdown

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5540 Narrative Function of Public Meeting Places in Uzalo Soap Opera

Authors: Michelle Micah Augustine

Abstract:

Soap opera narrative creates a sense of community. Uzalo is a South African local soap opera television series. It is unique because Uzalo tells the story of black people and their everyday struggle centered in KwaMashu township community, which is an excellent example of how moving image culture has contributed in portraying township community that was once marginalized by the apartheid regime in contemporary South Africa. While soap opera importance and promotion of social change and behaviours have been extensively studied throughout history, little research has examined the importance of space and place in its narrative. This study explored the conventional community space and place, the core elements that drive soap opera narrative. By means of qualitative content analysis, the study investigated the construction of public meeting places in Uzalo, using a purposive sampling technique to collect data by choosing episodes. The result indicates that characters convergence in public meeting places in soap opera creates disequilibrium which drives the narrative; reveals that construction of a public meeting place is an important way of creating a minimum of homogeneousness among disparate characters, gives a sense of unified experience drawing on the notion of the particular characteristics or attitude generated from such place. The result shows that the use of camera angles, movements, editing, music and usual tricks (mise-en-scene) applied in the narrative setting function as a guide for viewers comprehension of emotional responses of the story and to connect with the space in which the narrative is set.

Keywords: community, narrative, place, space, soap opera

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5539 An Eastern Philosophical Dimension of an English Language Teacher's Professionalism: A Narrative Analysis

Authors: Siddhartha Dhungana

Abstract:

This article primarily explores dimensions in English language teacher's professionalism so that a teacher could reflect and make a strategic professional devotion to implement effective educational programs for the present and the future. The paper substantially incorporates the eastern Hindu practices, especially life values from the Bhagavad Gita, as a basis of teacher’s professional enrichment. Basically, it applies three categorical practices, i.e., Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga, in teachers’ professionality to illustrate, ignite further ahead and sharpen academic journey, professional journey, and professional devotion reflecting common practices. In this journey, a teacher comes to a stage of professional essence as s/he surpasses Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga with their basic quality formation. To illustrate their essence-making process, the three narrative stories for each category mentioned above are analyzed. The data collected from a research participant who has a high level of professional success and who inspires all English Language teachers in Nepal to develop stories for narrative analysis. The narrative analysis is based on eastern themes that are supported by Vygotsky's concept of developmental psychology. Moreover, the structural analysis is based on Gary Barkhuizen's narrative analysis.

Keywords: Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Vygotsky's concepts, narrative analysis

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5538 An Ideational Grammatical Metaphor of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe's 'There Was a Country'

Authors: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin, Chibabi Makedono Darlington

Abstract:

This paper studied Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM) of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe’s There Was a Country. It started with a narrative historical style as a recent genre out of the conventional historical writings. In order to explore the linguistic phenomenon using a particular lexico-grammatical tool of IGM, the theoretical background was examined based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Linguistics. Furthermore, the study considered the possibility of applying IGM to the Part 4 of Achebe’s historical text with recourse to the concept of congruence in IGM and research questions before formulating a working methodology. The analysis of Achebe’s memoir was, thus, presented in tabular forms to account for the quantitative content analysis with qualitative research technique, as well as the metaphorical and congruent wording through nominalization and process types with samples. The frequencies and percentage were given appropriately with respect to each subheadings of the text. To this end, the findings showed that material and relational types indicated dominance. The discussion and implications were that the findings confirmed earlier study by MAK Halliday and C.I.M.I.M. Matthiessen’s suggestion that IGM should show dominance of material type process. The implication is that IGM can be an effective tool for the analysis of a narrative historical text. In conclusion, it was observed that IGM does not only carry grammatical function but also an ideological role in shaping the historical discourse within the narrative mode between writers and readers.

