Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Małgorzata Jakubowska

19 Dying and Sexuality − Controversial Motive in Contemporary Cinema

Authors: Małgorzata Jakubowska, Monika Michałowska


Since the beginning of the cinematographic industry, there has been a visible interest in two leading themes: death and sexuality. One of the reasons of the unfading popularity of these motives was the fact that death or sex employed as leitmotivs attracted great attention of the viewers, and this guaranteed a financial success. What seems interesting is the fact that the themes of death and sexuality/eroticism seem to be mutually exclusive in the mainstream movies to such extent that they almost never appear together on the screen. As leitmotivs they describe opposite experiences of human life, one refers to affirmation of life, the other points to atrophy and decay. This film paradigm is rarely challenged. Thus, a relatively less attention has been devoted so far to entwining dying and sexuality/eroticism in one movie. In our paper, we wish to have a closer look at the visualizations of dying with focus on the aspect of sexuality/eroticism. Our analysis will concentrate on the contemporary European and American cinema, and especially the recent productions that contribute to the cultural phenomenon of entwining the two realms of human life. We will investigate the main clichés, plot and visual schemes, motives and narrative techniques on the examples of Sweet November (2001), A Little Bit of Heaven (2011) and Now is good (2012). We will also shed some light on the recent film productions that seem to provide a shift in portraying the realms of dying and sexuality concentrating on The Garden of Earthly Delights (2003) as the most paradigmatic example.

Keywords: contemporary cinema, dying and sexuality, narrative techniques, plot and visual schemes

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18 Technological Properties and Characterization of Ceramic Slurries Based on Yttrium Iii Oxide for Shell Moulds Preparation

Authors: D. Jakubowska, M. Malek, P. Wisniewski, J. Mizera, K. J. Kurzydlowski


The goal of this study was to analyze the technological properties of ceramic slurries based on Ytttria (Y2O3) for fabrication “prime coat” in ceramic shell moulds for investment casting process. The Yttria with two different granulation of (200# and 325#) in ratio-65%-35% by weight were used for preparation the ceramic slurries. Solid phase was 77 wt.%. The experiment was carried out for 96h. Main technological properties like: viscosity, pH, plate weight test, and density were measured every 24h. Additionally, dynamic viscosity was performed after 96h of test. For further material characterization SEM observations, Zeta potential, XRD measurements were done. Those research showed that Yttria ceramic slurries had very promising properties and there are perspective for future fabrication.

Keywords: ceramic slurries, mechanizal properties, viscosity, fabrication

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17 Great Art for Little Children - Games in School Education as Integration of Polish-Language, Eurhythmics, Artistic and Mathematical Subject Matter

Authors: Małgorzata Anna Karczmarzyk


Who is the contemporary child? What are his/her distinctive features making him/her different from earlier generations? And how to teach in the dissimilar social reality? These questions will constitute the key to my reflections on contemporary early school education. For, to my mind, games have become highly significant for the modern model of education. There arise publications and research employing games to increase competence both in business, tutoring, or coaching, as well as in academic education . Thanks to games students and subordinates can be taught such abilities as problem thinking, creativity, consistent fulfillment of goals, resourcefulness and skills of communication.

Keywords: games, art, children, school education, integration

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16 Fluorescent Imaging with Hoechst 34580 and Propidium Iodide in Determination of Toxic Changes of Cyanobacterial Oligopeptides in Rotifers

Authors: Adam Bownik, Małgorzata Adamczuk, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska


Certain strains of cyanobacteria, microorganisms forming water blooms, produce toxic secondary metabolites. Although various effects of cyanotoxins in aquatic animals are known, little data can be found on the influence of some cyanobacterial oligopeptides beyond microcystins. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of novel pure cyanobacterial oligopeptides: microginin FR-1 (MGFR1) and anabaenopeptin-A (ANA-A) on a transparent model rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus with the use of fluorescent double staining with Hoechst 34580 and propidium iodide. The obtained results showed that both studied oligopeptides decreased the fluorescence intensity of animals stained with Hoechst 34580 in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, a concentration-dependent increase of propidium iodide fluorescence was noted in the exposed rotifers. The results suggest that MGFR-1 and ANA-A should be considered as a potent toxic agent to freshwater rotifers, and fluorescent staining with Hoechst and propidium iodide may be a valuable tool for determination of toxicity of cyanobacterial oligopeptides in rotifers.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, brachionus, oligopeptides, fluorescent staining, hoechst, propidium iodide

