Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 668

Search results for: cache replacement

668 On Performance of Cache Replacement Schemes in NDN-IoT

Authors: Rasool Sadeghi, Sayed Mahdi Faghih Imani, Negar Najafi

Abstract:

The inherent features of Named Data Networking (NDN) provides a robust solution for Internet of Thing (IoT). Therefore, NDN-IoT has emerged as a combined architecture which exploits the benefits of NDN for interconnecting of the heterogeneous objects in IoT. In NDN-IoT, caching schemes are a key role to improve the network performance. In this paper, we consider the effectiveness of cache replacement schemes in NDN-IoT scenarios. We investigate the impact of replacement schemes on average delay, average hop count, and average interest retransmission when replacement schemes are Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), First-In-First-Out (FIFO) and Random. The simulation results demonstrate that LFU and LRU present a stable performance when the cache size changes. Moreover, the network performance improves when the number of consumers increases.

Keywords: NDN-IoT, cache replacement, performance, ndnSIM

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667 Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems

Authors: Sajjad Rostami-Sani, Mojtaba Valinataj, Amir-Hossein Khojir-Angasi

Abstract:

The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.

Keywords: energy consumption, replacement policy, instruction set architecture, multicore processor

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
666 Formal Verification of Cache System Using a Novel Cache Memory Model

Authors: Guowei Hou, Lixin Yu, Wei Zhuang, Hui Qin, Xue Yang

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Formal verification is proposed to ensure the correctness of the design and make functional verification more efficient. As cache plays a vital role in the design of System on Chip (SoC), and cache with Memory Management Unit (MMU) and cache memory unit makes the state space too large for simulation to verify, then a formal verification is presented for such system design. In the paper, a formal model checking verification flow is suggested and a new cache memory model which is called “exhaustive search model” is proposed. Instead of using large size ram to denote the whole cache memory, exhaustive search model employs just two cache blocks. For cache system contains data cache (Dcache) and instruction cache (Icache), Dcache memory model and Icache memory model are established separately using the same mechanism. At last, the novel model is employed to the verification of a cache which is module of a custom-built SoC system that has been applied in practical, and the result shows that the cache system is verified correctly using the exhaustive search model, and it makes the verification much more manageable and flexible.

Keywords: cache system, formal verification, novel model, system on chip (SoC)

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665 Impact of Stack Caches: Locality Awareness and Cost Effectiveness

Authors: Abdulrahman K. Alshegaifi, Chun-Hsi Huang

Abstract:

Treating data based on its location in memory has received much attention in recent years due to its different properties, which offer important aspects for cache utilization. Stack data and non-stack data may interfere with each other’s locality in the data cache. One of the important aspects of stack data is that it has high spatial and temporal locality. In this work, we simulate non-unified cache design that split data cache into stack and non-stack caches in order to maintain stack data and non-stack data separate in different caches. We observe that the overall hit rate of non-unified cache design is sensitive to the size of non-stack cache. Then, we investigate the appropriate size and associativity for stack cache to achieve high hit ratio especially when over 99% of accesses are directed to stack cache. The result shows that on average more than 99% of stack cache accuracy is achieved by using 2KB of capacity and 1-way associativity. Further, we analyze the improvement in hit rate when adding small, fixed, size of stack cache at level1 to unified cache architecture. The result shows that the overall hit rate of unified cache design with adding 1KB of stack cache is improved by approximately, on average, 3.9% for Rijndael benchmark. The stack cache is simulated by using SimpleScalar toolset.

Keywords: hit rate, locality of program, stack cache, stack data

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
664 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu

Abstract:

A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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663 Cache Analysis and Software Optimizations for Faster on-Chip Network Simulations

Authors: Khyamling Parane, B. M. Prabhu Prasad, Basavaraj Talawar

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Fast simulations are critical in reducing time to market in CMPs and SoCs. Several simulators have been used to evaluate the performance and power consumed by Network-on-Chips. Researchers and designers rely upon these simulators for design space exploration of NoC architectures. Our experiments show that simulating large NoC topologies take hours to several days for completion. To speed up the simulations, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the hotspots in simulator source code. Among several simulators available, we choose Booksim2.0, as it is being extensively used in the NoC community. In this paper, we analyze the cache and memory system behaviour of Booksim2.0 to accurately monitor input dependent performance bottlenecks. Our measurements show that cache and memory usage patterns vary widely based on the input parameters given to Booksim2.0. Based on these measurements, the cache configuration having least misses has been identified. To further reduce the cache misses, we use software optimization techniques such as removal of unused functions, loop interchanging and replacing post-increment operator with pre-increment operator for non-primitive data types. The cache misses were reduced by 18.52%, 5.34% and 3.91% by employing above technology respectively. We also employ thread parallelization and vectorization to improve the overall performance of Booksim2.0. The OpenMP programming model and SIMD are used for parallelizing and vectorizing the more time-consuming portions of Booksim2.0. Speedups of 2.93x and 3.97x were observed for the Mesh topology with 30 × 30 network size by employing thread parallelization and vectorization respectively.

