Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 185

Search results for: dying and sexuality

185 Dying and Sexuality − Controversial Motive in Contemporary Cinema

Authors: Małgorzata Jakubowska, Monika Michałowska

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the cinematographic industry, there has been a visible interest in two leading themes: death and sexuality. One of the reasons of the unfading popularity of these motives was the fact that death or sex employed as leitmotivs attracted great attention of the viewers, and this guaranteed a financial success. What seems interesting is the fact that the themes of death and sexuality/eroticism seem to be mutually exclusive in the mainstream movies to such extent that they almost never appear together on the screen. As leitmotivs they describe opposite experiences of human life, one refers to affirmation of life, the other points to atrophy and decay. This film paradigm is rarely challenged. Thus, a relatively less attention has been devoted so far to entwining dying and sexuality/eroticism in one movie. In our paper, we wish to have a closer look at the visualizations of dying with focus on the aspect of sexuality/eroticism. Our analysis will concentrate on the contemporary European and American cinema, and especially the recent productions that contribute to the cultural phenomenon of entwining the two realms of human life. We will investigate the main clichés, plot and visual schemes, motives and narrative techniques on the examples of Sweet November (2001), A Little Bit of Heaven (2011) and Now is good (2012). We will also shed some light on the recent film productions that seem to provide a shift in portraying the realms of dying and sexuality concentrating on The Garden of Earthly Delights (2003) as the most paradigmatic example.

Keywords: contemporary cinema, dying and sexuality, narrative techniques, plot and visual schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
184 Public Policy and Sexuality Education for Youth with Disabilities: Impact on Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

Authors: Alexandra M. Kriofske Mainella

Abstract:

This paper will examine the need for more aggressive public policies around bodily, reproductive and sexual health education for young people with disabilities in the United States. This paper will consider the policies around sexuality education for students in the United States and the recommendation for national standards around sexuality education. We will investigate the intersection of these policies and recommendations for students with disabilities and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): what this means for students with disabilities’ access to comprehensive sexuality education and how it affects their behaviors and outcomes.

Keywords: disability, sexuality, education, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
183 Battling with Patriarchy: Political Sexuality and Gender Democracy in Nigeria

Authors: Lenshie, Nsemba Edward

Abstract:

This paper examines political sexuality as an identity construct, which imparts on democratic practices globally. The manifestation of political sexuality reflect on the dynamics of social, economic, cultural and political relations among different gender affecting a number of issues, such as the questions of citizenship, poverty alleviation, property rights, ownership and inheritance, rights to sexual consent, polygamous marriage, governance and representation among other issues. This paper is concerned with the aspect of political participation among different genders in Nigeria. This paper posit that political sexuality is an outcome of ‘sexuality differences’, which seeks to glorify and gratify the superiority of a particular sexuality over another. Political sexuality, therefore, motivate and exacerbate socio-cultural, economic, and political struggles among different sexualities. The paper asserts further that majority of women have been discriminated, sexually harassed, and are often denied certain rights and privileges in Nigeria. A few number of women who have found themselves at the corridors of government have used the Beijing protocol on Women to demand for ‘affirmative action’ to expand their political space. It contends that the ‘affirmative action’ in Nigeria is far from achieving it throughout the country. The paper conclude that women require more than just a ‘self-rediscovery’ to assertively demand for a more and proper inclusion in Nigeria’s democratic process.

Keywords: gender democracy, identity, politics, political sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
182 Patriarchy in Caste Society and Control over Women’s Sexuality in India

Authors: Renu Singh

Abstract:

The caste system in Indian society plays an important role in subjugation of women. It creates divides and controls over women’s sexuality in various ways. This paper attempts to look into various modes in which the institution of caste makes some forms of sexuality as socially “acceptable” norms, while deems others as obscene, immoral and against social ethos. Based on a review of existing literature in this area this paper attempts to understand the notion of sexuality in Indian context. It tries to understand how the emergence of norms and values of sexual behaviour has been entwined with the evolution of caste system and the subjugation of many sections of Indian society. It also attempts to trace the internalisation of patriarchal values in Indian society, and the role played by the colonial rulers in creating and maintaining stringent division of space into public and private ones. It is argued here that brahmanical patriarchy, which is a unique phenomenon of the Indian Subcontinent, plays a crucial role in subjugating and controlling women in general and their sexuality in particular. It also creates a divide among women of different castes. Furthermore, the process of colonisation played an important role in shaping the discourse of sexuality in its present form. There were contradictions as well as consensus between the colonial rulers over the questions of regulation of the private domain, as in introducing reform legislation in the nineteenth century informed the debate on sexuality in postcolonial India. The process of emergence of the dichotomous notions of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ sexuality, and the resistance to any ‘deviation’ from the ‘normal’ sexuality is located, not merely in the ‘passive’ evolution of society, but in the actual politics of it.