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15 Implementation of Modern Information Technologies in B2C Marketing Activity and the Implementation of Pro-Environmental Goals of Enterprises

Authors: Małgorzata Łęgowik-Małolepsza


The articlediscusses the problem related to the use of modern informationtechnologies to achieve pro-environmental marketing goals in B2C relationships. The topicisimportant and topicaldue to the strongsocialneed to implement the concept of sustainable development. The aim of the articleis to understand and evaluate the possibilities of implementing modern informationtechnologies, such as CRM platforms, in the area of implementing marketing activities of companiesoperating in the Business to Customer model. In B2C relations, marketing departmentsstruggle with problemsresulting from the need for quickcustomersegmentation and the fragmentation of data existing in manysystems, whichsignificantlyhinders the achievement of the assumed marketing goals.Therefore, the articleproposes the use of modern informationtechnologysolutions in the area of marketing activities of enterprises, takingintoaccounttheir pro-environmentalgoals. The most importantresults of the researchcarried out includean in-depthunderstanding of the possibilities of implementing modern informationtechnologies to achieve marketing goals in B2C relationships. Moreover, a betterunderstanding of the coexistence of opportunities and threatsrelated to the implementation of marketing activities, takingintoaccount pro-environmentalgoals, and modern technologies, allows for moreeffectiveimplementation of sustainable development management in enterprises. The methodsused to achieve the goalare: literaturestudies, descriptiveanalysis, and casestudy. The studycontributes to the discussion on the scope of application of modern informationtechnologies in the area of B2C marketing activity takingintoaccount the implementation of pro-environmentalgoals of enterprises.

Keywords: business to customer model, pro-environmental activities, information technologies, marketing management

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14 Postprandial Satiety, Sweets Intake, Physical Activity, and Depressive Symptoms in Relation to Rs9939609 Polymorphism of the FTO Gene

Authors: Małgorzata Wrzosek, Nina Baruch, Beata Jabłonowska-Lietz


Background: The fat mass & obesity-associated (FTO) gene is linked to an increased risk of obesity. However, the relation between rs9939609 and eating behaviors or energy expenditure is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene and the postprandial satiety, sweets intake, physical activity and depressive symptoms in patients with obesity. Methods: The study group consisted of 585 subjects with a BMI of 42.97.0 kg/m². The rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene was examined using real time – PCR method. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Information was obtained about demographics, eating habits and lifestyle. Results: More than half (63.5%) of the patients reported consumption of sweets between main meals and 30% declared high and very high postprandial satiety and the frequency of TA/AA carriers in rs9939609 (FTO) compared with TT carriers was similar. Significantly lower BDI-II scores were found in subjects with higher level of physical activity and it was seen amongst patients with the AA and AT genotypes of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism. Conclusion: Obesity is a highly heritable trait, but eating habits also appear as major factors affecting obesity development.

Keywords: FTO polymorphism, physical activity, obesity, depression, postprandial satiety, sugary foods, sweets

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13 Gender Differences in Adolescent Avatars: Gender Consistency and Masculinity-Femininity of Nicknames and Characters

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Małgorzata Holda


Choosing an avatar's gender in a computer game is one of the key elements in the process of creating an online identity. The selection of a male or female avatar can define the entirety of subsequent decisions regarding both appearance and behavior. However, when the most popular games available for the Nintendo console in 1998 were analyzed, it turned out that 41% of computer games did not have female characters. Nowadays, players create their avatars based mainly on binary gender classification, with male and female characters to choose from. The main aim of the poster is to explore gender differences in adolescent avatars. 130 adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They created their avatars and then played a computer game. The creation of the avatar was based on the choice of gender, then physical and mental characteristics. Data on gender consistency (consistency between participant’s sex and gender selected for the avatar) and masculinity-femininity of avatar nicknames and appearance will be presented. The masculinity-femininity of avatar nicknames and appearance was assessed by expert raters on a very masculine to very feminine scale. Additionally, data on the relationships of the perceived levels of masculinity-femininity with hostility-friendliness and the intelligence of avatars will be shown. The dimensions of hostility-friendliness and intelligence were also assessed by expert raters on scales ranging from very hostile to very friendly and from very low intelligence to very high intelligence.