Keywords: cache behaviour, network-on-chip, performance profiling, vectorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
662 DCASH: Dynamic Cache Synchronization Algorithm for Heterogeneous Reverse Y Synchronizing Mobile Database Systems

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Rajakumar Arul, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Krithika Sairam, Lakshmi Ravi

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The synchronization server maintains a dynamically changing cache, which contains the data items which were requested and collected by the mobile node from the server. The order and presence of tuples in the cache changes dynamically according to the frequency of updates performed on the data, by the server and client. To synchronize, the data which has been modified by client and the server at an instant are collected, batched together by the type of modification (insert/ update/ delete), and sorted according to their update frequencies. This ensures that the DCASH (Dynamic Cache Synchronization Algorithm for Heterogeneous Reverse Y synchronizing Mobile Database Systems) gives priority to the frequently accessed data with high usage. The optimal memory management algorithm is proposed to manage data items according to their frequency, theorems were written to show the current mobile data activity is reverse Y in nature and the experiments were tested with 2g and 3g networks for various mobile devices to show the reduced response time and energy consumption.

Keywords: mobile databases, synchronization, cache, response time

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661 A Survey on Countermeasures of Cache-Timing Attack on AES Systems

Authors: Settana M. Abdulh, Naila A. Sadalla, Yaseen H. Taha, Howaida Elshoush

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Side channel attacks are based on side channel information, which is information that is leaked from encryption systems. This includes timing information, power consumption as well as electromagnetic or even sound leaking which can exploited by an attacker. Implementing side channel attacks are possible if and only if an attacker has access to a cryptosystem. In this case, the attacker can exploit bad implementation in software or hardware which is not controlled by encryption implementer. Thus, he/she will represent a real threat to the security system. Several countermeasures have been proposed to eliminate side channel information vulnerability.Cache timing attack is a special type of side channel attack. Here, timing information is collected and analyzed by an attacker to guess sensitive information such as encryption key or plaintext. This paper reviews the technique applied in this attack and surveys the countermeasures against it, evaluating the feasibility and usability of each. Based on this evaluation, finally we pose several recommendations about using these countermeasures.

Keywords: AES algorithm, side channel attack, cache timing attack, cache timing countermeasure

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
660 Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines

Authors: Wen Liang Chang, Mei Wei Wang, Ruey Huei Yeh

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This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.

Keywords: individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
659 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal

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Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, partial replacement to fine aggregates and admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in each one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India, major number of thermal power plants are producing low calcium fly ash. Hence, in the present investigation, low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. Moreover the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces and beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: cementing efficiency, compressive strength, low calcium fly ash, workability

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658 Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal

Authors: Jiheon Park, Taekwang Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

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Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.

Keywords: AGV operation, automated container terminal, battery replacement, electric AGV, strategy optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
657 Replacement Time and Number of Preventive Maintenance Actions for Second-Hand Device

Authors: Wen Liang Chang

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In this study, the optimal replacement time and number of preventive maintenance (PM) actions were investigated for a second-hand device. Suppose that a user intends to use a second-hand device for manufacturing products, and that the device is replaced with a new one. Any device failure is rectified through minimal repair, thereby incurring a fixed repair cost to the user. If the new device fails within the FRW period, minimal repair is performed at no cost to the user. After the FRW expires, a failed device is repaired and the cost of repair is incurred by the user. In this study, two profit models were developed, and the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were determined to maximize profits. Finally, the influence of the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were elaborated on, using numerical examples.

Keywords: second-hand device, preventive maintenance, replacement time, device failure

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656 A Privacy Protection Scheme Supporting Fuzzy Search for NDN Routing Cache Data Name

Authors: Feng Tao, Ma Jing, Guo Xian, Wang Jing

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Named Data Networking (NDN) replaces IP address of traditional network with data name, and adopts dynamic cache mechanism. In the existing mechanism, however, only one-to-one search can be achieved because every data has a unique name corresponding to it. There is a certain mapping relationship between data content and data name, so if the data name is intercepted by an adversary, the privacy of the data content and user’s interest can hardly be guaranteed. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a one-to-many fuzzy search scheme based on order-preserving encryption to reduce the query overhead by optimizing the caching strategy. In this scheme, we use hash value to ensure the user’s query safe from each node in the process of search, so does the privacy of the requiring data content.

