Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2437

Search results for: bag of visual words

2437 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

Abstract:

The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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2436 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

Abstract:

Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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2435 The Effect of Visual Access to Greenspace and Urban Space on a False Memory Learning Task

Authors: Bryony Pound

Abstract:

This study investigated how views of green or urban space affect learning performance. It provides evidence of the value of visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments, and builds on the extensive research into the cognitive and learning-related benefits of access to green and natural spaces, particularly in learning environments. It demonstrates that benefits of visual access to natural spaces whilst learning can produce statistically significant faster responses than those facing urban views after only 5 minutes. The primary hypothesis of this research was that a greenspace view would improve short-term learning. Participants were randomly assigned to either a view of parkland or of urban buildings from the same room. They completed a psychological test of two stages. The first stage consisted of a presentation of words from eight different categories (four manmade and four natural). Following this a 2.5 minute break was given; participants were not prompted to look out of the window, but all were observed doing so. The second stage of the test involved a word recognition/false memory test of three types. Type 1 was presented words from each category; Type 2 was non-presented words from those same categories; and Type 3 was non-presented words from different categories. Participants were asked to respond with whether they thought they had seen the words before or not. Accuracy of responses and reaction times were recorded. The key finding was that reaction times for Type 2 words (highest difficulty) were significantly different between urban and green view conditions. Those with an urban view had slower reaction times for these words, so a view of greenspace resulted in better information retrieval for word and false memory recognition. Importantly, this difference was found after only 5 minutes of exposure to either view, during winter, and with a sample size of only 26. Greenspace views improve performance in a learning task. This provides a case for better visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments.

Keywords: benefits, greenspace, learning, restoration

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2434 Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing Classification Using the Bag of Visual Words Model to Land Cover Studies

Authors: Reza Mohammadi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Milad Vahidi

Abstract:

Classification of high resolution polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images plays an important role in land cover and land use management. Recently, classification algorithms based on Bag of Visual Words (BOVW) model have attracted significant interest among scholars and researchers in and out of the field of remote sensing. In this paper, BOVW model with pixel based low-level features has been implemented to classify a subset of San Francisco bay PolSAR image, acquired by RADARSAR 2 in C-band. We have used segment-based decision-making strategy and compared the result with the result of traditional Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. 90.95% overall accuracy of the classification with the proposed algorithm has shown that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the state-of-the-art methods. In addition to increase in the classification accuracy, the proposed method has decreased undesirable speckle effect of SAR images.

Keywords: Bag of Visual Words (BOVW), classification, feature extraction, land cover management, Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR)

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2433 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: visual culture, contemporary, images, literacy

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2432 The Development of Chinese-English Homophonic Word Pairs Databases for English Teaching and Learning

Authors: Yuh-Jen Wu, Chun-Min Lin

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Homophonic words are common in Mandarin Chinese which belongs to the tonal language family. Using homophonic cues to study foreign languages is one of the learning techniques of mnemonics that can aid the retention and retrieval of information in the human memory. When learning difficult foreign words, some learners transpose them with words in a language they are familiar with to build an association and strengthen working memory. These phonological clues are beneficial means for novice language learners. In the classroom, if mnemonic skills are used at the appropriate time in the instructional sequence, it may achieve their maximum effectiveness. For Chinese-speaking students, proper use of Chinese-English homophonic word pairs may help them learn difficult vocabulary. In this study, a database program is developed by employing Visual Basic. The database contains two corpora, one with Chinese lexical items and the other with English ones. The Chinese corpus contains 59,053 Chinese words that were collected by a web crawler. The pronunciations of this group of words are compared with words in an English corpus based on WordNet, a lexical database for the English language. Words in both databases with similar pronunciation chunks and batches are detected. A total of approximately 1,000 Chinese lexical items are located in the preliminary comparison. These homophonic word pairs can serve as a valuable tool to assist Chinese-speaking students in learning and memorizing new English vocabulary.