Keywords: gender, avatar, adolescence, computer games

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12 Study on Temperature Distribution throughout the Continuous Casting Process of Copper Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Paweł Strzępek, Małgorzata Zasadzińska, Szymon Kordaszewski, Wojciech Ściężor


The constant tendency toward the materials properties improvement nowadays creates opportunities for the scientists, and furthermore the manufacturers all over the world to design, form and produce new alloys almost every day. Considering the fact that companies all over the world look for alloys with the highest values of mechanical properties coexisting with a reasonable electrical conductivity made it necessary to develop new materials based on copper, such as copper magnesium alloys with over 2 wt. % of Mg. Though, before such new material may be mass produced it must undergo a series of tests in order to determine the production technology and its parameters. The presented study is based on the numerical simulations calculated with the use of finite element method analysis, where the geometry of the cooling system, the material used to produce the cooling system and the surface quality of the graphite crystallizer at the place of contact with the cooling system and its influence on the temperatures throughout the continuous casting process is being investigated. The calculated simulations made it possible to propose the optimal set of equipment necessary for the continuous casting process to be carried out in laboratory conditions with various casting parameters and to determine basic materials properties of the obtained alloys such as hardness, electrical conductivity and homogeneity of the chemical composition. The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by The National Centre for Research and Development – Research Project No. LIDER/33/0121/L-11/19/NCBR/2020.

Keywords: CuMg alloys, continuous casting, temperature analysis, finite element method

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11 Social Aspect of Energy Transition in Frankfurt

Authors: Aly Ahmed, Aber Kay Obwona, Mokrzecka Martyna, Piotrowska Małgorzata, Richardson Stephen


Frankfurt am Main, the fifth largest city in Germany, ranked at 15th place by the Global Financial Centers Index in 2014, and a finalist of European Green Capital, 214 is a crucial player in German Environmental Policy. Since 2012 the city Authorities have been working on implementing the plan, which assumed to reduce the energy consumption by 50%, and fully switch to renewable energy by the year 2050. To achieve this goal, the Municipality of Frankfurt has begun preparing the Master plan, which will be introduced to public by the end of 2015. A significant question when facing the starting of Master Plan public’s introduction was deciding which method should be used to increase the public engagement. In order to answer this question, the city and region authorities in the cooperation with Frankfurt’s Universities and Climate KIC, organized a two-week PhD scientific workshops, in which participated more than 30 students from numerous countries. The paper presented the outcome of the research and solution proposal of the winning team. Transitions theory tells, that to address challenges as complex as Climate Change and the Energiewende, using of new technologies and system to the public is not sufficient. Transition –by definition is a process, and in such a large scale (city and region transition) can be fulfilled only, when operates within a broad socio – technical system. Authors believe that only by close cooperation with city dwellers, as well as different stakeholders, the Transition in Frankfurt can be successful. The vital part is the strategy which will ensure the engagement, sense of ownership and broad support within Frankfurt society. Author proposal based therefore, on fostering the citizens engagement through a comprehensive, innovative communication strategy.

Keywords: city development, communication strategies, social transition, sustainability

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10 Mikrophonie I (1964) by Karlheinz Stockhausen - Between Idea and Auditory Image