Keywords: caste, control, sexuality, regulation, brahmanical patriarchy, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
181 Becoming a Shakti: An Analysis of Western Women's Experiences of Tantra Practices

Authors: Caroline Jones

Abstract:

Research over the last decade suggests that there have been distinct changes in both women’s sexual behaviour and attitudes towards female sexuality in the UK. Areas such as discussing sex, participating in sexual activity outside of traditional monogamous relationships, and engaging in boudoir photography have all been explored by researchers. Women’s participation in tantric practices, however, is a relatively unexplored area of sexuality, despite an increasing number of Tantra schools opening in the UK. Tantra is a practice in which women are considered to have a higher consciousness than men, where the sexual role of women is deemed to be very different to a traditional Western sexually passive role. This research looks at this area, and is based on in-depth, semi-structured, thematically analysed interviews with women who have participated in tantric workshops and/or retreats across the country. The interviews investigate why women engage with such practices, what they feel they gain from the experience, and how shifting notions of appropriate sexual roles for women impact on their sexuality and life generally. While Tantra is still a minority activity in the UK, the findings shed light on not only these areas but also on women’s constructions of their sexuality, their relationships with their bodies and sexualities, and ways in which they express and engage with changing notions of female sexuality.

Keywords: sexuality, Tantra, gender, Shakti

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
180 Voices of Youth: Contributing to Healthy Teens

Authors: Christa Beyers

Abstract:

Investing in the health of youth is essential for the well-being of society. If youth do not live a healthy life, the future of the global workforce and overall development of adolescents looks bleak given the challenges posed in this developmental stage. The idea of sexuality education at home and in our schools is a controversial and contentious subject, as many parents and teachers do not hold the same beliefs as to what content should be taught. Despite high incidence of HIV and STD infections, early school dropout and teen pregnancies, sexuality education has still not been given the recognition or importance it deserves. By giving youth a voice can lead to both behavioural and policy changes. This article is based on a literature review of sex and sexuality education from a social studies approach. This article argues that adults tend to teach from their own perspective, which does not meet the needs of youth, thereby ignoring the social aspects of sexual behaviour.

Keywords: sexuality education, adolescents, communication, cycle of socialization

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
179 A ‘Just and Loving Gaze’ on Sexuality and Attachment: Why I Think (Not) All Homosexual Relationships are Borne Out of an Abandonment and Attachment Crisis

Authors: Victor Counted

Abstract:

John Bowlby's Attachment theory is often a framework used by many researchers to understand human relationship experiences with close 'others'. In this short brief on sexuality, I tried to discuss homosexual relationships from three attachment positions, or if you like, conditions, in relation to the compensation and correspondence hypothesis used to understand an individual's attachment orientation with an attachment figure who is seen as a secure base, safe haven, and some kind of target for proximity seeking. Drawing from the springs of virtue and hope in light of Murdock’s ‘just and love gaze’ model, I allowed myself to see the homosexual cases cited in positive terms, as I related to the situations and experiences of our homosexual ‘others’ from the guiding herald of Moltmann's theology of hope. This approach allowed me to conclusively convince readers to engage sexuality from a tolerating tendency of hope in our thinking and thoughts towards the actions and conditions of our dynamic world which is always plunging toward the future.

Keywords: attachment, wellbeing, sexuality, homosexuality, abandonment, tolerance of hope, wise fool

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
178 Nurses Care Practices at End of Life in Intensive Care Units in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: M. Yaqoob, C. S. O’Neill, S. Faraj, C. L. O’Neill

Abstract:

This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study exploring nurse’s contributions to end of life decisions and to the care of dying patients in ICU units in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The process of dying is complex as medical clinicians are frequently unable to say with certainty when death will occur. It is generally accepted that end of life care begins when it is possible to know that death is imminent. Nurses do not make medical treatment decisions when caring for a dying patient. There are, however, many other types of decisions made when a patient is approaching the end of life and nurses are either formally or informally part of these decision making processes. This study explored nurses care practices at the end of life, in two ICU units in large hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The research design was a grounded theory approach. Ten nurses participated, six of whom were Bahraini nationals and four were Indian. A core category death avoidance talk was supported by three major subcategories, degrees of involvement in decision making; signalling and creating an awareness of death; care shifting from dying patients to family. Despite nurses asserting that they carried out the orders of doctors and had no role in decision making processes at end of life this study showed that there were degrees of nurse involvement. Doctors frequently discussed the patient’s clinical condition with nurses and also sought information regarding the family. Information about the family was of particular relevance if the doctor was considering a DNR order, which the nurses equated with dying. Families were not always informed when a DNR decision was made. When families were not informed the nurses engaged in sophisticated rituals signalling and creating awareness to family members that the death of their loved one was near. This process also involved a subtle shifting of care from the dying patient to the family. This seminar paper will focus particularly on how nurses signal and create an awareness of death in an ICU setting. The findings suggest that despite the avoidance of death talk in the ICU nurses indirectly convey and create an awareness that death is near to family members.

Keywords: decision making, dying patients, end of life, intensive care unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
177 An Interview and PhotoVoice Exploration of Sexual Education Provision to Women with Physical Disability and Potential Experiences of Violence

Authors: D. Beckwith

Abstract:

This research explored sexual identity for women with physical disability, both congenital and acquired. It also explored whether exposure to violence or negative risk-taking had played a role in their intimate relationships. This phenomenological research used semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation with the researcher’s insider knowledge adding experiential substance and understanding to the discussion. Findings confirm sexuality for women with physical disability is marginalised and de-gendered making it less of a priority for professionals and policy makers and emphasising the need to more effectively support women with disability in relation to their sexuality, sexual expression and violence.