Keywords: Chinese, corpus, English, homophonic words, vocabulary

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2431 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

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The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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2430 The Repetition of New Words and Information in Mandarin-Speaking Children: A Corpus-Based Study

Authors: Jian-Jun Gao

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Repetition is used for a variety of functions in conversation. When young children first learn to speak, they often repeat words from the adult’s recent utterance with the learning and social function. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether the repetitions are equivalent in indicating attention to new words and the initial repeat of information in conversation. Based on the observation of naturally occurring language use in Taiwan Corpus of Child Mandarin (TCCM), the results in this study provided empirical support to the previous findings that children are more likely to repeat new words they are offered than to repeat new information. When children get older, there would be a drop in the repetition of both new words and new information.

Keywords: acquisition, corpus, mandarin, new words, new information, repetition

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2429 The Facilitatory Effect of Phonological Priming on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic as a Function of Lexicality and Overlap Positions

Authors: Ali Al Moussaoui

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An experiment was designed to assess the performance of 24 Lebanese adults (mean age 29:5 years) in a lexical decision making (LDM) task to find out how the facilitatory effect of phonological priming (PP) affects the speed of visual word recognition in Arabic as lexicality (wordhood) and phonological overlap positions (POP) vary. The experiment falls in line with previous research on phonological priming in the light of the cohort theory and in relation to visual word recognition. The experiment also departs from the research on the Arabic language in which the importance of the consonantal root as a distinct morphological unit is confirmed. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that (1) PP has a facilitating effect in LDM with words but not with nonwords and (2) final phonological overlap between the prime and the target is more facilitatory than initial overlap. An LDM task was programmed on PsychoPy application. Participants had to decide if a target (e.g., bayn ‘between’) preceded by a prime (e.g., bayt ‘house’) is a word or not. There were 4 conditions: no PP (NP), nonwords priming nonwords (NN), nonwords priming words (NW), and words priming words (WW). The conditions were simultaneously controlled for word length, wordhood, and POP. The interstimulus interval was 700 ms. Within the PP conditions, POP was controlled for in which there were 3 overlap positions between the primes and the targets: initial (e.g., asad ‘lion’ and asaf ‘sorrow’), final (e.g., kattab ‘cause to write’ 2sg-mas and rattab ‘organize’ 2sg-mas), or two-segmented (e.g., namle ‘ant’ and naħle ‘bee’). There were 96 trials, 24 in each condition, using a within-subject design. The results show that concerning (1), the highest average reaction time (RT) is that in NN, followed firstly by NW and finally by WW. There is statistical significance only between the pairs NN-NW and NN-WW. Regarding (2), the shortest RT is that in the two-segmented overlap condition, followed by the final POP in the first place and the initial POP in the last place. The difference between the two-segmented and the initial overlap is significant, while other pairwise comparisons are not. Based on these results, PP emerges as a facilitatory phenomenon that is highly sensitive to lexicality and POP. While PP can have a facilitating effect under lexicality, it shows no facilitation in its absence, which intersects with several previous findings. Participants are found to be more sensitive to the final phonological overlap than the initial overlap, which also coincides with a body of earlier literature. The results contradict the cohort theory’s stress on the onset overlap position and, instead, give more weight to final overlap, and even heavier weight to the two-segmented one. In conclusion, this study confirms the facilitating effect of PP with words but not when stimuli (at least the primes and at most both the primes and targets) are nonwords. It also shows that the two-segmented priming is the most influential in LDM in Arabic.

Keywords: lexicality, phonological overlap positions, phonological priming, visual word recognition

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2428 Visual Thing Recognition with Binary Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Support Vector Machine Classifiers Using Color Information

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Wei-Hau Du, Pau-Choo Chang, Jar-Ferr Yang, Pi-Hsia Hung

Abstract:

The demands of smart visual thing recognition in various devices have been increased rapidly for daily smart production, living and learning systems in recent years. This paper proposed a visual thing recognition system, which combines binary scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), bag of words model (BoW), and support vector machine (SVM) by using color information. Since the traditional SIFT features and SVM classifiers only use the gray information, color information is still an important feature for visual thing recognition. With color-based SIFT features and SVM, we can discard unreliable matching pairs and increase the robustness of matching tasks. The experimental results show that the proposed object recognition system with color-assistant SIFT SVM classifier achieves higher recognition rate than that with the traditional gray SIFT and SVM classification in various situations.