Authors: Justyna Humięcka-Jakubowska


1. Background in music analysis. Traditionally, when we think about a composer’s sketches, the chances are that we are thinking in terms of the working out of detail, rather than the evolution of an overall concept. Since music is a “time art’, it follows that questions of a form cannot be entirely detached from considerations of time. One could say that composers tend to regard time either as a place gradually and partially intuitively filled, or they can look for a specific strategy to occupy it. In my opinion, one thing that sheds light on Stockhausen's compositional thinking is his frequent use of 'form schemas', that is often a single-page representation of the entire structure of a piece. 2. Background in music technology. Sonic Visualiser is a program used to study a musical recording. It is an open source application for viewing, analysing, and annotating music audio files. It contains a number of visualisation tools, which are designed with useful default parameters for musical analysis. Additionally, the Vamp plugin format of SV supports to provide analysis such as for example structural segmentation. 3. Aims. The aim of my paper is to show how SV may be used to obtain a better understanding of the specific musical work, and how the compositional strategy does impact on musical structures and musical surfaces. I want to show that ‘traditional” music analytic methods don’t allow to indicate interrelationships between musical surface (which is perceived) and underlying musical/acoustical structure. 4. Main Contribution. Stockhausen had dealt with the most diverse musical problems by the most varied methods. A characteristic which he had never ceased to be placed at the center of his thought and works, it was the quest for a new balance founded upon an acute connection between speculation and intuition. In the case with Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam and 6 players Stockhausen makes a distinction between the "connection scheme", which indicates the ground rules underlying all versions, and the form scheme, which is associated with a particular version. The preface to the published score includes both the connection scheme, and a single instance of a "form scheme", which is what one can hear on the CD recording. In the current study, the insight into the compositional strategy chosen by Stockhausen was been compared with auditory image, that is, with the perceived musical surface. Stockhausen's musical work is analyzed both in terms of melodic/voice and timbre evolution. 5. Implications The current study shows how musical structures have determined of musical surface. My general assumption is this, that while listening to music we can extract basic kinds of musical information from musical surfaces. It is shown that an interactive strategies of musical structure analysis can offer a very fruitful way of looking directly into certain structural features of music.

Keywords: automated analysis, composer's strategy, mikrophonie I, musical surface, stockhausen

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9 The Influence of Phosphate Fertilizers on Radiological Situation of Cultivated Lands: ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs Concentrations in Soil

Authors: Grzegorz Szaciłowski, Marta Konop, Małgorzata Dymecka, Jakub Ośko


In 1996, the European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM pointed phosphate fertilizers to have a potentially negative influence on the environment from the radiation protection point of view. Fertilizers along with irrigation and crop rotation were the milestones that allowed to increase agricultural productivity. Firstly based on natural materials such as compost, manure, fish processing waste, etc., and since the 19th century created synthetically, fertilizers caused a boom in crop yield and helped to propel global food production, especially after World War II. In this work the concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ⁴⁰K, and ¹³⁷Cs in selected fertilizers and soil samples were determined. The results were used to calculate the annual addition of natural radionuclides and increment of the external radiation exposure caused by the use of studied fertilizers. Soils intended for different types of crops were sampled in early spring when no vegetation had occurred yet. Analysed fertilizers were those with which the soil was previously fertilized. For gamma radionuclides, a high purity germanium detector GX3520 from Canberra was used. The polonium concentration was determined by radiochemical separation followed by measurement by means of alpha spectrometry. The spectrometer used in this study was equipped with 450 cm² PIPS detector from Canberra. Obtained results showed significant differences in radionuclide composition between phosphate and nitrogenous fertilizers (e.g. the radium equivalent activity for phosphate fertilizer was 207.7 Bq/kg in comparison to <5.6 Bq/kg for nitrogenous fertilizer). The calculated increase of external radiation exposure due to use of phosphate fertilizer ranged between 3.4 and 5.4 nG/h, which represents up to 10% of the polish average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation (45 nGy/h).

Keywords: ²¹⁰Po, alpha spectrometry, exposure, gamma spectrometry, phosphate fertilizer, soil

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8 Shaping and Improving the Human Resource Management in Small and Medium Enterprises in Poland

Authors: Małgorzata Smolarek


One of the barriers to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are difficulties connected with management of human resources. The first part of article defines the specifics of staff management in small and medium enterprises. The practical part presents results of own studies in the area of diagnosis of the state of the human resources management in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. It takes into account its impact on the functioning of SME in a variable environment. This part presents findings of empirical studies, which enabled verification of the hypotheses and formulation of conclusions. The findings presented in this paper were obtained during the implementation of the project entitled 'Tendencies and challenges in strategic managing SME in Silesian Voivodeship.' The aim of the studies was to diagnose the state of strategic management and human resources management taking into account its impact on the functioning of small and medium enterprises operating in Silesian Voivodeship in Poland and to indicate improvement areas of the model under diagnosis. One of the specific objectives of the studies was to diagnose the state of the process of strategic management of human resources and to identify fundamental problems. In this area, the main hypothesis was formulated: The enterprises analysed do not have comprehensive strategies for management of human resources. The survey was conducted by questionnaire. Main Research Results: Human resource management in SMEs is characterized by simplicity of procedures, and the lack of sophisticated tools and its specificity depends on the size of the company. The process of human resources management in SME has to be adjusted to the structure of an organisation, result from its objectives, so that an organisation can fully implement its strategic plans and achieve success and competitive advantage on the market. A guarantee of success is an accurately developed policy of human resources management based on earlier analyses of the existing procedures and possessed human resources.