Keywords: lived-experience, identity, PhotoVoice, sexuality, violence, women with physical disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
176 Sex Education for Children with Special Needs

Authors: Nefrijanti Sutikno

Abstract:

This paper highlights puberty and sexuality on children with special needs (SNC) in which they are very vulnerable to child sexual abuse (CSA). By providing sufficient knowledge and skill to teachers, they can synergise with parents to better anticipate, prevent and reduce the possibility of CSA and when it has already happened, together they are able to provide proper support and assistance to the victims of CSA.

Keywords: Special Needs Children (SNC), puberty, sexuality, child sexual abuse (CSA), prevention of CSA, anticipation of CSA

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
175 Students’ View on Sexuality Education

Authors: Hoi Nga Ng, Kam Weng Boey, Chi Wai Kwan, Hing Kwan To

Abstract:

The effectiveness of school-based sexuality education (SBSE) depends largely on adolescents’ attitudes towards sexuality and SBSE. This study examined factors (demographic characteristics, religiosity, and spirituality) associated with students’ sexual attitudes and their views on SBSE. Data were collected via a questionnaire through convenience sampling from three secondary schools. A total of 818 students participated in the study. Male students were generally more permissive in sexual attitudes. Female students were specifically more liberal in attitudes towards abortion, contraception, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, and homosexuality. Higher levels of religiosity and spirituality were negatively associated with permissive sexual attitudes. As in the West, students showed positive attitudes towards SBSE, which provided a fertile ground for SBSE. However, female gender, conservative sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were positively related to attitudes towards SBSE, which were incongruent with what was found in Western studies. Implementation of SBSE needs to consider factors specific to the local cultural setting.

Keywords: religiosity, school-based sexuality education, secondary school, spirituality

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
174 Exploring the Facets of Sexuality among Older Adults

Authors: Vivienne Cloude C. Bersabe, Nuelle Anne Castro, Christy P. Gonzales, Nathalie Ann D. Ocbo, Araceli Chuwaley C. Padcayan, Michelle Gaile Lianne S. Peralta, Cecile A. Perez, Eiden Mae A. Roque, Frances Bea S. Sabaten, Korina Louise A. Saculles, Jada Kristen O. Taska, Jose Reinhard C. Laoingco, Don Leonardo N. Dacumos

Abstract:

The rationale of the study: Since discussion about sexuality is considered taboo in the Filipino culture, provision of quality holistic care often lacks sexuality aspect. This research was conducted to highlight the need for nurses to incorporate sexuality in their care of older adults. Research Objectives: To measure the levels of older adults’ sexual desire, sexual behavior, and sexual intimacy and relate them to sex, living arrangement, educational level, and presence of chronic illness, whether with or without treatment. Methods: This study is of quantitative descriptive design that utilized purposive sampling. 400 older adults of Baguio City participated. The study used a 30 point researcher-made questionnaire, one-on-one interview and focused group discussion to gather data. Data were treated using weighted mean, t-test, F-test, and Scheffe's test. Results and Conclusions: The overall findings revealed that Filipino older adults have a low level of sexuality expressed by the participants’ sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Males have significantly higher level of sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Living arrangement does not seem to influence the level of sexuality in all its 3 facets. Sexual desire was significantly higher among those with tertiary education and without chronic illness. Recommendation: It is recommended that nurses carry out their assessment of clients to include the exploration of their sexuality especially the older adults. A similar study may be done to explore other variables like demographic location, i.e., rural or urban setting; socio-cultural factors; and functional performance status. It is also recommended that a similar study may be done exploring the different facets of sexuality among homosexual older persons.

Keywords: geriatrics, older adults, Philippines, sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
173 Women with Disabilities: A Study of Contributions of Sexual and Reproductive Rights for Theology

Authors: Luciana Steffen

Abstract:

People with disabilities are often neglected in the exercise of their sexuality, facing several prejudices and discrimination in this area. For women with disabilities, the negligence is even major. Studies that relate sexual and reproductive rights with the experience of women with disabilities are rare, and in the field of Theology, practically nonexistent in Brazil. The aim of this work is to reflect on the relationship between women with disabilities, sexual and reproductive rights and Theology, according to a feminist perspective. The work is a literature review and involves the areas of Gender Studies, Disability Studies, Feminist Studies and Theology. In the article it will be addressed the relations between disability, sexual and reproductive rights, feminism, as well as the relations with the area of Theology, reflecting on these themes toward a fairer and more inclusive understanding of feminism, sexuality and women with disabilities. To reflect on sexual and reproductive rights of women with disabilities, it is important to reflect on religious concepts about the body, sexuality, reproduction and gender roles, because they are all connected. So, a critical analysis of traditional theological values taking into consideration the dimensions of sexuality and women with disability is important for a more liberating and inclusive understand about sexual and reproductive rights of women with disabilities. Theology should help the other areas in the understanding that all people have the right to live their lives with completeness, dignity and respect, so women with disabilities must have the opportunity of making their own choices on the fields of sexuality and reproduction.

