Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2721

Search results for: the laboratory diagnostic

2721 Evaluating the Implementation of a Quality Management System in the COVID-19 Diagnostic Laboratory of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi

Authors: Sukriti Sabharwal, Sonali Bhattar, Shikhar Saxena

Abstract:

Introduction: COVID-19 molecular diagnostic laboratory is the cornerstone of the COVID-19 disease diagnosis as the patient’s treatment and management protocol depend on the molecular results. For this purpose, it is extremely important that the laboratory conducting these results adheres to the quality management processes to increase the accuracy and validity of the reports generated. We started our own molecular diagnostic setup at the onset of the pandemic. Therefore, we conducted this study to generate our quality management data to help us in improving on our weak points. Materials and Methods: A total of 14561 samples were evaluated by the retrospective observational method. The quality variables analysed were classified into pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical variables, and the results were presented in percentages. Results: Among the pre-analytical variables, sample leaking was the most common cause of the rejection of samples (134/14561, 0.92%), followed by non-generation of SRF ID (76/14561, 0.52%) and non-compliance to triple packaging (44/14561, 0.3%). The other pre-analytical aspects assessed were incomplete patient identification (17/14561, 0.11%), insufficient quantity of samples (12/14561, 0.08%), missing forms/samples (7/14561, 0.04%), samples in the wrong vials/empty VTM tubes (5/14561, 0.03%) and LIMS entry not done (2/14561, 0.01%). We are unable to obtain internal quality control in 0.37% of samples (55/14561). We also experienced two incidences of cross-contamination among the samples resulting in false-positive results. Among the post-analytical factors, a total of 0.07% of samples (11/14561) could not be dispatched within the stipulated time frame. Conclusion: Adherence to quality control processes is foremost for the smooth running of any diagnostic laboratory, especially the ones involved in critical reporting. Not only do the indicators help in keeping in check the laboratory parameters but they also allow comparison with other laboratories.

Keywords: laboratory quality management, COVID-19, molecular diagnostics, healthcare

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2720 Analysis of Transformer by Gas and Moisture Sensor during Laboratory Time Monitoring

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Simko, Milan Chupac

Abstract:

Ensure the reliable and correct function of transformers is the main essence of on-line non-destructive diagnostic tool, which allows the accurately track of the status parameters. Devices for on-line diagnostics are very costly. However, there are devices, whose price is relatively low and when used correctly, they can be executed a complex diagnostics. One of these devices is sensor HYDRAN M2, which is used to detect the moisture and gas content in the insulation oil. Using the sensor HYDRAN M2 in combination with temperature, load measurement, and physicochemical analysis can be made the economically inexpensive diagnostic system, which use is not restricted to distribution transformers. This system was tested in educational laboratory environment at measured oil transformer 22/0.4 kV. From the conclusions referred in article is possible to determine, which kind of fault was occurred in the transformer and how was an impact on the temperature, evolution of gases and water content.

Keywords: transformer, diagnostics, gas and moisture sensor, monitoring

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2719 Mining Diagnostic Investigation Process

Authors: Sohail Imran, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

In complex healthcare diagnostic investigation process, medical practitioners have to focus on ways to standardize their processes to perform high quality care and optimize the time and costs. Process mining techniques can be applied to extract process related knowledge from data without considering causal and dynamic dependencies in business domain and processes. The application of process mining is effective in diagnostic investigation. It is very helpful where a treatment gives no dispositive evidence favoring it. In this paper, we applied process mining to discover important process flow of diagnostic investigation for hepatitis patients. This approach has some benefits which can enhance the quality and efficiency of diagnostic investigation processes.