Keywords: human resources management, human resources policy, personnel strategy, small and medium enterprises

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7 Assessment of Platelet and Lymphocyte Interaction in Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism

Authors: Małgorzata Tomczyńska, Joanna Saluk-Bijak


Background: Graves’ disease is a frequent organ-specific autoimmune thyroid disease, which characterized by the presence of different kind autoantibodies, that, in most cases, act as agonists of the thyrotropin receptor, leading to hyperthyroidism. Role of platelets and lymphocytes can be modulated in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Interference in the physiology of platelets can lead to enhanced activity of these cells. Activated platelets can bind to circulating lymphocytes and to affect lymphocyte adhesion. Platelets and lymphocytes can regulate mutual functions. Therefore, the activation of T lymphocytes, as well as blood platelets, is associated with the development of inflammation and oxidative stress within the target tissue. The present study was performed to investigate a platelet-lymphocyte relation by assessing the degree of their mutual aggregation in whole blood of patients with Graves’ disease. Also, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of platelet interaction on lymphocyte migration capacity. Methods: 30 patients with Graves’ disease were recruited in the study. The matched 30 healthy subjects were served as the control group. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was carried out by flow cytometry method. A CytoSelect™ Cell Migration Assay Kit was used to evaluate lymphocyte migration and adhesion to blood platelets. Visual assessment of lymphocyte-platelet aggregate morphology was done using confocal microscope after magnetic cell isolation by Miltenyi Biotec. Results: The migration and functional responses of lymphocytes to blood platelets were greater in the group of Graves’ disease patients compared with healthy controls. The group of Graves’ disease patients exhibited a reduced T lymphocyte and a higher B cell count compared with controls. Based on microscopic analysis, more platelet-lymphocyte aggregates were found in patients than in control. Conclusions: Studies have shown that in Graves' disease, lymphocytes show increased platelet affinity, more strongly migrating toward them, and forming mutual cellular conglomerates. This may be due to the increased activation of blood platelets in this disease.

Keywords: blood platelets, cell migration, Graves’ disease, lymphocytes, lymphocyte-platelet aggregates

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6 Impact of Expressive Writing on Creativity

Authors: Małgorzata Osowiecka


Negative emotions are rather seen as creativity inhibitor. On the other hand, it is worth noting that negative emotions may be good for our functioning. Negative emotions enhance cognitive resources and improve evaluative processes. Moreover maintaining a negative emotional state allow for cognitive reinterpretation of the emotional stimuli, what is good for our creativity, especially cognitive flexibility. Writing a diary or writing about difficult emotional experiences in general can be the way to not only improve psychical health, but also – enhance creative behaviors. Thanks to translating difficult emotions to the verbal level and giving them ‘a name’ or ‘a label’, we can get easier access to both emotional content of an experience and to the semantic content, without the need of speaking out loud. Expressive writing improves academic results and the efficiency of working memory. The classical method of writing about emotions consists in a long-term process of describing negative experiences. Present research demonstrate the efficiency of this process over a shorter period of time - one writing session, on school children sample. Participants performed writing task. Writing task had two different topics: emotions connected with their negative emotions (expressive writing) and content not connected with negative emotional state (writing about one’s typical day). Creativity was measured by Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. Results have shown that writing about negative emotions results in the higher level of divergent thinking in all three parameters: fluency, flexibility and originality. After the writing task mood of expressive writing participants remained negative more than the mood of the controls. Taking an expressive action after a difficult emotional experience can support functioning, which can be observed in enhancement of divergent thinking. Writing about emotions connected with negative experience makes one more creative, than writing about something unrelated with difficult emotional moments. Research has shown that young people should not demonize negative emotions. Sometimes, properly applied, negative emotions can be the basis of creation. Preparation was supported by a The Young Scientist University grant titled ‘Dynamics of emotions in the creative process’ from The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: creativity, divergent thinking, emotions, expressive writing