Keywords: gender, disability, sexual and reproductive rights, theology

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
172 Women's Sexual Experience in Pakistan: Associations of Patriarchy and Psychological Distress

Authors: Sana Tahir, Haya Fatimah

Abstract:

Sexuality is a social construct which is considered as the most confidential affair among individuals where women tend to refrain themselves more from sexually explicit behavior than men. Patriarchy has an elevated influence on the expression of female sexuality. While women’s sexual experiences are suppressed men are entitled to pleasure themselves according to their desire. The purpose of this study is to explore how the internalization of patriarchy affects women’s sexuality. Similarly, it was investigated how women sexuality is associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 100(age 20-40) married women. Participants were selected through a combination of convenient and snowball sampling. Women were asked to provide data regarding patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and DAS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyze was conducted to examine the nature of the relationship between patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and psychological distress in married women. There is a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and patriarchal beliefs (r=-.391, p<.001). There also lies a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and depression, anxiety, stress (r=-.359, p<.001) (r=.301, p=.002) (r=-.221, p=.027). The results reveal that women with strong patriarchal beliefs have less sexual awareness in terms of sexual consciousness, sexual monitoring, sexual assertiveness and sexual appeal consciousness. Similarly, women with strong patriarchal beliefs and less sexual awareness have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: female sexuality, patriarchy, psychological distress, sexual awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
171 Embracing Complex Femininity: A Comparative Analysis of the Representation of Female Sexuality in John Webster and William Faulkner

Authors: Elisabeth Pedersen

Abstract:

Representations and interpretations of womanhood and female sexualities bring forth various questions regarding gender norms, and the implications of these norms, which are permeating and repetitive within various societies. Literature is one form of media which provides the space to represent and interpret women, their bodies, and sexualities, and also reveals the power of language as an affective and affected force. As literature allows an opportunity to explore history and the representations of gender, power dynamics, and sexuality through historical contexts, this paper uses engaged theory through a comparative analysis of two work of literature, The Duchess of Malfi by John Wester, and The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner. These novels span across space and time, which lends to the theory that repetitive tropes of womanhood and female sexuality in literature are influenced by and have an influence on the hegemonic social order throughout history. It analyzes how the representation of the dichotomy of male chivalry and honor, and female purity are disputed and questioned when a woman is portrayed as sexually emancipated, and explores the historical context in which these works were written to examine how socioeconomic events challenged the hegemonic social order. The analysis looks at how stereotypical ideals of womanhood and manhood have damaging implications on women, as the structure of society provides more privilege and power to men than to women, thus creating a double standard for men and women in regards to sexuality, sexual expression, and rights to sexual desire. This comparative analysis reveals how strict gender norms are permeating and have negative consequences. However, re-reading stories through a critical lens can provide an opportunity to challenge the repetitive tropes of female sexuality, and thus lead to the embrace of the complexity of female sexuality and expression.

Keywords: femininity, literature, representation, sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
170 The Evaluation of Sexual Literacy Teacher Training Program in Thai Teachers

Authors: Chitraporn Boonthanom, Pailin Sisookho

Abstract:

The Sexual Literacy Training Teachers Program (SLTTP) based on sexual health problems in Thai students includes sexual development, sexual hygiene, high-risk behaviors, Sexual Transmitter Infections and HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual abuse that increase among Thai students. The training aimed at providing teachers with the sexuality knowledge, sexuality information access skills, communication skill to effectively teach in their class. 28 teachers were participated from schools in Bangkok metropolitan and Nakorn Patom province. The result show the mean score of the pre-test was 8.46 (SD=1.77) and the post-test was 10.13 (SD=2.34). The post-training results were found to be higher than pre–training results but not significant. As teachers are increasing the sexual literacy is very important for Thai students.

Keywords: sexual literacy, teachers, training, sexuality education

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
169 Evaluation of the Curricular Content Domain Related to Topics of Human Sexuality in Teachers of Public Elementary Schools

Authors: Ahmed Ali Asadi, Julio R. Martinez-Alvarado, Claudia V. Camacho-Guevara, J. Jesus Cabrales-Ruvalcaba, Julieta Y. Islas-Limon, Bertha M. Viñas-Velazquez

Abstract:

The transformation of education in Mexico incorporates human sexuality subjects in its study plans for elementary education level, leaving aside the training of teachers to educate on such topics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the curricular content domain related to human sexuality subjects of public elementary school teachers in Mexico. For this, a transversal descriptive-prospective study with a quantitative focus has been conducted. The population for this study consisted of 109 fifth and sixth-grade teachers from a school zone of the State Education System. It was found in the results that fifth-grade teachers got a low achievement level, sixth-grade teachers got a medium achievement level, while teachers who give classes on both grades obtained a high achievement level on domain of curricular subjects related to sexuality. Likewise, a relation of different variables with the participant’s achievement level is exposed.