Keywords: ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, narrative history, memoire, dominance

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5537 Industrial Relations as Communication: The Strange Case of the FCA-UAW Agreement

Authors: Francesco Nespoli

Abstract:

After having posed a theoretical framework combining framing theory and new rhetoric, the paper analyze the shift in communication both adopted by UAW and FCA during the negotiations in fall 2015. The paper argues that mistakes and adjustments played a determinant role respectively in the rejection of the first tentative agreement and in the ratification of the contract. The purpose of the paper is to set a new theoretical framework for the analysis of communication in industrial relations, by describing a narrative construction of reality from the perspective of the new rhetoric. The paper thus analyze all public text, speeches, tweets and Facebook posts by the union reading them as part of the narrative set by the organization condensed by the slogan 'it’s our time'. That narrative tried to gain consensus from the members matching the expectations due to the industry recovery after more than five years of workers' sacrifices. In doing so, the analysis points out a shift in the communication strategy of the union after the first rejection of a tentative agreement in 15 years. The findings suggest that, from the communication point of view, consultation in industrial relations can be conceived as a particular kind of political communication where identification with the audience through deliberate narrative may not be effective if it is not preceded by a listening campaign.

Keywords: communication, consultation, automotive, FCA

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5536 Dying and Sexuality − Controversial Motive in Contemporary Cinema

Authors: Małgorzata Jakubowska, Monika Michałowska

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Since the beginning of the cinematographic industry, there has been a visible interest in two leading themes: death and sexuality. One of the reasons of the unfading popularity of these motives was the fact that death or sex employed as leitmotivs attracted great attention of the viewers, and this guaranteed a financial success. What seems interesting is the fact that the themes of death and sexuality/eroticism seem to be mutually exclusive in the mainstream movies to such extent that they almost never appear together on the screen. As leitmotivs they describe opposite experiences of human life, one refers to affirmation of life, the other points to atrophy and decay. This film paradigm is rarely challenged. Thus, a relatively less attention has been devoted so far to entwining dying and sexuality/eroticism in one movie. In our paper, we wish to have a closer look at the visualizations of dying with focus on the aspect of sexuality/eroticism. Our analysis will concentrate on the contemporary European and American cinema, and especially the recent productions that contribute to the cultural phenomenon of entwining the two realms of human life. We will investigate the main clichés, plot and visual schemes, motives and narrative techniques on the examples of Sweet November (2001), A Little Bit of Heaven (2011) and Now is good (2012). We will also shed some light on the recent film productions that seem to provide a shift in portraying the realms of dying and sexuality concentrating on The Garden of Earthly Delights (2003) as the most paradigmatic example.

Keywords: contemporary cinema, dying and sexuality, narrative techniques, plot and visual schemes

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5535 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich

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This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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5534 Life Stories: High Quality of Life until the End with the Narrative Medicine and the Storytelling

Authors: Danila Zuffetti, Lorenzo Chiesa

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Background: A hospice narrative interview aims at putting the sick at the core of disease and treatment allowing them to explore their most intimate facets. The aim of this work is to favor authentic narration by leading towards awareness and acceptance of terminality and to face death with serenity. Narration in palliative care aims at helping to reduce the chaos generated by the disease and to elaborate interpretations on the course of reality, besides, the narration delivered to the doctor is fundamental and communicates the meaning given to symptoms. Methods: The narrative interview has become a regular activity in the Castellini Foundation since 2017. Patients take part every week, and for more days, in one hour sessions, in a welcoming and empathic setting and the interaction with the operator leads to a gradual awareness of their terminality. Patients are submitted with free answer questions with the purpose of facilitating and stimulating self-narration. Narration has not always been linear, but patients are left free to shift in time to revisit their disease process by making use of different tools, such as digital storytelling. Results: The answers provided by the patients show to which extent the narrative interview is an instrument allowing the analysis of the stories and gives the possibility to better understand and deepen the different implications of patient and caregiver’s background. Conclusion: The narration work in the hospice demonstrates that narrative medicine is an added value. This instrument has proven useful not only in the support of patients but also for the palliative doctor to identify wishes for accompanying them to the end with dignity and serenity. The narrative interview favors the construction of an authentic therapeutic relationship. The sick are taken wholly in charge, and they are guaranteed a high quality of life until their very last instant.