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5 Relationship between Prolonged Timed up and Go Test and Worse Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Factors Profile in a Population Aged 60-65 Years

Authors: Bartłomiej K. Sołtysik, Agnieszka Guligowska, Łukasz Kroc, Małgorzata Pigłowska, Elizavetta Fife, Tomasz Kostka


Introduction: Functional capacity is one of the basic determinants of health in older age. Functional capacity may be influenced by multiple disorders, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence regarding the association of functional status and cardiometabolic risk factors. Aim: The aim of this research is to check possible association between functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factor in a group of younger seniors. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 300 participants aged 60-65 years (50% were women). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, uric acid, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and blood pressure were measured. Smoking status and physical activity level (by Seven Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire ) were analysed. Functional status was assessed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test. The data were compared according to gender, and then separately for both sexes regarding prolonged TUG score (>7 s). The limit of significance was set at p≤0.05 for all analyses. Results: Women presented with higher serum lipids and longer TUG. Men had higher blood pressure, glucose, uric acid, the prevalence of hypertension and history of heart infarct. In women group, those with prolonged TUG displayed significantly higher obesity rate (BMI, WHTR), uric acid, hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD), but lower physical activity level, TC or LDL-C. Men with prolonged TUG were heavier smokers, had higher TG, lower HDL and presented with higher prevalence of diabetes and IHD. Discussion: This study shows association between functional status and risk profile of cardiometabolic disorders. In women, the relationship of lower functional status to cardiometabolic diseases may be mediated by overweight/obesity. In men, locomotor problems may be related to smoking. Higher education level may be considered as a protective factor regardless of gender.

Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, functional capacity, TUG test, seniors

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4 The Role of Situational Attribution Training in Reducing Automatic In-Group Stereotyping in Females

Authors: Olga Mironiuk, Małgorzata Kossowska


The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Situational Attribution Training on reducing automatic in-group stereotyping in females. The experiment was conducted with the control of age and level of prejudice. 90 female participants were randomly assigned to two conditions: experimental and control group (each group was also divided into younger- and older-aged condition). Participants from the experimental condition were subjected to more extensive training. In the first part of the experiment, the experimental group took part in the first session of Situational Attribution Training while the control group participated in the Grammatical Training Control. In the second part of the research both groups took part in the Situational Attribution Training (which was considered as the second training session for the experimental group and the first one for the control condition). The training procedure was based on the descriptions of ambiguous situations which could be explained using situational or dispositional attributions. The participant’s task was to choose the situational explanation from two alternatives, out of which the second one presented the explanation based on neutral or stereotypically associated with women traits. Moreover, the experimental group took part in the third training session after two- day time delay, in order to check the persistence of the training effect. The main hypothesis stated that among participants taking part in the more extensive training, the automatic in-group stereotyping would be less frequent after having finished training sessions. The effectiveness of the training was tested by measuring the response time and the correctness of answers: the longer response time for the examples where one of two possible answers was based on the stereotype trait and higher correctness of answers was considered to be a proof of the training effectiveness. As the participants’ level of prejudice was controlled (using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory), it was also assumed that the training effect would be weaker for participants revealing a higher level of prejudice. The obtained results did not confirm the hypothesis based on the response time: participants from the experimental group responded faster in case of situations where one of the possible explanations was based on stereotype trait. However, an interesting observation was made during the analysis of the answers’ correctness: regardless the condition and age group affiliation, participants made more mistakes while choosing the situational explanations when the alternative was based on stereotypical trait associated with the dimension of warmth. What is more, the correctness of answers was higher in the third training session for the experimental group in case when the alternative of situational explanation was based on the stereotype trait associated with the dimension of competence. The obtained results partially confirm the effectiveness of the training.