Keywords: curricular content, evaluation, sexual education, teacher

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
168 Engaging With Sex, Gender and Sexuality Diversity at Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Shakila Singh

Abstract:

Dominant discourses constitute heterosexuality as natural, normal and the only legitimate sexuality, and diverse sexual subjectivities as abnormal, unnatural and socially taboo. Similarly, the cisgender subject is reified. There are ongoing debates about the inclusion and suitability of sexuality education in the school curriculum and research show that teachers are not adequately prepared to teach about such issues in the classroom. Not surprising then, that many young people enter these institutions having had limited previous exposure to, or education about, sex, gender and sexuality diversity. This paper discusses the presence of heterosexism and cissexism at multiple layers in higher education institutions, impacting students and staff. Increasing knowledge and awareness of sex, gender and sexuality diversities is also crucial to challenging existing perceptions of sex, gender and sexuality diversities that marginalise and subordinate a large proportion of students and staff. There is a persistent disjuncture between dominant discourses that generally position higher education institutions as socially progressive, open environments and the discourses that legitimate the ascendency of heterosexual and cisgender identities. This paper argues that such disjuncture must be addressed by providing inclusive physical and emotional spaces if universities are to affirm every individual and produce graduates across all disciplines with the cultural capability to engage with increasingly diverse communities. Given the key role of language in shaping cultural and social attitudes, using gender-inclusive language is a powerful way to promote gender equality and eradicate gender bias. This means speaking and writing in a way that does not discriminate against a particular sex, gender or sexual identity and does not perpetuate gender stereotypes. Individuals must be allowed to present themselves and identify in ways they choose and be addressed by their chosen pronouns.

Keywords: heteronormativity, inclusivity, gender, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
167 Delivering Comprehensive Sexuality Education to Students with Disability in Special Schools in Fiji

Authors: Sera Ratu, Jane Chivers, Jessica Botfield

Abstract:

Objectives: The Reproductive and Family Health Association of Fiji (RFHAF) and Family Planning Australia are working together to introduce quality comprehensive sexuality education into Special Schools - which are schools for students with disability. Sexual and reproductive health information is needed by students with disability attending Special Schools. Children with special needs go through the same changes as able-bodied children. The Fiji Disability Inclusion project is a three-year project that started in 2015. One of its objectives is to increase exposure to comprehensive sexuality education for primary and secondary school students with disability. Method: A baseline survey was undertaken with 72 students with disability; it included questions about puberty, sexual health, and relationships. 34 teachers also completed a survey about their views of sexuality education and confidence in delivering it. Consent was facilitated by running information sessions with teachers and parents. The process of gaining consent and completing the surveys was designed to be accessible to students with disability. Given the sensitive nature of reproductive and sexual health, and the potential vulnerability of young people with disability, ethical considerations were important in the design and implementation of the surveys, and ethics approval was obtained. Results: Findings from the surveys suggest that students have mixed knowledge and awareness of sexual health issues. Most teachers reported a need for their students to learn about sexuality and relationships. A positive outcome of conducting the surveys was that RFHAF staff reported they have developed skills and confidence in communicating with young people with a range of disabilities. They have a greater understanding of what students want to learn, and what teachers feel is important. Conclusions: These survey findings will assist RFHAF in developing comprehensive sexuality education programs that are relevant and accessible to students in Special Schools, and to develop an appropriate professional development program for teachers. Findings may also be applicable to other Special Schools when developing sexuality education programs. The education programs developed for students as part of this project, and the professional development programs for teachers, may be relevant to other countries.

Keywords: comprehensive sexuality education, delivery, sexual and reproductive health and rights, special schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
166 Sex Education: The Teacher’s Discourses About the Relation Between the Children and the Media, Concerning Sex Education and the Childhood

Authors: Katerina Samartzi

Abstract:

This study focuses on the teacher’s discourses in Greece, about the relation between the children and the media, concerning sex education and widely the childhood. The teachers’ input reflect the anxieties and the dominant discourses that exist around these issues. The study begins with the critical discussion of the available literature concerning the potential impact of media and the ‘moral panics’, their role in sex education and the children’s use of sexual material. Moreover, the study analyses the social construction of childhood and sexuality. Given the lack of explicit and official protocol for the sex education in Greece and due the fact that the young people are familiar with all the material provided by the New Media and their part as an informal education, this project aims to point out the factors that reinforce these gaps. This study focuses on the way the adults and specifically teachers contextualize the children’s relation with media, their sexuality, the sex education, the use of sexual material and the childhood.