Keywords: color moments, visual thing recognition system, SIFT, color SIFT

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2427 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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2426 Bag of Words Representation Based on Fusing Two Color Local Descriptors and Building Multiple Dictionaries

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

Abstract:

We propose an extension to the famous method called Bag of words (BOW) which proved a successful role in the field of image categorization. Practically, this method based on representing image with visual words. In this work, firstly, we extract features from images using Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and two dissimilar color descriptors which are opponent-SIFT and transformed-color-SIFT. Secondly, we fuse color local features by joining the two histograms coming from these descriptors. Thirdly, after collecting of all features, we generate multi-dictionaries coming from n random feature subsets that obtained by dividing all features into n random groups. Then, by using these dictionaries separately each image can be represented by n histograms which are lately concatenated horizontally and form the final histogram, that allows to combine Multiple Dictionaries (MDBoW). In the final step, in order to classify image we have applied Support Vector Machine (SVM) on the generated histograms. Experimentally, we have used two dissimilar image datasets in order to test our proposition: Caltech 256 and PASCAL VOC 2007.

Keywords: bag of words (BOW), color descriptors, multi-dictionaries, MDBoW

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2425 A Word-to-Vector Formulation for Word Representation

Authors: Sandra Rizkallah, Amir F. Atiya

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This work presents a novel word to vector representation that is based on embedding the words into a sphere, whereby the dot product of the corresponding vectors represents the similarity between any two words. Embedding the vectors into a sphere enabled us to take into consideration the antonymity between words, not only the synonymity, because of the suitability to handle the polarity nature of words. For example, a word and its antonym can be represented as a vector and its negative. Moreover, we have managed to extract an adequate vocabulary. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can capture the essence of the language, and can be generalized to estimate a correct similarity of any new pair of words.

Keywords: natural language processing, word to vector, text similarity, text mining

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2424 Morphological Rules of Bangla Repetition Words for UNL Based Machine Translation

Authors: Nawab Yousuf Ali, S. Golam, A. Ameer, Ashok Toru Roy

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This paper develops new morphological rules suitable for Bangla repetition words to be incorporated into an inter lingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The proposed rules are to be used to combine verb roots and their inflexions to produce words which are then combined with other similar types of words to generate repetition words. This paper outlines the format of morphological rules for different types of repetition words that come from verb roots based on the framework of UNL provided by the UNL centre of the Universal Networking Digital Language (UNDL) foundation.

Keywords: Universal Networking Language (UNL), universal word (UW), head word (HW), Bangla-UNL Dictionary, morphological rule, enconverter (EnCo)

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2423 Bag of Local Features for Person Re-Identification on Large-Scale Datasets

Authors: Yixiu Liu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jianning Chi, Hao Chu, Rui Zheng, Libo Sun, Guanghao Chen, Fangtong Zhou

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In the last few years, large-scale person re-identification has attracted a lot of attention from video surveillance since it has a potential application prospect in public safety management. However, it is still a challenging job considering the variation in human pose, the changing illumination conditions and the lack of paired samples. Although the accuracy has been significantly improved, the data dependence of the sample training is serious. To tackle this problem, a new strategy is proposed based on bag of visual words (BoVW) model of designing the feature representation which has been widely used in the field of image retrieval. The local features are extracted, and more discriminative feature representation is obtained by cross-view dictionary learning (CDL), then the assignment map is obtained through k-means clustering. Finally, the BoVW histograms are formed which encodes the images with the statistics of the feature classes in the assignment map. Experiments conducted on the CUHK03, Market1501 and MARS datasets show that the proposed method performs favorably against existing approaches.