Keywords: NDN, order-preserving encryption, fuzzy search, privacy

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655 Optimal Continuous Scheduled Time for a Cumulative Damage System with Age-Dependent Imperfect Maintenance

Authors: Chin-Chih Chang

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Many manufacturing systems suffer failures due to complex degradation processes and various environment conditions such as random shocks. Consider an operating system is subject to random shocks and works at random times for successive jobs. When successive jobs often result in production losses and performance deterioration, it would be better to do maintenance or replacement at a planned time. A preventive replacement (PR) policy is presented to replace the system before a failure occurs at a continuous time T. In such a policy, the failure characteristics of the system are designed as follows. Each job would cause a random amount of additive damage to the system, and the system fails when the cumulative damage has exceeded a failure threshold. Suppose that the deteriorating system suffers one of the two types of shocks with age-dependent probabilities: type-I (minor) shock is rectified by a minimal repair, or type-II (catastrophic) shock causes the system to fail. A corrective replacement (CR) is performed immediately when the system fails. In summary, a generalized maintenance model to scheduling replacement plan for an operating system is presented below. PR is carried out at time T, whereas CR is carried out when any type-II shock occurs and the total damage exceeded a failure level. The main objective is to determine the optimal continuous schedule time of preventive replacement through minimizing the mean cost rate function. The existence and uniqueness of optimal replacement policy are derived analytically. It can be seen that the present model is a generalization of the previous models, and the policy with preventive replacement outperforms the one without preventive replacement.

Keywords: preventive replacement, working time, cumulative damage model, minimal repair, imperfect maintenance, optimization

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654 Properties of Triadic Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash and Wood Waste Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam, Olukotun Nathaniel, Dunu Williams

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Concrete is one of the most popular materials used in construction industry. However, one of the setbacks is that concrete can degrade with time upon exposure to an aggressive environment that leads to decrease in strength. Thus, research works and innovative ways are needed to enhance the strength and durability of concrete. This work tries to look into the potential use of rice husk ash (RHA) and wood waste ash (WWA) as cement replacement material. These are waste materials that may not only enhance the properties of concrete but also can serves as a viable method of disposal of waste for sustainability. In addition, a substantial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with these pozzolans will mean reduction in CO₂ emissions and high energy requirement associated with the production of OPC. This study is aimed at assessing the properties of triadic concrete produced using RHA and WWA as a partial replacement of cement. The effects of partial replacement of OPC with 10% RHA and 5% WWA on compressive and tensile strength of concrete among other properties were investigated. Concrete was produced with nominal mix of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water-cement ratio, prepared, cured and subjected to compressive and tensile strength test at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90days. The experimental data demonstrate that concrete containing RHA and WWA produced lighter weight in comparison with OPC sample. Results also show that combination of RHA and WWA help to prolong the initial and final setting time by about 10-30% compared to the control sample. Furthermore, compressive strength was increased by 15-30% with 10% RHA and 5% WWA replacement, respectively above the control, RHA and WWA samples. Tensile strength test at the ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days reveals that a replacement of 15% RHA and 5% WWA produced samples with the highest tensile capacity compared to the control samples. Thus, it can be concluded that RHA and WWA can be used as partial cement replacement materials in concrete.

Keywords: concrete, rice husk ash, wood waste ash, ordinary Portland cement, compressive strength, tensile strength

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653 Equity Investment Restrictions and Pension Replacement Rates in Nigeria: A Ruin-Risk Analysis

Authors: Uche A. Ibekwe

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Pension funds are pooled assets which are established to provide income for retirees. The funds are usually regulated to check excessive risk taking by fund managers. In Nigeria, the current defined contribution (DC) pension scheme appears to contain some overly stringent restrictions which might be hampering its successful implementation. Notable among these restrictions is the 25 percent maximum limit on investment in ordinary shares of quoted companies. This paper examines the extent to which these restrictions affect pension replacement rates at retirement. The study made use of both simulated and historical asset return distributions using mean-variance, regression analysis and ruin-risk analyses, the study found that the current equity investment restriction policy in Nigeria reduces replacement rates at retirement.