Keywords: childhood, children's sexuality, media, moral panics, pornography, sex education

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
165 Contemporary Arabic Novel Probing the Self and the Other: A Contrapuntal Study of Identity, Sexuality, and Fundamentalism

Authors: Jihan Mahmoud

Abstract:

This paper examines the role played by Arabic novelists in revolutionary change in the Arab world, discussing themes of identity, sexuality and fundamentalism as portrayed in a selection of modern and contemporary Arabic novels that are either written in English or translated from Arabic into English. It particularly focuses on the post-Naguib Mahfouz era. Taking my cue from the current political changes in the Arab world, starting with 9/11/ terrorist attacks in the USA and the UK, the ‘Arab Spring’ revolutions, the rise of political Islam and the emergence of Isis, the Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant, the study analyses the differences in the ways contemporary Arab novelists from different Arabic countries represent the interaction between identity, sexual politics and fundamentalist ideas in the Arab world, with a specific focus on the overlap between literature, religion and international politics in the region. It argues that the post-Mahfouz era marked a new phase in the development of the political Arabic novel not only as a force of resistance against political-religious oppression, but as a call for revolution as well. Thus, the Arabic novel reshapes values and prompts future action.

Keywords: Arabic novel, Islam, politics, sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
164 A Critique of Contemporary Sexual Liberation: A Third Way Analysis

Authors: Sydelle Barreto

Abstract:

Sexual liberation has been thought of as a movement, an idea, and an antithesis of material oppression. Within feminism it has consistently resisted definition - different feminist schools of thought had entirely different constructions of what liberated feminine sexuality could look like and how we might get there. This paper will critique the current definition of sexual liberation as being limited and carceral in its perspectives of sexual assault and extremely reductive in its imaginings of sexual liberation. The ultimate goal of this assessment is to potentially outline what true sexual liberation might look like in a way that is inclusive but not ignorant of the realities of the patriarchy. The first critique of sexual liberation included in the paper centers around the limits of consent, carceral feminism and sexual subjectivity. The argument will build off the traditionally sex-negative critiques of consent as being limited in scope by explaining how a lack of nuance is even more dangerous to victims of sexual violations. The discussion will also expand an interrogant of consent to an interrogation of wantedness and desire. If we understand that critiquing the conditions of consent is important, we must also critique the way patriarchy and compulsory sexuality have affected desire. Using the aforementioned concept of compulsory sexuality, the paper will argue that while sexual liberation has begun to include queer and transgender individuals, it is still overwhelmingly allonormative. Sex positivity and its opponents both fail to include asexuality. This ultimately leads to a conflation of sexual liberation with genuine material liberation. Just as we cannot divorce our constructions of sexual liberation from the realities of the patriarchy and rape culture, we should consider compulsory sexuality as its own system of social regulation. The conclusion will begin to construct an alternative vision of sexual liberation, leveraging concepts of sexual subjectivity, including a rejection of carceral feminism as a response to sexual violence, and finally, leading to the beginnings of a deconstruction of compulsory sexuality. The paper concludes with a vision of sexual liberation that does not confuse itself with material liberation or mere sexual oppression, but rather a key way stops on the road to constructing our most authentic sexual selves.

Keywords: feminism, sexual assault, sexual liberation, consent

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
163 The Sexuality of People with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Feminist Perspective of Carer's Points of View

Authors: Etsuko Sakairi

Abstract:

In 2016 Japan started to enforce domestic legislation in the form of the Act of Elimination of Discrimination against Persons with Disability, along with ratifying the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2014. However, it is not clear what kind of situations would be considered cases of discrimination in relation to issues of sexuality according to this legislation. Furthermore, in March 2016, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) made a recommendation to the Japanese government to conduct a study of the forced sterilization of women under the Eugenic Protection Act. This research is carried out against this background in which the experiences of people with disabilities have often been restricted by caregivers and family members—as evidenced by the high number of eugenics surgeries performed on people with disabilities without their consent. This research contributes to this topic by presenting voices and perspectives of key people, especially focusing on the voices of carers who are working with people with physical disabilities in a Non-Western country, Japan. Furthermore, since 90% of the research on the topic of sexuality of people with disabilities is conducted in Western countries, the voices from Non-Western countries in this regard are greatly lacking. In the part of the research presented here, the researcher has employed a feminist disability theory to understand the circumstances surrounding people with physical disabilities. She has gathered voices from 58 carers by using an on-line questionnaire (55) and by conducting face-to-face interviews (3). In this presentation, the researcher will introduce experiences and thoughts regarding sexuality and people with disabilities by using carers’ own words. One of the major findings was carers’ concern about a boundary issue. Although each carer has had unique experiences depending on their professional or personal relationship with people with physical disabilities, many of them shared some similar viewpoints. This included a concern that assisting with the meeting of some forms of sexual needs 9e.g. assisted masturbation) would result in the possibility of transgressing the boundary between the carer and the person with physical disability. Most of the carer did not have any opportunity to receive any trainings regarding to sexuality of people with disabilities. Furthermore, most of the carers conceptualized that ‘Keeping a sexual dignity of people with disabilities’ means practicing a ‘Principle of same sex assistance’. The researcher hopes that this presentation provides an opportunity for audiences to look back at their own community and to think about what sexuality of people with physical disabilities means to their carers as well as to look back at their own practice in relation to this issue.