Keywords: bag of visual words, cross-view dictionary learning, person re-identification, reranking

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2422 Determining the Number of Words Required to Fulfil the Writing Task in an English Proficiency Exam with the Raters’ Scores

Authors: Defne Akinci Midas

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The aim of this study was to determine the minimum, and maximum number of words that would be sufficient to fulfill the writing task in the local English Proficiency Exam (EPE) produced and administered at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the number of words and the scores of the written products that had been awarded by two raters in three online EPEs administered in 2020 was examined. The means, standard deviations, percentages, range, minimum and maximum scores as well as correlations of the scores awarded to written products with the words that amount to 0-50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200, 201-250, 251-300, and so on were computed. The results showed that the raters did not award a full score to texts that had fewer than 100 words. Moreover, the texts that had around 200 words were awarded the highest scores. The highest number of words that earned the highest scores was about 225, and from then onwards, the scores were either stable or lower. A positive low to moderate correlation was found between the number of words and scores awarded to the texts. We understand that the idea of ‘the longer, the better’ did not apply here. The results also showed that words between 101 to about 225 were sufficient to fulfill the writing task to fully display writing skills and language ability in the specific case of this exam.

Keywords: English proficiency exam, number of words, scoring, writing task

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2421 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

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An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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2420 Exploring the Visual Representations of Neon Signs and Its Vernacular Tacit Knowledge of Neon Making

Authors: Brian Kwok

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Hong Kong is well-known for its name as "the Pearl of the Orient", due to its spectacular night-view with vast amount of decorative neon lights on the streets. Neon signs are first used as the pervasive media of communication for all kinds of commercial advertising, ranging from movie theatres to nightclubs and department stores, and later appropriated by artists as medium of artwork. As a well-established visual language, it displays texts in bilingual format due to British's colonial influence, which are sometimes arranged in an opposite reading order. Research on neon signs as a visual representation is rare but significant because they are part of people’s collective memories of the unique cityscapes which associate the shifting values of people's daily lives and culture identity. Nevertheless, with the current policy to remove abandoned neon signs, their total number dramatically declines recently. The Buildings Department found an estimation of 120,000 unauthorized signboards (including neon signs) in Hong Kong in 2013, and the removal of such is at a rate of estimated 1,600 per year since 2006. In other words, the vernacular cultural values and historical continuity of neon signs will gradually be vanished if no immediate action is taken in documenting them for the purpose of research and cultural preservation. Therefore, the Hong Kong Neon Signs Archive project was established in June of 2015, and over 100 neon signs are photo-documented so far. By content analysis, this project will explore the two components of neon signs – the use of visual languages and vernacular tacit knowledge of neon makers. It attempts to answer these questions about Hong Kong's neon signs: 'What are the ways in which visual representations are used to produce our cityscapes and streetscapes?'; 'What are the visual languages and conventions of usage in different business types?'; 'What the intact knowledge are applied when producing these visual forms of neon signs?'

Keywords: cityscapes, neon signs, tacit knowledge, visual representation

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2419 Pudhaiyal: A Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game for Tamil Words

Authors: Aarthy Anandan, Anitha Narasimhan, Madhan Karky

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Word-based games are popular in helping people to improve their vocabulary skills. Games like ‘word search’ and crosswords provide a smart way of increasing vocabulary skills. Word search games are fun to play, but also educational which actually helps to learn a language. Finding the words from word search puzzle helps the player to remember words in an easier way, and it also helps to learn the spellings of words. In this paper, we present a tile distribution algorithm for a Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game 'Pudhaiyal’ for Tamil words, which describes how words can be distributed horizontally, vertically or diagonally in a 10 x 10 grid. Along with the tile distribution algorithm, we also present an algorithm for the scoring model of the game. The proposed game has been tested with 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Pudhaiyal, Tamil word game, word search, scoring, maze, algorithm

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2418 Authentic Visual Resources for the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: O. Yeret