Keywords: female, in-group stereotyping, prejudice, situational attribution training

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3 Comparative Study for Neonatal Outcome and Umbilical Cord Blood Gas Parameters in Balanced and Inhalant Anesthesia for Elective Cesarean Section in Dogs

Authors: Agnieszka Antończyk, MałGorzata Ochota, Wojciech Niżański, ZdzisłAw Kiełbowicz


The goal of the cesarean section (CS) is the delivery of healthy, vigorous pups with the provision of surgical plane anesthesia, appropriate analgesia, and rapid recovery of the dam. In human medicine, spinal or epidural anesthesia is preferred for a cesarean section as associated with a lower risk of neonatal asphyxia and the need for resuscitation. Nevertheless, the specificity of veterinary patients makes the application of regional anesthesia as a sole technique impractical, thus to obtain patient compliance the general anesthesia is required. This study aimed to compare the influence of balanced (inhalant with epidural) and inhalant anesthesia on neonatal umbilical cord blood gas (UCBG) parameters and vitality (modified Apgar scoring). The bitches (31) undergoing elective CS were enrolled in this study. All females received a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg s.c. Meloxicam. Females were randomly assigned into two groups: Gr I (Isoflurane, n=16) and Gr IE (Isoflurane plus Epidural, n=15). Anesthesia was induced with propofol at 4-6 mg/kg to effect, and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen; in IE group epidural anesthesia was also done using lidocaine (3-4 mg/kg) into the lumbosacral space. CSs were performed using a standard mid-line approach. Directly after the puppy extraction, the umbilical cord was double clamped before the placenta detachment. The vessels were gently stretched between forceps to allow blood sampling. At least 100 mcl of mixed umbilical cord blood was collected into a heparinized syringe for further analysis. The modified Apgar scoring system (AS) was used to objectively score neonatal health and vitality immediately after birth (before first aid or neonatal care was instituted), at 5 and 20 min after birth. The neonates were scored as normal (AS 7-10), weak (AS 4-6), or critical (AS 0-3). During surgery, the IE group required a lower isoflurane concentration compared to the females in group I (MAC 1.05±0.2 and 1.4±0.13, respectively, p<0.01). All investigated UCBG parameters were not statistically different between groups. All pups had mild acidosis (pH 7.21±0.08 and 7.21±0.09 in Gr I and IE, respectively) with moderately elevated pCO2 (Gr I 57.18±11.48, Gr IE 58.74±15.07), HCO3- on the lower border (Gr I 22.58±3.24, Gr IE 22.83±3.6), lowered BE (Gr I -6.1±3.57, Gr IE -5.6±4.19) and mildly elevated level of lactates (Gr I 2.58±1.48, Gr IE2.53±1.03). The glucose levels were above the reference limits in both groups of puppies (74.50±25.32 in Gr I, 79.50±29.73 in Gr IE). The initial Apgar score results were similar in I and IE groups. However, the subsequent measurements of AS revealed significant differences between both groups. Puppies from the IE group received better AS scores at 5 and 20 min compared to the I group (6.86±2.23 and 8.06±2.06 vs 5.11±2.40 and 7.83±2.05, respectively). The obtained results demonstrated that administration of epidural anesthesia reduced the requirement for isoflurane in dams undergoing cesarean section and did not affect the neonatal umbilical blood gas results. Moreover, newborns from the epidural anesthesia group were scored significantly higher in AS at 5 and 20 min, indicating their better vitality and quicker improvement post-surgery.

Keywords: apgar scoring, balanced anesthesia, cesarean section, umbilical blood gas

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2 Characteristics of Bio-hybrid Hydrogel Materials with Prolonged Release of the Model Active Substance as Potential Wound Dressings

Authors: Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta, Dagmara Malina, Małgorzata Miastkowska