Keywords: Carer, Japan, physical disabilities, sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
162 Cultural and Group Understandings of Disability and Sexuality

Authors: Luke Galvani

Abstract:

The cultural representations of people with disabilities are frequently biased which can lead to a general misunderstanding of disability. Representations of disabled deviance are especially problematic given that they typify or generally abstract disability as being abnormal, which then begin to take root in the cultural mind. This study utilizes critical discourse analysis to investigate how discourses of disabled sexual deviance are promoted within two major films that portray disabled sexual subjects. The findings indicate that perceptions of disabled sexual deviance are heightened by cinematic representations of sex and disability, which characterize disabled sexual expression as being undesirable due to the ephemeral and abnormal qualities ascribed to it.

Keywords: deviance, disability, discourse analysis, sexuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
161 We Cannot Cross Our Limits: Sexuality and Desire in Urban Pakistani Youth's Gendered Performance

Authors: Shirin Zubair

Abstract:

Keeping in view the segregation of space(s) experienced by young women and men at puberty in Pakistan and the socially constructed and performative aspect of gender identity by Western theorists of gender and self, this paper will explore Pakistani youth’s differential, gendered performances. Specifically focused on Pakistani youth’s perceptions and experiences of sexuality, extramarital and same-sex relationships in constructing and performing gendered identities as manifested through their talk, the research will also draw upon recent theories of space in cultural studies and postcolonial discourses. The data cited has been culled from two different studies conducted at universities in the city of Multan. Informal, unstructured group discussions of women and men aged between twenty and twenty nine years of age were recorded separately among groups of friends and cohorts studying at two different universities. The findings clearly show both young women and men doing the boundary work in identity construction in private and public spaces: talking of sexuality, sexual desire and sexual relationships, women tend to safely couch their articulations in euphemisms: distance themselves from the Western concepts of sexual liberation ; while young men’s exhibitionism in boasting of their sexual prowess and sexual encounters as well as the use of sexually explicit and tabooed words frequently in their intimate conversations shows a clear departure from and a contestation of the normative public discourses. Further the findings illustrate that young men conform to the patriarchal ideologies by constructing heterosexual identities whereas young women initiate discourse on same-sex relationships. The data also reveals that the private identities of these young Pakistanis are different from their public identities, as it is in their intimate conversations and private (or safe) spaces that they talk about their pre-marital sexual activities and love affairs. These intimate and safe spaces thus emerge as subversion and contestation of their public identity, as sex and sexuality are tabooed subjects in public discourses.

Keywords: sexuality, gender, identity, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
160 Sexual Behaviors and Its Predictors among Iranian Women in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zahra Karimian, Effat Merghati Khoei, Raziyeh Maasoumi

Abstract:

Background: Women's sexual well-being is center of focus in the field of sexology. Study of sexual behavior and investigating its predictors is important in women's health promotion. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the components of sexual behaviors and their possible associations with the women's demographic. Methods: A National Sexual Behavior Assessment Questionnaire was administered to 500 women ages 15 to 45 who referred to the public health centers seeking for health care services. The associations with demographic were examined. Results: From all participant, 31.8% of women obtain high score in the sexual capacity 21.2% in sexual motivation and 0.2% in sexual function. In sexual script component, 86.2% of women were holding traditional beliefs toward sexual behaviors; the majority (91.5%) of women believed in mutual and relational sexuality, 83.4% believed in androcentricity (male-dominated sexuality). Pearson correlation test showed significant positive correlations between sexual capacity, motivation, function and sexual script (p < 0.05). Regression model showed that sexual capacity is associated with women's education, age of her spouse. Sexual function and sexual motivation were significantly associated with the age of subjects' spouses. Conclusion: In this study, lower score was found in sexual performance while women were scored higher in the sexual capacity and motivation. We argue that these lower score in sexual performance more likely is due to the level of participants' religiosity and formation of their sexuality through an androcentric culture. Women's level of education and the spouse age appear to be predicting factors in the scores the subjects gained. We suggest that gender-specific and culturally sensitive sexuality education should be focus of women's health programs in Iran.

Keywords: sexual behaviors, women, health, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
159 Gender and Sexual Education in Morocco

Authors: Zouhair Gassim

Abstract:

The reconfiguration of representations of women's bodies as a "chest of pregnancies", the growing commitment of their bodies to the decision of pregnancies previously monopolized by men, the emergence of new practices of the bodies of men and women suggest that the borders between the masculine and the feminine in Morocco are moving. However, the persistence of sexual violence against girls/women indicates that these changes did not contribute to the lifting of the men's control over the bodies of women. This paper aims to analyze the lessons learned about sex education as a discourse related to the fabric of bodies in relation to sexuality in school in order to understand to what extent this institution contributes to the (re) production of gender inequalities. As a result, the educational discourse on sexuality still remains one of the spaces of resistance against gender equality and thus contributes to the (re) production of gender inequalities.