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Visual resources are all around us, especially in today's media-driven world, which gravitates, more and more, towards the visual. As a result, authentic resources, such as television advertisements, become testaments – authentic cultural materials – that reflect the landscape of certain groups and communities during a specific point in time. Engaging language students with popular advertisements can provide a great opportunity for developing cultural awareness, a component that is sometimes overlooked in the foreign language classroom. This paper will showcase practical examples of using Israeli Television Ads in various Modern Hebrew language courses. Several approaches for combining the study of language and culture, through the use of advertisements, will be included; for example, targeted assignments based on students' proficiency levels, such as: asking to recognize vocabulary words and answer basic information questions, as opposed to commenting on the significance of an ad and analyzing its particular cultural elements. The use of visual resources in the language classroom does not only enable students to learn more about the culture of the target language, but also to combine their language skills. Most often, interacting with an ad requires close listening and some reading (through captions or other data). As students analyze the ad, they employ their writing and speaking skills by answering questions in text or audio form. Hence, these interactions are able to elicit complex language use across the four domains: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. This paper will include examples of practical assignments that were developed for several Modern Hebrew language courses, together with the specific advertisements and questions related to them. Conclusions from the process and recent feedback notes received from students regarding the use of visual resources will be mentioned as well.

Keywords: authentic materials, cultural awareness, second language acquisition, visual resources

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2417 Towards Kurdish Internet Linguistics: A Case Study on the Impact of Social Media on Kurdish Language

Authors: Karwan K. Abdalrahman

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Due to the impacts of the internet and social media, new words and expressions enter the Kurdish language, and a number of familiarized words get new meanings. The case is especially true when the technique of transliteration is taken into consideration. Through transliteration, a number of selected words widely used on social media are entering the Kurdish media discourse. In addition, a selected number of Kurdish words get new cultural and psychological meanings. The significance of this study is to delve into the process of word formation in the Kurdish language and explore how new words and expressions are formed by social media users and got public recognition. First, the study investigates the English words that enter the Kurdish language through different social media platforms. All of these words are transliterated and are used in spoken and written discourses. Second, there are a specific number of Kurdish words that got new meanings in social media. As for these words, there are psychological and cultural factors that make people use these expressions for specific political reasons. It can be argued that they have an indirect political message along with their new linguistic usages. This is a qualitative study analyzing video content that was published in the last two years on social media platforms, including Facebook and YouTube. The collected data was analyzed based on the themes discussed above. The findings of the research can be summarized as follows: the widely used transliterated words have entered both the spoken and written discourses. Authors in online and offline newspapers, TV presenters, literary writers, columnists are using these new expressions in their writings. As for the Kurdish words with new meanings, they are also widely used for psychological, cultural, and political reasons.

Keywords: Kurdish language, social media, new meanings, transliteration, vocabulary

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2416 An Event-Related Potential Study of Individual Differences in Word Recognition: The Evidence from Morphological Knowledge of Sino-Korean Prefixes

Authors: Jinwon Kang, Seonghak Jo, Joohee Ahn, Junghye Choi, Sun-Young Lee

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A morphological priming has proved its importance by showing that segmentation occurs in morphemes when visual words are recognized within a noticeably short time. Regarding Sino-Korean prefixes, this study conducted an experiment on visual masked priming tasks with 57 ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) to see how individual differences in the amount of morphological knowledge affect morphological priming. The relationship between the prime and target words were classified as morphological (e.g., 미개척 migaecheog [unexplored] – 미해결 mihaegyel [unresolved]), semantical (e.g., 친환경 chinhwangyeong [eco-friendly]) – 무공해 mugonghae [no-pollution]), and orthographical (e.g., 미용실 miyongsil [beauty shop] – 미확보 mihwagbo [uncertainty]) conditions. We then compared the priming by configuring irrelevant paired stimuli for each condition’s control group. As a result, in the behavioral data, we observed facilitatory priming from a group with high morphological knowledge only under the morphological condition. In contrast, a group with low morphological knowledge showed the priming only under the orthographic condition. In the event-related potential (ERP) data, the group with high morphological knowledge presented the N250 only under the morphological condition. The findings of this study imply that individual differences in morphological knowledge in Korean may have a significant influence on the segmental processing of Korean word recognition.

