Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4140

Search results for: visual culture

4140 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: visual culture, contemporary, images, literacy

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4139 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu

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‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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4138 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

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The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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4137 Igbo Art: A Reflection of the Igbo’s Visual Culture

Authors: David Osa-Egonwa

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Visual culture is the expression of the norms and social behavior of a society in visual images. A reflection simply shows you how you look when you stand before a mirror, a clear water or stream. The mirror does not alter, improve or distort your original appearance, neither does it show you a caricature of what stands before it, this is the case with visual images created by a tribe or society. The ‘uli’ is hand drawn body design done on Igbo women and speaks of a culture of body adornment which is a practice that is appreciated by that tribe. The use of pattern of the gliding python snake ‘ije eke’ or ‘ijeagwo’ for wall painting speaks of the Igbo culture as one that appreciates wall paintings based on these patterns. Modern life came and brought a lot of change to the Igbo-speaking people of Nigeria. Change cloaked in the garment of Westernization has influenced the culture of the Igbos. This has resulted in a problem which is a break in the cultural practice that has also affected art produced by the Igbos. Before the colonial masters arrived and changed the established culture practiced by the Igbos, visual images were created that retained the culture of this people. To bring this point to limelight, this paper has adopted a historical method. A large number of works produced during pre and post-colonial era which range from sculptural pieces, paintings and other artifacts, just to mention a few, were studied carefully and it was discovered that the visual images hold the culture or aspects of the culture of the Igbos in their renditions and can rightly serve as a mirror of the Igbo visual culture.

Keywords: artistic renditions, historical method, Igbo visual culture, changes

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4136 Vantage Point–Visual Culture, Popular Media, and Contemporary Educational Practice

Authors: Elvin Karaaslan Klose

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In the field of Visual Culture, Art Education students are given the opportunity to discuss topics of interest that are closer to their own social life and media consumption habits. In contrast to the established corpus of literature and sources about Art History, educators are challenged to find topics and examples from Popular Culture and Contemporary Art that provide familiarity, depth and inspiration for students’ future practice, both as educators as well as artists. In order to establish a welcoming and fruitful discussion environment at the beginning of an introductory Visual Culture Education course with fourth year Art Education students, the class watched and subsequently discussed the movie “Vantage Point”. Using the descriptive method and content analysis; video recordings, discussion transcripts and learning diaries were summarized to highlight students’ critical points of view towards commonly experienced but rarely reflected on topics of Popular and Visual Culture. As an introduction into more theory-based forms of discussion, watching and intensely discussing a movie has proven useful by proving a combination of a familiar media type with an unfamiliar educational context. Resulting areas of interest have served as a starting point for later research, discussion and artistic production in the scope of an introductory Visual Culture Education course.

Keywords: visual culture, critical pedagogy, media literacy, art education

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4135 The Sociolinguistics of Visual Culture: An Analogous Appraisal of the Language of Trado-Medical and Church Adverts in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Temiloluwa Agbede, Rodwell Makombe, Gift Mheta

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The study adopts a sociolinguistic framework to analyse trado-medical and church advertisements in Nigeria. The study employs a qualitative case-study approach to examine the language of trado-medical and church adverts in Nigeria. Obviously, language serves as an instrument of thought. Thus, it is safe to say that language is at the centre of every human activity and experience because it differentiates human beings from all other animals. The study analyses the appropriateness of language and visual elements in trado-medical and church advertisements in relation to their meaning. It focuses on billboard advertisements as well as selected Newspapers in Nigeria. It then became clearer that society influences language and vice versa. Thus, the justification for this study is predicated on the fact that more work still needs to be done to unpack the intertwined relationship among sociolinguistics, visual culture and advertisement. Given that this research focuses on visual advertisements by traditional medical practitioners and churches in Nigeria, it is therefore necessary to investigate the interplay between language and visuality in advertisements by traditional medical practitioners and churches.