Keywords: construction of an authentic therapy relationship, gradual awareness of their terminality, narrative interview, reduce the chaos generated by the desease

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5533 Narrative Identity Predicts Borderline Personality Disorder Features in Inpatient Adolescents up to Six Months after Admission

Authors: Majse Lind, Carla Sharp, Salome Vanwoerden

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Narrative identity is the dynamic and evolving story individuals create about their personal pasts, presents, and presumed futures. This storied sense of self develops in adolescence and is crucial for fostering a sense of self-unity and purpose in life. A growing body of work has shown that several characteristics of narrative identity are disturbed in adults suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). Very little research, however, has explored the stories told by adolescents with BPD features. Investigating narrative identity early in the lifespan and in relation to personality pathology is crucial; BPD is a developmental disorder with early signs appearing already in adolescence. In the current study, we examine narrative identity (focusing on themes of agency and communion) coded from self-defining memories derived from the child attachment interview in 174 inpatient adolescents (M = 15.12, SD = 1.52) at the time of admission. The adolescents’ social cognition was further assessed on the basis of their reactions to movie scenes (i.e., the MASC movie task). They also completed a trauma checklist and self-reported BPD features at three different time points (i.e., at admission, at discharge, and 6 months after admission). Preliminary results show that adolescents who told stories containing themes of agency and communion evinced better social cognition, and lower emotional abuse on the trauma checklist. In addition, adolescents who disclosed stories containing lower levels of agency and communion demonstrated more BPD symptoms at all three time points, even when controlling for the occurrence of traumatic life events. Surprisingly, social cognitive abilities were not significantly associated with BPD features. These preliminary results underscore the importance of narrative identity as an indicator, and potential cause, of incipient personality pathology. Thus, focusing on diminished themes of narrative-based agency and communion in early adolescence could be crucial in preventing the development of personality pathology over time.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, inpatient adolescents, narrative identity, follow-ups

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5532 Understanding Narrative Transformations of Ebola in Negotiations of Epidemic Risk

Authors: N. W. Paul, M. Banerjee

Abstract:

Discussing the nexus between global health policy and local practices, this article addresses the recent Ebola outbreak as a role model for narrative co-constructions of epidemic risk. We will demonstrate in how far a theory-driven and methodologically rooted analysis of narrativity can help to improve mechanisms of prevention and intervention whenever epidemic risk needs to be addressed locally in order to contribute to global health. Analyzing the narrative transformation of Ebola, we will also address issues of transcultural problem-solving and of normative questions at stake. In this regard, we seek to contribute to a better understanding of a key question of global health and justice as well as to the underlying ethical questions. By highlighting and analyzing the functions of narratives, this paper provides a translational approach to refine our practices by which we address epidemic risk, be it on the national, the transnational or the global scale.

Keywords: ebola, epidemic risk, medical ethics, medical humanities

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5531 The Development of Iranian Theatrical Performance through the Integration of Narrative Elements from Western Drama

Authors: Azadeh Abbasikangevari

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Theatre and performance are two separate themes. What is presented in Iran as a performance is the species and ritual and traditional forms of the play. The Iranian performance has its roots in myth and ritual. Drama is essentially a Western phenomenon that has gradually entered Iran and influenced Iranian performance. A theatre is based on antagonism (axis) and protagonism (anti-axis), while performance has a monotonous and steady motion. The elements of Iranian performance include field, performance on the stage, and magnification in performance, all of which are based on narration. This type of narration has been present in Iranian modern drama. The objective of this study was to analyze the drama structure according to narration elements by a comparison between the Western theater and the Iranian performance and determining the structural differences in the type of narrative. Materials and Methods: In this study, the elements of the drama were analyzed using the library method among the available library resources. The review of the literature included research articles and textbooks which focused on Iranian plays, as well as books and articles which encompassed narrative and drama element. Data were analyzed in the comparative-descriptive method. Results: Examining and studying different kinds of Iranian performances, showed that the narrative has always been a characteristic feature of Iranian plays. Iranians have narrated the stories and myths and have had a particular skill of oral literature. Over time, they slowly introduced narrative culture into their art, where this element is the most important structural element in Iran's dramatic art. Considering the fact that narration in Iranian traditional play, such as Ta'ziyeh and Naghali, was oral and consequently, it was slowly forgotten and excluded from written theatrical texts. Since the drama has entered in its western form in Iran, the plays written by the authors were influenced by narrative elements existing in western plays. Conclusions: The narrative’s element has undoubtedly had an impact on modern Iranian drama and Iranian contemporary drama. Therefore, the element of narration is an integral part of the Iranian traditional play structure.