Keywords: equity investment, replacement rates, restrictions, ruin-risk

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652 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr

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Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
651 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique

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Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: bagasse ash, compressive strength, self-compacting concrete, splitting tensile strength

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650 Preventative Maintenance, Impact on the Optimal Replacement Strategy of Secondhand Products

Authors: Pin-Wei Chiang, Wen-Liang Chang, Ruey-Huei Yeh

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This paper investigates optimal replacement and preventative maintenance policies of secondhand products under a Finite Planning Horizon (FPH). Any consumer wishing to replace their product under FPH would have it undergo minimal repairs. The replacement provided would be required to undergo periodical preventive maintenance done to avoid product failure. Then, a mathematical formula for disbursement cost for products under FPH can be derived. Optimal policies are then obtained to minimize cost. In the first of two segments of the paper, a model for initial product purchase of either new or secondhand products is used. This model is built by analyzing product purchasing price, surplus value of product, as well as the minimal repair cost. The second segment uses a model for replacement products, which are also secondhand products with no limit on usage. This model analyzes the same components as the first as well as expected preventative maintenance cost. Using these two models, a formula for the expected final total cost can be developed. The formula requires four variables (optimal preventive maintenance level, preventive maintenance frequency, replacement timing, age of replacement product) to find minimal cost requirement. Based on analysis of the variables using the expected total final cost model, it was found that the purchasing price and length of ownership were directly related. Also, consumers should choose the secondhand product with the higher usage for replacement. Products with higher initial usage upon acquisition require an earlier replacement schedule. In this case, replacements should be made with a secondhand product with less usage. In addition, preventative maintenance also significantly reduces cost. Consumers that plan to use products for longer periods of time replace their products later. Hence these consumers should choose the secondhand product with lesser initial usage for replacement. Preventative maintenance also creates significant total cost savings in this case. This study provides consumers with a method of calculating both the ideal amount of usage of the products they should purchase as well as the frequency and level of preventative maintenance that should be conducted in order to minimize cost and maintain product function.

Keywords: finite planning horizon, second hand product, replacement, preventive maintenance, minimal repair

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649 The Effect of Partially Replacing Cement with Metakaolin on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: Gashaw Abebaw

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Concrete usage in Ethiopia is expanding at a faster rate than before. Cement is the most important and costly ingredient in this respect. The construction industry is currently challenged by cement scarcity and stock market inflation. Scholars' trays, on the other hand, will use natural pozzolan material to substitute cement. Apart from that, Metakaolin has pozzolanic characteristics. According to the industrial mineral occurrence map, Ethiopia kaolin may be found in abundance. Some of them include Debretabor, so it is good to utilize Metakaolin as cement replacement material. In this study, the capability of Ethiopian Metakaolin as a partial substitute for cement in C-25 concrete production with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% replacement of PPC by MA with 0.49 percent water to cement ratio is investigated. The study examines; the chemical properties of MA, Physical properties of cement paste, workability, compressive strength, water absorption, density and sulfate attack of concrete was investigated. The chemical composition of Metakaolin was examined and the summation of SiO₂, AlO₃, and FeO₃ is 86.25% and the ash was classified class N pozzolan. The normal consistency percent of water increases as the MA replacement amount increase and both initial and final setting time rang increase as the MA replacement amount increase. On the 28th day, the compressive strength of concrete with MA replacement of 5%, 10%, and 15% exceeds the goal mean strength (33.5Mpa) with compressive strength enhancements of 2.23 %, 4.05 %, and 2.23 %, respectively. Similarly, on the 56th day, 5 %, 10%, and 15% replacement enhance concrete strength by 2.06 %, 3.06 %, and 1.2 %, respectively. The MA mixed concrete has improved significantly in terms of water absorption and sulphate attack, with a 15% replacement level. MA content Metakaolin could possibly replace cement up to 15%, according to the studies. The study's findings will help to offset cement price increases while also boosting house affordability without significantly degrading.

Keywords: metakaolin, compressive strength, sulphate attack, water absorption, N pozzolan

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648 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

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Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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647 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu

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This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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646 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène

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The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
645 The Relationship between Top Management Replacement and Risk, Sale and Cash Volatilities with Respect to Unqualified Audit Opinion

Authors: Mehdi Dasineh, Yadollah Tariverdi, Marzieh H. Takhti

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This paper investigated the relationship between top management turnover with risk volatility, sale volatility and fluctuations in the company's cash depending on the unqualified audit report in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). In this study, we examined 104 firms over the period 2009-2014 which were selected from (TSE). There was 624 observed year-company data in this research. Hypotheses of this research have been evaluated by using regression tests for example F-statistical and Durbin-Watson. Based on our sample we found significant relationship between top management replacement and risk volatility, sale Volatility and cash volatility with tendency unqualified audit opinion.