Keywords: commercials, culture, language, visuality

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4134 Constellating Images: Bilderatlases as a Tool to Develop Criticality towards Visual Culture

Authors: Quirijn Menken

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Menken, Q. Author  Constellating Images Abstract—We live in a predominantly visual era. Vastly expanded quantities of imagery influence us on a daily basis, in contrast to earlier days where the textual prevailed. The increasing producing and reproducing of images continuously compete for our attention. As such, how we perceive images and in what way images are framed or mediate our beliefs, has become of even greater importance than ever before. Especially in art education a critical awareness and approach of images as part of visual culture is of utmost importance. The Bilderatlas operates as a mediation, and offers new Ways of Seeing and knowing. It is mainly known as result of the ground-breaking work of the cultural theorist Aby Warburg, who intended to present an art history without words. His Mnemosyne Bilderatlas shows how the arrangement of images - and the interstices between them, offers new perspectives and ways of seeing. The Atlas as a medium to critically address Visual Culture is also practiced by the German artist Gerhard Richter, and it is in written form used in the Passagen Werk of Walter Benjamin. In order to examine the use of the Bilderatlas as a tool in art education, several experiments with art students have been conducted. These experiments have lead to an exploration of different Pedagogies, which help to offer new perspectives and trajectories of learning. To use the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality towards Visual Culture, I developed and tested a new pedagogy; a Pedagogy of Difference and Repetition, based on the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. Furthermore, in offering a new pedagogy - based on the rhizomatic work of Gilles Deleuze – the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality has found a firm basis. Keywords—Art Education, Walter Benjamin, Bilderatlas, Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Pedagogy, Rhizomes, Visual Culture,

Keywords: Art Education, Bilderatlas, Pedagogy, Aby Warburg

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4133 History and Its Significance in Modern Visual Graphic: Its Niche with Respect to India

Authors: Hemang Madhusudan Anglay, Akash Gaur

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Value of visual perception in today’s context is vulnerable. Visual Graphic broadly and conveniently expresses culture, language and science of art that satisfactorily is a mould to cast various expressions. It is one of the essential parts of communication design which relatively can be used to approach the above areas of expressions. In between the receptors and interpreters, there is an expanse of comprehension and cliché in relation to the use of Visual Graphics. There are pedagogies, commodification and honest reflections where Visual Graphic is a common area of interest. The traditional receptors amidst the dilemma of this very situation find themselves in the pool of media, medium and interactions. Followed by a very vague interpretation the entire circle of communication becomes a question of comprehension vs cliché. Residing in the same ‘eco-system’ these communities who make pedagogies and multiply its reflections sometimes with honesty and sometimes on commercial values tend to function differently. With the advent of technology, which is a virtual space allows the user to access various forms of content. This diminishes the core characteristics and creates a vacuum even though it satisfies the user. The symbolic interpretation of visual form and structure is transmitted in a culture by the means of contemporary media. Starting from a very individualistic approach, today it is beyond Print & Electronic media. The expected outcome will be a study of Ahmedabad City, situated in the Gujarat State of India. It is identity with respect to socio-cultural as well as economic changes. The methodology will include process to understand the evolution and narratives behind it that will encompass diverse community, its reflection and it will sum up the salient features of communication through combination of visual and graphic that is relevant in Indian context trading its values to global scenario.

Keywords: communication, culture, graphic, visual

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4132 Search for New Design Elements in Time-Honoured Shops in Tainan — On Curriculum Practice about Culture Creative Industry

Authors: Ya-Ling Huang, Ming-Chun Tsai, Fan Hsu, Kai-Ru Hsieh

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This paper mainly discusses the research and practice process of a laboratory curriculum by leading students to perform field investigation into time-honoured shops that have existed for more than 50 years in the downtown area of Tainan, Taiwan, and then search again for design elements and completing the design. The participants are juniors from the Department of Visual Communication Design, Kun Shan University. The duration of research and practice is two months. Operators of these shops are invited to jointly appraise the final achievements. 9 works out of 27 are chosen for final exhibition and commercialization.

Keywords: culture creative industry, visual communication design, curriculum experimental, visual arts

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4131 Enhancing Visual Corporate Identity on Festive Money Packets Design with Cultural Symbolisms

Authors: Noranis Ismail, Shamsul H. A. Rahman

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The objective of this research is to accentuate the importance of Visual Corporate Identity by utilizing Malay motifs amalgamated with Malay proverbs to enhance the corporate brand of The Design School (TDS) of Taylor’s University. The researchers aim to manipulate festive money packet as a mean to communicate to the audience by using non-verbal visual cues such as colour, languages, and symbols that reflect styles and cultural heritage. The paper concluded that it is possible to utilize Hari Raya packet as a medium for creative expressions by creating high-impact design through the symbolism of selected Malay proverbs and traditional Malay motifs to enhance TDS corporate visual identity. It also provides a vital contribution to other organizations to understand an integral part of corporate visual identity in heightening corporate brand by communicating indirectly to its stakeholders using visual mnemonic and cultural heritage.