Keywords: process mining, healthcare, diagnostic investigation process, process flow

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2718 The Importance of Development in Laboratory Diagnosis at the Intersection

Authors: Agus Sahri, Cahya Putra Dinata, Faishal Andhi Rokhman

Abstract:

Intersection is a critical area on a highway which is a place of conflict points and congestion due to the meeting of two or more roads. Conflicts that occur at the intersection include diverging, merging, weaving, and crossing. To deal with these conflicts, a crossing control system is needed, at a plot of intersection there are two control systems namely signal intersections and non-signalized intersections. The control system at a plot of intersection can affect the intersection performance. In Indonesia there are still many intersections with poor intersection performance. In analyzing the parameters to measure the performance of a plot of intersection in Indonesia, it is guided by the 1997 Indonesian Road Capacity Manual. For this reason, this study aims to develop laboratory diagnostics at plot intersections to analyze parameters that can affect the performance of an intersection. The research method used is research and development. The laboratory diagnosis includes anamnesis, differential diagnosis, inspection, diagnosis, prognosis, specimens, analysis and sample data analysts. It is expected that this research can encourage the development and application of laboratory diagnostics at a plot of intersection in Indonesia so that intersections can function optimally.

Keywords: intersection, the laboratory diagnostic, control systems, Indonesia

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2717 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi

Abstract:

Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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2716 A Multi-Agent System for Accelerating the Delivery Process of Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Results Using GSM Technology

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Bilal Hawashin, Hesham Alsalem

Abstract:

Faster delivery of laboratory test results is one of the most noticeable signs of good laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. Despite the availability of technology, the delivery time of clinical laboratory test results continues to be a cause of customer dissatisfaction which makes patients feel frustrated and they became careless to get their laboratory test results. The Medical Clinical Laboratory test results are highly sensitive and could harm patients especially with the severe case if they deliver in wrong time. Such results affect the treatment done by physicians if arrived at correct time efforts should, therefore, be made to ensure faster delivery of lab test results by utilizing new trusted, Robust and fast system. In this paper, we proposed a distributed Multi-Agent System to enhance and faster the process of laboratory test results delivery using SMS. The developed system relies on SMS messages because of the wide availability of GSM network comparing to the other network. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between different units and different laboratory medical centers. The system was built using java programming. To implement the proposed system we had many possible techniques. One of these is to use the peer-to-peer (P2P) model, where all the peers are treated equally and the service is distributed among all the peers of the network. However, for the pure P2P model, it is difficult to maintain the coherence of the network, discover new peers and ensure security. Also, security is a quite important issue since each node is allowed to join the network without any control mechanism. We thus take the hybrid P2P model, a model between the Client/Server model and the pure P2P model using GSM technology through SMS messages. This model satisfies our need. A GUI has been developed to provide the laboratory staff with the simple and easy way to interact with the system. This system provides quick response rate and the decision is faster than the manual methods. This will save patients life.

Keywords: multi-agent system, delivery process, GSM technology, clinical laboratory results

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2715 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili

Abstract:

The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

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2714 Intelligent Diagnostic System of the Onboard Measuring Devices

Authors: Kyaw Zin Htut

Abstract:

In this article, the synthesis of the efficiency of intelligent diagnostic system in the aircraft measuring devices is described. The technology developments of the diagnostic system are considered based on the model errors of the gyro instruments, which are used to measure the parameters of the aircraft. The synthesis of the diagnostic intelligent system is considered on the example of the problem of assessment and forecasting errors of the gyroscope devices on the onboard aircraft. The result of the system is to detect of faults of the aircraft measuring devices as well as the analysis of the measuring equipment to improve the efficiency of its work.

Keywords: diagnostic, dynamic system, errors of gyro instruments, model errors, assessment, prognosis

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2713 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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2712 Remote Wireless Communications Lab in Real Time

Authors: El Miloudi Djelloul

Abstract:

Technology nowadays enables the remote access to laboratory equipment and instruments via Internet. This is especially useful in engineering education, where students can conduct laboratory experiment remotely. Such remote laboratory access can enable student to use expensive laboratory equipment, which is not usually available to students. In this paper, we present a method of creating a Web-based Remote Laboratory Experimentation in the master degree course “Wireless Communications Systems” which is part of “ICS (Information and Communication Systems)” and “Investment Management in Telecommunications” curriculums. This is done within the RIPLECS Project and the NI2011 FF005 Research Project “Implementation of Project-Based Learning in an Interdisciplinary Master Program”.