Keywords: drama methodology, Iranian performance, Iranian modern drama, narration

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5530 Spiritual Warriors: Christian Testimony and Psychotherapy in Ritual Abuse Memoir

Authors: Jocelyn Cohen

Abstract:

This paper identifies a powerful synchronicity of two traditions of life-story writing in the autobiographies of ritual abuse (RA) survivors, the Christian conversion narrative and the memoir of healing from childhood sexual trauma. Using methodologies from literary studies, history, and psychology, a close reading of three RA memoirs sheds light on a taboo and deeply suspect form of violence. Treatment of RA survivors and the unique role of psychotherapists, in particular, deserve far greater attention from multi-disciplinary scholars. Each story reflects salient characteristics of the Christian conversion narrative, a genre which originated in the US in the early 19th century with the serendipitous confluence of the simultaneous emergence of print culture and the basic structures of evangelicalism during the Second Great Awakening. The impulse of writing is thus to give testimony against the sin they witnessed and endured as young children during ritual violence perpetrated within the church. Importantly, RA is seen as an inherent if obscure aspect of Christian discourse itself, not in opposition to it, and not as an aberration. In RA's memoir, healing comes in part from the Christian narrative praxis of personal redemption, framed as prevailing in a war between good and evil. In other words, storytelling itself affects the healing, much as it does by means of each writer’s 'talking cure,' in the relationship with a psychotherapist who guides her through a repair of the life-story through the excavation of traumatic memories and their integration into the writer’s psyche. Integrating literary techniques into the psychotherapeutic relationship, therapists leverage the deep linguistic structures that clients possess as a resource to aid in their healing.

Keywords: memoir, psychotherapy, religion, trauma

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5529 A Brief Narrative Intervention to Improve Well-being and Relational Ethics in Couples: A Mixed-Method Case Study

Authors: Kevser Cakmak, Adrián Montesano, Lourdes Artigas, Marta Salla, Clara Mateu

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to explore the relational letter writing technique as an intervention in couple therapy for reconnecting couples with their values and ethical preferences. This is a recently developed therapeutic tool within the framework of Narrative Therapy that consists of two interviews and a letter writing task, in which a meta-conversation between the relationship itself, the couple members, and the therapists is fostered. Although this specific therapeutic technique can be used within the therapy process, in this case study, it is used as a brief stand-alone narrative intervention for a middle age heterosexual couple breast cancer survivor. Couple’s relational and personal wellbeing was monitored before, during, and after the intervention by means of the dyadic adjustment and the clinical outcomes in routine evaluation-outcome measure, respectively. The couple showed a significant improvement after the intervention in both levels. The content of the letter writing exercises was qualitatively analysed to explore the reconstruction of their ethical values. Results from both methods are integrated in order to get an in-depth perspective of the newly developed tool. The potential of the letter writing technique as stand-alone and as adjunct brief intervention is discussed.

Keywords: couple therapy, narrative therapy, psychotherapy tool, relational letter writing

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5528 Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language: Immersion Teaching

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Kiu Su Na

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese sociocultural language. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific knowledge base. Researchers collected all the important points of discussion, and put them here with reference to the specific field where this paper is originally based on. The findings show that Chinese Language in immersion teaching is not like standard foreign language classroom; immersion setting provides more opportunities to teach students colloquial language than academic. Immersion techniques also introduce a language’s cultural and social contexts in a meaningful and memorable way. It is particularly important that immersion teachers connect classwork with real-life experiences. Immersion also includes more elements of discovery and inquiry based learning than do other kinds of instructional practices. Students are always and consistently interpreted the conclusions and context clues.

Keywords: a second language, Chinese language teaching, immersion teaching, instructional strategies

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5527 Identifying Children at Risk for Specific Language Impairment Using a Wordless Picture Narrative: A Study on Hindi, an Indian Language

Authors: Yozna Gurung

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary findings from an on-going study on the use of Internal State Terms (IST) in the production of narratives of Hindi-English bilinguals in an attempt to identify children at risk for Specific Language Impairment. Narratives were examined for macrostructure (story structure and story complexity) and internal state terms or mental state terms (IST/MST). 31 students generated stories based on six pictures that were matched for content and story structure in L1 (Hindi) and L2 (English) using a wordless picture narrative. From 30 sample population, 2 students are at risk of Specific Language Impairment, according to this study i.e 6.45%. They showed least development in story grammar as well as IST in both their languages.

Keywords: internal state terms, macrostructure, specific language impairment, wordless picture narrative

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