Keywords: corporate branding, cultural cues, Malay culture, visual identity

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4130 The Visual Side of Islamophobia: A Social-Semiotic Analysis

Authors: Carmen Aguilera-Carnerero

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Islamophobia, the unfounded hostility towards Muslims and Islam, has been deeply studied in the last decades from different perspectives ranging from anthropology, sociology, media studies, and linguistics. In the past few years, we have witnessed how the birth of social media has transformed formerly passive audiences into an active group that not only receives and digests information but also creates and comments publicly on any event of their interest. In this way, average citizens now have been entitled with the power of becoming potential opinion leaders. This rise of social media in the last years gave way to a different way of Islamophobia, the so called ‘cyberIslamophobia’. Considerably less attention, however, has been given to the study of islamophobic images that accompany the texts in social media. This paper attempts to analyse a corpus of 300 images of islamophobic nature taken from social media (from Twitter and Facebook) from the years 2014-2017 to see: a) how hate speech is visually constructed, b) how cyberislamophobia is articulated through images and whether there are differences/similarities between the textual and the visual elements, c) the impact of those images in the audience and their reaction to it and d) whether visual cyberislamophobia has undergone any process of permeating popular culture (for example, through memes) and its real impact. To carry out this task, we have used Critical Discourse Analysis as the most suitable theoretical framework that analyses and criticizes the dominant discourses that affect inequality, injustice, and oppression. The analysis of images was studied according to the theoretical framework provided by the visual framing theory and the visual design grammar to conclude that memes are subtle but very powerful tools to spread Islamophobia and foster hate speech under the guise of humour within popular culture.

Keywords: cyberIslamophobia, visual grammar, social media, popular culture

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4129 Masquerade and “What Comes Behind Six Is More Than Seven”: Thoughts on Art History and Visual Culture Research Methods

Authors: Osa D Egonwa

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In the 21st century, the disciplinary boundaries of past centuries that we often create through mainstream art historical classification, techniques and sources may have been eroded by visual culture, which seems to provide a more inclusive umbrella for the new ways artists go about the creative process and its resultant commodities. Over the past four decades, artists in Africa have resorted to new materials, techniques and themes which have affected our ways of research on these artists and their art. Frontline artists such as El Anatsui, Yinka Shonibare, Erasmus Onyishi are demonstrating that any material is just suitable for artistic expression. Most of times, these materials come with their own techniques/effects and visual syntax: a combination of materials compounds techniques, formal aesthetic indexes, halo effects, and iconography. This tends to challenge the categories and we lean on to view, think and talk about them. This renders our main stream art historical research methods inadequate, thus suggesting new discursive concepts, terms and theories. This paper proposed the Africanist eclectic methods derived from the dual framework of Masquerade Theory and What Comes Behind Six is More Than Seven. This paper shares thoughts/research on art historical methods, terminological re-alignments on classification/source data, presentational format and interpretation arising from the emergent trends in our subject. The outcome provides useful tools to mediate new thoughts and experiences in recent African art and visual culture.

Keywords: art historical methods, classifications, concepts, re-alignment

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4128 Festive Fictions: An Iconographic Study of Ritual and Intersectionality in Cartagena, Colombia

Authors: Melissa Valle

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This paper draws upon the studies of visual culture and intersectionality to illuminate how visuality can naturalize social hierarchies. Through the use of iconography, it decodes the denotative, connotative and ideological meanings of symbols of ritualistic events in the context of the Colombian Atlantic Coast. An examination of such exceptional moments, i.e. of the spectacle, brings into focus how such performances are imbued with meaning by both the on-looker and the performer. Through an analysis of preexisting visuals (e.g., advertisements, social media) and visual materials produced by the researcher for the purpose of photo-elicitation interviews, this paper provides a contextual analysis of the ways in which three representations, popular during Colombian Atlantic coastal festivals (Negrita Puloy, Las Palenqueras, and El Son de Negro), have been historically, culturally and politically constituted. This work reveals that the visualizations are born out of and reproduce typifications systems heavily based upon race, gender, class, and ethnicity. Understanding the ways these categories are mutually constituted through the cultural practice of visual representation is essential to a more comprehensive understanding of the role such representation plays in the reproduction of social difference.