Keywords: ERP, individual differences, morphological priming, sino-Korean prefixes

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2415 A Comparison of Anger State and Trait Anger Among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Sibel Karacaoglu, Cengiz Sevgin, Ummuhan Bas Aslan

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Objective: Anger expression style is an important moderator of the effects on the person and person’s environment. Anger and anger expression have become important constructs in identifying individuals at high risk for psychological difficulties. To our knowledge, there is no information about anger and anger expression of adolescents with visual impairment. The aim of this study was to compare anger and anger expression among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Methods: Thirty-eight adolescents with visual impairment (18 female, 20 male) and 44 adolescents without visual impairment (22 female, 24 male), in totally 84 adolescents aged between 12 to 15 years, participated in the study. Anger and anger expression of the participants assessed with The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). STAS, a self-report questionnaire, is designed to measure the experience and expression of anger. STAS has four subtitles including continuous anger, anger in, anger out and anger control. Reliability and validity of the STAS have been well established among adolescents. Mann-Whitney U Test was used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of continuous anger and anger out between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in scores of anger control and anger in between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p>0.05). The score of anger control in adolescents with visual impairment were higher compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Meanwhile, the adolescents with visual impairment had lower score for anger in compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is no difference in anger level among adolescents with and without visual impairment meanwhile there is difference in anger expression.

Keywords: adolescent, anger, impaired, visual

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2414 Constellating Images: Bilderatlases as a Tool to Develop Criticality towards Visual Culture

Authors: Quirijn Menken

Abstract:

Menken, Q. Author  Constellating Images Abstract—We live in a predominantly visual era. Vastly expanded quantities of imagery influence us on a daily basis, in contrast to earlier days where the textual prevailed. The increasing producing and reproducing of images continuously compete for our attention. As such, how we perceive images and in what way images are framed or mediate our beliefs, has become of even greater importance than ever before. Especially in art education a critical awareness and approach of images as part of visual culture is of utmost importance. The Bilderatlas operates as a mediation, and offers new Ways of Seeing and knowing. It is mainly known as result of the ground-breaking work of the cultural theorist Aby Warburg, who intended to present an art history without words. His Mnemosyne Bilderatlas shows how the arrangement of images - and the interstices between them, offers new perspectives and ways of seeing. The Atlas as a medium to critically address Visual Culture is also practiced by the German artist Gerhard Richter, and it is in written form used in the Passagen Werk of Walter Benjamin. In order to examine the use of the Bilderatlas as a tool in art education, several experiments with art students have been conducted. These experiments have lead to an exploration of different Pedagogies, which help to offer new perspectives and trajectories of learning. To use the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality towards Visual Culture, I developed and tested a new pedagogy; a Pedagogy of Difference and Repetition, based on the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. Furthermore, in offering a new pedagogy - based on the rhizomatic work of Gilles Deleuze – the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality has found a firm basis. Keywords—Art Education, Walter Benjamin, Bilderatlas, Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Pedagogy, Rhizomes, Visual Culture,

Keywords: Art Education, Bilderatlas, Pedagogy, Aby Warburg

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2413 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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2412 Development of Visual Element Design Guidelines for Consumer Products Based on User Characteristics

Authors: Taezoon Park, Wonil Hwang

Abstract:

This study aims to build a design guideline for the effective visual display used for consumer products considering user characteristics; gender and age. Although a number of basic experiments identified the limits of human visual perception, the findings remain fragmented and many times in an unfriendly form. This study compiled a design cases along with tables aggregated from the experimental result of visual perception; brightness/contrast, useful field of view, color sensitivity. Visual design elements commonly used for consumer product, were selected and appropriate guidelines were developed based on the experimental result. Since the provided data with case example suggests a feasible design space, it will save time for a product designer to find appropriate design alternatives.