Keywords: gender, sexual education, Morocco, educational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
158 Transgender Practices as Queer Politics: African a Variant

Authors: Adekeye Joshua Temitope

Abstract:

“Transgender” presents a complexion of ambiguity in the African context and it remains a contested topography in the discourse of sexual identity. The casts and stigmatisations towards transgender unveils vital facts and intricacies often ignored in the academic communities; the problems and oppressions of given sex/gender system, the constrain of monogamy and ignorance of fluidity of human sexuality thereby generating dual discords of “enforced heterosexual” and “unavoidable homosexual.” The African culture voids transgender movements and perceive same-sex sexual behavior as “taboo or bad habits” and this provide reasonable explanations for the failure of asserting for the sexual rights in GLBT movement in most discourse on sexuality in the African context. However, we could not deny the real existence of active flowing and fluidity of human sexuality even though its variants could be latent. The incessant consciousness of the existence of transgender practices in Africa either in form of bisexual desire or bisexual behavior with or without sexual identity, including people who identify themselves as bisexual opens up the vision for us to reconsider and reexamine what constitutes such ambiguity and controversy of transgender identity at present time. The notion of identity politics in gay, lesbian, and transgender community has its complexity and debates in its historical development. This paper analyses the representation of the historical trajectory of transgender practices by presenting the dynamic transition of how people cognize transgender practices under different historical conditions since the understanding of historical transition of bisexual practices would be very crucial and meaningful for gender/sexuality liberation movement at present time and in the future. The paper did a juxtaposition of the trajectories of bisexual practices between Anglo-American world and Africa, as it has certain similarities and differences within diverse historical complexities. The similar condition is the emergence of gay identity under the influence of capitalism but within different cultural context. Therefore, the political economy of each cultural context plays very important role in understanding the formation of sexual identities historically and its development and influence for the GLBT movement afterwards and in the future. By reexamining Kinsey’s categorization and applying Klein’s argument on individual’s sexual orientation this paper is poised to break the given and fixed connection among sexual behavior/sexual orientation/sexual identity, on the other hand to present the potential fluidity of human sexuality by reconsidering and reexamining the present given sex/gender system in our world. The paper concludes that it is obligatory for the essentialist and exclusionary trend at this historical moment since gay and lesbian communities in Africa need to clearly demonstrate and voice for themselves under the nuances of gender/sexuality liberation.

Keywords: heterosexual, homosexual, identity politics, queer politics, transgender

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
157 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude towards End of Life Care among Nurses Working in Tertiary Hospital

Authors: Emni Omar Daw Hussin, Pathmawathi Subramanian, Wong Li Ping

Abstract:

Background: To provide quality care at the end of life, nurses should possess knowledge and skills to provide effective end-of-life care, as well as develop the attitudes and interpersonal competence to provide compassionate care. Aim: This study aimed to assess nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards end of life care and caring for terminal ill patients and to examine relationships among demographic variables and nurse’s knowledge and attitudes toward end of life care and caring for terminal ill patients. Method: a cross-sectional study was conducted at 1 tertiary hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Self-administrative questionnaire was used to collect data from 553 nurses from over all departments except emergency department, operation theater and outpatient clinic. Two tools were used in this study, the Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale to assess the nurses’ attitude and End of Life Knowledge Assessment to assess the nurses’ knowledge. Result: the result of this study yielded that, the majority of participants (54.8%) and (54.4%) have less positive attitude and knowledge towards end of life care and caring for terminal ill patients respectively. As well as there is no significant relationship were found between nurses’ ethnicity, religion, and the total score of FATCOD scale; End of Life Knowledge Assessment score. On other hand there is significant relationship among nurses’ age, working experience, level of education, attending any post basic courses and the total score of both FATCOD scale and End of Life Knowledge Assessment. Conclusion: A lack of education and experience and post basic course about end of life care and palliative care may contribute to the negative attitudes and poor knowledge regarding end of life care. Providing sufficient courses about end of life care could enhance the nurses’ knowledge towards end of life care, as well as providing a reflective narrative environment in which nurses can express their personal feelings about death and dying could be a potentially effective approach. Implication for Practice: This study elaborates the need for further research to develop an effective educational programs to enhance nurses’ knowledge and to promote positive attitude towards death and dying, as well as enhance communication skills, and coping strategies.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, nurse, end of life care

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
156 Nursing Experience of Helping the Mother of a Dying Baby by Applying Watson's Theory of Human Caring

Authors: Ya-Ping Chang

Abstract:

Starting from the early stages of pregnancy, parents begin to form hopes and dreams about the future of their child. They will think about the appearance and personality of their child and may even develop many expectations. The patient in this study experienced a successful pregnancy following multiple attempts at artificial insemination. However, due to arrested embryonic development, and based on the physician’s evaluation, a caesarean section was performed at week 25. However, the baby suffered from infections and subsequently died from multiple organ failures. This study collected and analyzed objective and subjective data through observation, interviews, recording, and interactions with the patient. The following nursing issues of the patient were identified: anxiety, anticipatory grief, and adjustment disorder. The psychology of caring as proposed in Watson’s theory was applied to address these nursing issues. Comprehensive and continuous care was provided to the patient on the basis of mutual trust and individual nursing guidelines in order to alleviate the patient’s anxiety, help her to cope with grief, and prepare her for the eventual death of her child. The author helped the patient to say goodbye to her child and accept the child’s death calmly, such that she had no regrets about the experience. This nursing experience may serve as a reference to nurses managing similar cases in the future.

Keywords: dying baby, mother, grief, Watson’s theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 98