Keywords: Colombia, festivals, intersectionality, visual culture

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4127 Illumina MiSeq Sequencing for Bacteria Identification on Audio-Visual Materials

Authors: Tereza Branyšová, Martina Kračmarová, Kateřina Demnerová, Michal Ďurovič, Hana Stiborová

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Microbial deterioration threatens all objects of cultural heritage, including audio-visual materials. Fungi are commonly known to be the main factor in audio-visual material deterioration. However, although being neglected, bacteria also play a significant role. In addition to microbial contamination of materials, it is also essential to analyse air as a possible contamination source. This work aims to identify bacterial species in the archives of the Czech Republic that occur on audio-visual materials as well as in the air in the archives. For sampling purposes, the smears from the materials were taken by sterile polyurethane sponges, and the air was collected using a MAS-100 aeroscope. Metagenomic DNA from all collected samples was immediately isolated and stored at -20 °C. DNA library for the 16S rRNA gene was prepared using two-step PCR and specific primers and the concentration step was included due to meagre yields of the DNA. After that, the samples were sent to the University of Fairbanks, Alaska, for Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Subsequently, the analysis of the sequences was conducted in R software. The obtained sequences were assigned to the corresponding bacterial species using the DADA2 package. The impact of air contamination and the impact of different photosensitive layers that audio-visual materials were made of, such as gelatine, albumen, and collodion, were evaluated. As a next step, we will take a deeper focus on air contamination. We will select an appropriate culture-dependent approach along with a culture-independent approach to observe a metabolically active species in the air. Acknowledgment: This project is supported by grant no. DG18P02OVV062 of the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: cultural heritage, Illumina MiSeq, metagenomics, microbial identification

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4126 Visualizing Indonesian Hijab Fashion Style in Social Media

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah

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The rise of the Internet in the late twentieth century rapidly gains information and understands the world through screens. The digital way of communication through the Internet becomes an ordinary daily pattern. In the digital era, Fashion has been tremendously shared on social media platform especially because of the emergence of #OOTD (Outfit of the Day). Fashion cannot survive without the media. The media have played a vital role in shaping fashion into the complex cultural phenomenon it has become, and fashion has become an intrinsic part of today’s visual culture, and vice versa. Islamic Muslim Fashion has become a trend in Indonesia. It is said that social media has a huge impact in its development. Indonesia is ranked among the most users of social media. That is why people who wear hijab also use social media for different purposes, one of this is to introduce hijab fashion. Consequently, they are becoming famous in social media. Social media has become a tool for communicating their beliefs as a Muslim as well as personal branding as a good hijabi yet with a fashionable style. This study will examine how social media especially Blog and Instagram can lead the movement of Islamic Modest Fashion in Indonesia, how it triggers the consumer culture to hijabi, how they visualize their style in their social media. This research had been conducted through in-depth interviews with several bloggers who created Hijabers Community who have made a new trend in Islamic fashion and also Instagrammers who made their feeds as a style inspiration. This research is based on empirical research with qualitative methods (text and picture analysis). The methodology used for this research is by analyzing Blog and Instagram through visual analysis on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. This research also contains a literature review of a diverse group of works on topics related to the study. This research will be examined through several theoretical frameworks including the study of social media, visual analysis and consumer culture. Fashion and consumer culture are also two main topics because fashion furthermore leads to consumer culture. The benefit of this research is for gaining the insight how social media can visualize the trend in hijab fashion style of Indonesian people.

Keywords: blog, consumer culture, hijab fashion, instagram, style, visual analysis

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4125 The Colombian Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Commercial Signs

Authors: Francia Martinez

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This study documents and demonstrates the profound impact of the high status of American English and culture in Colombian commercial landscape due to the globalization and commodification of English. It also documents and describes how Colombian advertisers make use of various language and visual mechanisms in the commercial linguistic landscape to convey messages, create an image with which the target audience can identify, and build a relationship with that target audience. The data (in the form of pictures) were collected in different cities in Colombia and were classified and organized into different categories for the reliability and validity of the analysis. The research questions were: do the ubiquity and high status of American English and culture play a major role in the Colombian commercial linguistic landscape? If so, how?, what roles do national and local culture and language (Spanish) play in the commercial linguistic landscape?, and what different linguistic and visual strategies do Colombian advertisers employ to reach their target audience? Based on data analysis and results, American and local culture and icons play a major role when Colombian advertisers create and design their commercial logos and ads to get consumers’ attention and establish a rapport with them in a successful way. In order to achieve their objectives, Colombian advertisers rely on creative linguistic and visual techniques in their ads, such as puns, humor, irony, comparisons, metaphors, mocking, exaggeration, parody, personification, sarcasm, satire, allusion, onomatopoeias, and imitation (copycat or cloning).