Keywords: design guideline, consumer product, visual design element, visual perception, emotional design

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2411 Intensifier as Changed from the Impolite Word in Thai

Authors: Methawee Yuttapongtada

Abstract:

Intensifier is the linguistic term and device that is generally found in different languages in order to enhance and give additional quantity, quality or emotion to the words of each language. In fact, each language in the world has both of the similar and dissimilar intensifying device. More specially, the wide variety of intensifying device is used for Thai language and one of those is usage of the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative as intensifier. The data collection in this study was done throughout the spoken language style by collecting from intensifiers regarded as impolite words because these words as employed in the other contexts will be held as the rude, swear words or the words with negative meaning. Then, backward study to the past was done in order to consider the historical change. Explanation of the original meaning and the contexts of words use from the past till the present time were done by use of both textual documents and dictionaries available in different periods. It was found that regarding the semantics and pragmatic aspects, subjectification also is the significant motivation that changed the impolite words to intensifiers. At last, it can explain pathway of the semantic change of these very words undoubtedly. Moreover, it is found that use tendency in the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative will more be increased and this phenomenon is commonly found in many languages in the world and results of this research may support to the belief that human language in the world is universal and the same still reflected that human has the fundamental thought as the same to each other basically.

Keywords: impolite word, intensifier, Thai, semantic change

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2410 Use of Visual, Animating Narrative in an Entrepreneurial Storytelling: A Case Study of Greenesignit! Card Game, Educational and Brainstorming Tool for Development of Sustainable Products

Authors: Maja S. Todorovic

Abstract:

This paper aims to promote entrepreneurial storytelling by exploring new ideas and learning practices. An entrepreneur needs to be a ‘storyteller’, an ‘epic hero’, capable of offering an emotional connection to his audience, a character with whom audience can identify with, rejoice, suffer, celebrate, fail – simply experience everything. In other words, a successful entrepreneur is giving tangible experience through his business story and that’s what makes his story and business alive. Use of mythology, eulogy, metaphor, epic, fairytales and cartoons, permeated with humor and sudden twists is a winning recipe for a business story that captures attention. In the business case of the Greenesignit! Card game, (educational and brainstorming tool for development of sustainable products) we will demonstrate how an entrepreneur successfully used visual narrative to communicate his story and at the same time as a vehicle to transmute his message in learning tool and product development.

Keywords: animating narrative, entrepreneur, Greeneisgnit! card game, visual storytelling

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2409 Task Distraction vs. Visual Enhancement: Which Is More Effective?

Authors: Huangmei Liu, Si Liu, Jia’nan Liu

Abstract:

The present experiment investigated and compared the effectiveness of two kinds of methods of attention control: Task distraction and visual enhancement. In the study, the effectiveness of task distractions to explicit features and of visual enhancement to implicit features of the same group of Chinese characters were compared based on their effect on the participants’ reaction time, subjective confidence rating, and verbal report. We found support that the visual enhancement on implicit features did overcome the contrary effect of training distraction and led to awareness of those implicit features, at least to some extent.

Keywords: task distraction, visual enhancement, attention, awareness, learning

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2408 Hybrid SVM/DBN Model for Arabic Isolated Words Recognition

Authors: Elyes Zarrouk, Yassine Benayed, Faiez Gargouri

Abstract:

This paper presents a new hybrid model for isolated Arabic words recognition. To do this, we apply Support Vectors Machine (SVM) as an estimator of posterior probabilities within the Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). This paper deals a comparative study between DBN and SVM/DBN systems for multi-dialect isolated Arabic words. Performance using SVM/DBN is found to exceed that of DBNs trained on an identical task, giving higher recognition accuracy for four different Arabic dialects. In fact, the average of recognition rates for the four dialects with SVM/DBN was 87.67% while 83.01% with DBN.

Keywords: dynamic Bayesian networks, hybrid models, supports vectors machine, Arabic isolated words

Procedia PDF Downloads 493