In recent years, biocompatible hydrogels have been used more and more in medical applications, especially as modern dressings and drug delivery systems. The main goal of this research was the characteristics of bio-hybrid hydrogel materials incorporated with the nanocarrier-drug system, which enable the release in a gradual and prolonged manner, up to 7 days. Therefore, the use of such a combination will provide protection against mechanical damage and adequate hydration. The proposed bio-hybrid hydrogels are characterized by: transparency, biocompatibility, good mechanical strength, and the dual release system, which allows for gradual delivery of the active substance, even up to 7 days. Bio-hybrid hydrogels based on sodium alginate (SA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), glycerine, and Aloe vera solution (AV) were obtained through the chemical crosslinking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate as a crosslinking agent. Additionally, a nanocarrier-drug system was incorporated into SA/PVA/AV hydrogel matrix. Here, studies were focused on the release profiles of active substances from bio-hybrid hydrogels using the USP4 method (DZF II Flow-Through System, Erweka GmbH, Langen, Germany). The equipment incorporated seven in-line flow-through diffusion cells. The membrane was placed over support with an orifice of 1,5 cm in diameter (diffusional area, 1.766 cm²). All the cells were placed in a cell warmer connected with the Erweka heater DH 2000i and the Erweka piston pump HKP 720. The piston pump transports the receptor fluid via seven channels to the flow-through cells and automatically adapts the setting of the flow rate. All volumes were measured by gravimetric methods by filling the chambers with Milli-Q water and assuming a density of 1 g/ml. All the determinations were made in triplicate for each cell. The release study of the model active substance was carried out using a regenerated cellulose membrane Spectra/Por®Dialysis Membrane MWCO 6-8,000 Carl Roth® Company. These tests were conducted in buffer solutions – PBS at pH 7.4. A flow rate of receptor fluid of about 4 ml /1 min was selected. The experiments were carried out for 7 days at a temperature of 37°C. The released concentration of the model drug in the receptor solution was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer Company). Additionally, the following properties of the modified materials were studied: physicochemical, structural (FT-IR analysis), morphological (SEM analysis). Finally, the cytotoxicity tests using in vitro method were conducted. The obtained results exhibited that the dual release system allows for the gradual and prolonged delivery of the active substances, even up to 7 days.

Keywords: wound dressings, SA/PVA hydrogels, nanocarrier-drug system, USP4 method

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1 Socio-Economic Determinants of Physical Activity of Non-Manual Workers, Including the Early Senior Group, from the City of Wroclaw in Poland

Authors: Daniel Puciato, Piotr Oleśniewicz, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Michał Rozpara, Władysław Mynarski, Agnieszka Gawlik, Małgorzata Dębska, Soňa Jandová


Physical activity as a part of people’s everyday life reduces the risk of many diseases, including those induced by lifestyle, e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, degenerative arthritis, and certain types of cancer. That refers particularly to professionally active people, including the early senior group working on non-manual positions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and the socio-economic status of non-manual workers from Wroclaw—one of the biggest cities in Poland, a model setting for such investigations in this part of Europe. The crucial problem in the research is to find out the percentage of respondents who meet the health-related recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) concerning the volume, frequency, and intensity of physical activity, as well as to establish if the most important socio-economic factors, such as gender, age, education, marital status, per capita income, savings and debt, determine the compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations. During the research, conducted in 2013, 1,170 people (611 women and 559 men) aged 21–60 years were examined. A diagnostic poll method was applied to collect the data. Physical activity was measured with the use of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire with extended socio-demographic questions, i.e. concerning gender, age, education, marital status, income, savings or debts. To evaluate the relationship between physical activity and selected socio-economic factors, logistic regression was used (odds ratio statistics). Statistical inference was conducted on the adopted ex ante probability level of p<0.05. The majority of respondents met the volume of physical effort recommended for health benefits. It was particularly noticeable in the case of the examined men. The probability of compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations was highest for workers aged 21–30 years with secondary or higher education who were single, received highest incomes and had savings. The results indicate the relations between physical activity and socio-economic status in the examined women and men. People with lower socio-economic status (e.g. manual workers) are physically active primarily at work, whereas those better educated and wealthier implement physical effort primarily in their leisure time. Among the investigated subjects, the youngest group of non-manual workers have the best chances to meet the WHO standards of physical activity. The study also confirms that secondary education has a positive effect on the public awareness on the role of physical activity in human life. In general, the analysis of the research indicates that there is a relationship between physical activity and some socio-economic factors of the respondents, such as gender, age, education, marital status, income per capita, and the possession of savings. Although the obtained results cannot be applied for the general population, they show some important trends that will be verified in subsequent studies conducted by the authors of the paper.

Keywords: IPAQ, nonmanual workers, physical activity, socioeconomic factors, WHO

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