Keywords: Colombian ads, linguistic landscape, rhetorical devices, sociolinguistics

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4124 Authentic Visual Resources for the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: O. Yeret

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Visual resources are all around us, especially in today's media-driven world, which gravitates, more and more, towards the visual. As a result, authentic resources, such as television advertisements, become testaments – authentic cultural materials – that reflect the landscape of certain groups and communities during a specific point in time. Engaging language students with popular advertisements can provide a great opportunity for developing cultural awareness, a component that is sometimes overlooked in the foreign language classroom. This paper will showcase practical examples of using Israeli Television Ads in various Modern Hebrew language courses. Several approaches for combining the study of language and culture, through the use of advertisements, will be included; for example, targeted assignments based on students' proficiency levels, such as: asking to recognize vocabulary words and answer basic information questions, as opposed to commenting on the significance of an ad and analyzing its particular cultural elements. The use of visual resources in the language classroom does not only enable students to learn more about the culture of the target language, but also to combine their language skills. Most often, interacting with an ad requires close listening and some reading (through captions or other data). As students analyze the ad, they employ their writing and speaking skills by answering questions in text or audio form. Hence, these interactions are able to elicit complex language use across the four domains: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. This paper will include examples of practical assignments that were developed for several Modern Hebrew language courses, together with the specific advertisements and questions related to them. Conclusions from the process and recent feedback notes received from students regarding the use of visual resources will be mentioned as well.

Keywords: authentic materials, cultural awareness, second language acquisition, visual resources

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4123 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

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In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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4122 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

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Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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4121 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

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The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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4120 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

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The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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4119 Dominican Representation in Introductory Level Spanish Textbooks in the United States

Authors: Sheridan Wigginton

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This research project investigates the representation of Dominicans and Dominican culture in nine widely-used Spanish textbooks in universities and colleges in the United States. The project uses the “culture” standard established by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages to examine the texts. The organization, commonly referred to by its acronym ACTFL, describes products as books, tools, foods, laws, music, and games; practices as patterns of social interactions; and perspectives as meanings, attitudes, values, and ideas. The content analysis of the texts will also specifically include visual analysis of the physical representation of the people depicted in Dominican-themed culture activities to more clearly integrate issues of color and national identity into the discussion.

Keywords: blackness, culture, Dominican republic, foreign language education, national identity, Spanish, textbooks

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4118 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

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An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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4117 Visible Expression of Social Identity: The Clothing and Fashion

Authors: Nihan Akdemir

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Clothes are more than a piece of fabric, and the most visible material item of the fashion symbol is the garment, which carries multiple and various meanings. The dynamism of the clothing symbol can carry open or closed codes depending on culture, gender, and social location. And each one can be the expression of social identity over ethnicity, religious beliefs, age, education and social class. Through observation of clothing styles over these items, the assumptions could be made about a person’s identity. A distinctive and typical style, form or character of the clothing such as ‘zoot suits’, ‘ao dai’, removes the garment from functional and ordinary element to the symbolic area. Clothing is an 'identification' tool that functions in determining the symbolic boundaries between people in a sense. And this paper includes the investigation of the relation between social identity and clothing and also fashion. And this relationship has been taken into consideration over the visual expression because even during the ancient times, the clothes were the basic and simple way of representing the identity and social classes. The visible expression of identity over clothing from Ancient Egypt to today’s clothing and fashion has been researched in this article. And all these items have been explained with visual images and supported by the literature investigations. Then the results have shown that every piece of clothing from fabric to coloring have visual significations about social identity.

Keywords: social identity, clothing, fashion, visual expression, visual signification

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4116 Pachhedi: A Material Culture Study on Folk Textile of India

Authors: Shrutisingh Tomar, Madhu Sharan

Abstract:

It has been an undisputed fact that the culture of a nation has always been reflected in its practice, visual content and in forms of its oral traditions. Regional and communal costumes in India since ancient times have worked as a strong repository for its people to comprehend not only the locality but also the community of the wearer. Such a strong visual language apparently was ordained to communicate basic details about the person such as age, marital status, and socio-cultural status. Most of the fragments of this visual vocabulary have been intensively investigated, recorded, diversified and revived, while a limited range of these has died a slow death. Some of the rare existent kinds of such threads have survived as a mainstream article of clothing: simpler, apparent and a product for daily life yet unique in their own kind. The paper intends to consider and elaborate the investigated repository pertinent to the Pacchedi weaving tradition of Gujarat. The research involved field surveys across seven districts of the two states of India namely Gujarat and Rajasthan. Ethnographic interviews, observations, recording of oral histories and archival research was conducted through multi-timed and multi-cited studies between from the year 2012 to 2015. The results include varied forms of Pacchedi based on the sartorial expressions in the male costume. The characteristic features of these textiles were accorded by the sumptuous use of brocaded cross borders and weft heavy ends along with the details on the languishing fabrication procedure.