Keywords: top management replacement, risk volatility, sale volatility, cash volatility, unqualified audit opinion

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644 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
643 Characteristics of Different Volumes of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder-Cement Paste for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes

Abstract:

Cellular concrete powder (CCP) is not used widely as supplementary cementitious material, but in the literature, its efficiency is proved when it used as a replacement of cement in concrete mixtures. In this study, different amounts of raw CCP (CCP as a waste material without any industrial modification) will be used to investigate the characteristics of cement pastes and the effects of CCP on the properties of the cement pastes. It is an attempt to produce green binder paste, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. The fresh and hardened properties of a number of CCP blended cement paste will be tested in different life periods, and the optimized CCP volume will be reported with more significant investigations on durability properties. Different replacing of mass percentage (low and high) of the cement mass will be conducted (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). The consistency, flexural strength, and compressive strength will be the base indicator for the further properties' investigations. The CCP replacement until 50% have been tested until 7 days, and the initial results showed a linear relationship between strength and the percentage of the replacement; that is an optimistic indicator for further replacement percentages of waste CCP.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, supplementary cementitious material, sustainable construction, green concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
642 Nondestructive Natural Gas Hydrate Production by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Ahn Yun-Ho, Hyery Kang, Koh Dong-Yeun, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
641 Ultrasonography of Low Extremities Veins Before and After Replacement of Knee Joint by Endoprosthesis

Authors: A. V. Alabut, V. D. Sikilinda, N. J. Nelasov, O. L. Eroshenko, M. N. Morgunov, I. V. Koroleva

Abstract:

We have analyzed the results of treatment of 204 patients with knee prosthetic arthroplasty. For the purpose of active delineation of vascular pathology triplex sonography of arterial and venous vessels of low extremities was performed in all cases in the preoperative period. When it was necessary, reconstructive vascular surgery was implemented to improve peripheral circulation and reduce the hazard of thrombosis after knee replacement. The combination of specific and nonspecific methods of thromboprophylaxis was used in perioperative period. On 7-10 day and 2.5-3 month after prosthetic arthroplasty, all patients iteratively underwent triple sonography. In case of detection of floating thrombus, urgent venous ligation was performed. Active diagnostics of venous thrombosis gave the opportunity to avoid fatal pulmonary embolism.

Keywords: knee replacement, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, vascular surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
640 Strength of Soft Clay Reinforced with Polypropylene Column

Authors: Muzamir Hasan, Anas Bazirgan

Abstract:

Granular columns is a technique that has the properties of improving bearing capacity, accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressure and reducing settlement in a weak soft soil. This research aims to investigate the role of Polypropylene column in improving the shear strength and compressibility of soft reconstituted kaolin clay by determining the effects of area replacement ratio, height penetrating ratio and volume replacement ratio of a singular Polypropylene column on the strength characteristics. Reinforced kaolin samples were subjected to Unconfined Compression (UCT) and Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) triaxial tests. The kaolin samples were 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. Using the PP column reinforcement, with an area replacement ratio of 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3, shear strength increased approximately 5.27%, 26.22% and 64.28%, and 37.14%, 42.33% and 51.17%, for area replacement ratios of 25% and 10.24%. Meanwhile, UU testing showed an increase in shear strength of 24.01%, 23.17% and 23.49% and 28.79%, 27.29 and 30.81% for the same ratios. Based on the UCT results, the undrained shear strength generally increased with the decrease in height penetration ratio. However, based on the UU test results Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, the installation of Polypropylene columns did not show any significant difference in effective friction angle. However, there was an increase in the apparent cohesion and undrained shear strength of the kaolin clay. In conclusion, Polypropylene column greatly improved the shear strength; and could therefore be implemented in reducing the cost of soil improvement as a replacement for non-renewable materials.

Keywords: polypropylene, UCT, UU test, Kaolin S300, ground improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
639 Early-Age Mechanical and Thermal Performance of GGBS Concrete

Authors: Kangkang Tang

Abstract:

A large amount of blast furnace slag is generated in China. Most ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) however ends up in low-grade applications. Blast furnace slag, ground to an appropriate fineness, can be used as a partial replacement of cementitious material in concrete. The potential for using GGBS in structural concrete, e.g. concrete beams and columns, is investigated at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU). With 50% of CEM I replaced with GGBS, peak hydration temperatures determined in a suspended concrete slab reduced by 20%. This beneficiary effect has not been further improved with 70% of CEM I replaced with GGBS. Partial replacement of CEM I with GGBS also has a retardation effect on the early-age strength of concrete. More GGBS concrete mixes will be conducted to identify an ‘optimum’ replacement level which will lead to a reduced thermal loading, without significantly compromising the early-age strength of concrete.

Keywords: thermal effect, GGBS, concrete strength and testing, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 336