Keywords: handloom weaving, material culture, sartorial expressions and vernacular textile craft

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4115 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

Abstract:

Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

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4114 Communication Design in Newspapers: A Comparative Study of Graphic Resources in Portuguese and Spanish Publications

Authors: Fátima Gonçalves, Joaquim Brigas, Jorge Gonçalves

Abstract:

As a way of managing the increasing volume and complexity of information that circulates in the present time, graphical representations are increasingly used, which add meaning to the information presented in communication media, through an efficient communication design. The visual culture itself, driven by technological evolution, has been redefining the forms of communication, so that contemporary visual communication represents a major impact on society. This article presents the results and respective comparative analysis of four publications in the Iberian press, focusing on the formal aspects of newspapers and the space they dedicate to the various communication elements. Two Portuguese newspapers and two Spanish newspapers were selected for this purpose. The findings indicated that the newspapers show a similarity in the use of graphic solutions, which corroborate a visual trend in communication design. The results also reveal that Spanish newspapers are more meticulous with graphic consistency. This study intended to contribute to improving knowledge of the Iberian generalist press.

Keywords: communication design, graphic resources, Iberian press, visual journalism

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4113 The Role of Social Media for the Movement of Modest Fashion in Indonesia

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah

Abstract:

Islamic Modest Fashion has become one of the emerging industries. It is said that social media has making a role in its development. From designers, hijabi bloggers and then instagrammers, they are often seen posting their everyday outfits. They want to combine their faith with cutting-edge fashion trend. Muslim consumers has become a potential targeted market due to the increasing of people wearing hijab. Muslim consumers are projected to spend $327 bilion on clothing by 2020. Indonesia, as the biggest Muslim majority country, has targeted to be The World’s Center for Muslim Fashion in the world as its national branding by 2020. This study will examine how social media especially Blog and Instagram can lead the movement of Islamic Modest Fashion in Indonesia, how it also brings consumer culture to hijabi and as the result it triggers Indonesia to brand itself and how all the elements in Indonesia including the designers, bloggers or instagrammers and also Indonesian Agency for Creative Economy together work to make its dream come true. This research will be conducted through interviews with several elements mentioned, and internet, blog, Instagram and Youtube analysis through visual analysis that also examine the semiotic meaning behind the picture that are posted by the people on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. This research also contains a literature review of a diverse group of works on topics related to the study. This research will be examined through several theoretical frameworks including the study of social media, fashion culture and consumer culture. Fashion and consumer culture are also two main topics because fashion furthermore leads to consumer culture. The possible benefit of this research is to be a reference literature of Islamic Modest Fashion and social media’s role especially in an Indonesian context.

Keywords: blog, instagram, consumer culture, modest fashion, social media, visual analysis

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4112 Examining the Role of Corporate Culture in Driving Firm Performance

Authors: Lovorka Galetić, Ivana Načinović Braje, Nevenka Čavlek

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between corporate culture and firm performance. Extensive theoretical and empirical evidence on this issue is provided. A quantitative methodology was used to explore relationship between corporate culture and performance among large Croatian companies. Corporate culture was explored by using Denison framework. The research revealed a positive, statistically significant relationship between mission and performance. Other dimensions of corporate culture (involvement, consistency and adaptability) show only partial relationship with performance.

Keywords: corporate culture, Croatia, Denison culture model, performance

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4111 Culture Sensitization: Understanding German Culture by Learning German

Authors: Lakshmi Shenoy

Abstract:

In today’s era of Globalization, arises the need that students and professionals relocate temporarily or permanently to another country in order to pursue their respective academic and career goals. This involves not only learning the local language of the country but also integrating oneself into the native culture. This paper explains the method of understanding a nation’s culture through the study of its language. The method uses language not as a series of rules that connect words together but as a social practice in which one can actively participate. It emphasizes on how culture provides an environment in which languages can flourish and how culture dictates the interpretation of the language especially in case of German. This paper introduces language and culture as inseparable entities, as two sides of the same coin.

Keywords: language and culture, sociolinguistics, Ronald Wardhaugh, German

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