Keywords: remote access, remote laboratory, wireless telecommunications, external antenna-switching controller board (EASCB)

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2711 Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions Related to the Concept of Laboratory: A Metaphorical Analysis

Authors: Salih Uzun

Abstract:

The laboratory activities are seen an indispensable part of science, teaching, and learning. In this study, the aim was to identify pre-service science teachers’ perceptions related to the concept of laboratory through metaphors. It is expressed that metaphors can be used as a powerful research tool in order to understand personal perceptions. Therefore, metaphors were used with the aim of revealing a picture regarding how pre-service science teachers perceive laboratory. Within the scope of this aim, phenomenographic research design was adopted for this study and an answer was sought to the question; ‘What are pre-service science teachers’ perceptions about the concept of laboratory?’. The sample of this study was a total of 80 pre-service science teachers at various grade levels in Turkey. Participants were asked to complete the sentence; ‘Laboratory is like…; because…’. Documents including pre-service science teachers’ answers to the open-ended questions were used as data sources and the data were analysed with content analysis.

Keywords: laboratory, metaphor, phenomenology, pre-service science teachers

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2710 Diagnostic Assessment for Mastery Learning of Engineering Students with a Bayesian Network Model

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

In this study, a diagnostic assessment model for Mastery Engineering Learning was established based on a group of undergraduate students who studied in an engineering course. A diagnostic assessment model can examine both students' learning process and report achievement results. One very unique characteristic is that the diagnostic assessment model can recognize the errors and anything blocking students in their learning processes. The feedback is provided to help students to know how to solve the learning problems with alternative strategies and help the instructor to find alternative pedagogical strategies in the instructional designs. Dynamics is a core course in which is a common course being shared by several engineering programs. This course is a very challenging for engineering students to solve the problems. Thus knowledge acquisition and problem-solving skills are crucial for student success. Therefore, developing an effective and valid assessment model for student learning are of great importance. Diagnostic assessment is such a model which can provide effective feedback for both students and instructor in the mastery of engineering learning.

Keywords: diagnostic assessment, mastery learning, engineering, bayesian network model, learning processes

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2709 Diagnostic Value of Different Noninvasive Criteria of Latent Myocarditis in Comparison with Myocardial Biopsy

Authors: Olga Blagova, Yuliya Osipova, Evgeniya Kogan, Alexander Nedostup

Abstract:

Purpose: to quantify the value of various clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs in the diagnosis of myocarditis in comparison with morphological studies of the myocardium. Methods: in 100 patients (65 men, 44.7±12.5 years) with «idiopathic» arrhythmias (n = 20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 80) were performed 71 endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), 13 intraoperative biopsy, 5 study of explanted hearts, 11 autopsy with virus investigation (real-time PCR) of the blood and myocardium. Anti-heart antibodies (AHA) were also measured as well as cardiac CT (n = 45), MRI (n = 25), coronary angiography (n = 47). The comparison group included of 50 patients (25 men, 53.7±11.7 years) with non-inflammatory heart diseases who underwent open heart surgery. Results. Active/borderline myocarditis was diagnosed in 76.0% of the study group and in 21.6% of patients of the comparison group (p < 0.001). The myocardial viral genome was observed more frequently in patients of comparison group than in study group (group (65.0% and 40.2%; p < 0.01. Evaluated the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of myocarditis. The panel of anti-heart antibodies had the greatest importance to identify myocarditis: sensitivity was 81.5%, positive and negative predictive value was 75.0 and 60.5%. It is defined diagnostic value of non-invasive markers of myocarditis and diagnostic algorithm providing an individual assessment of the likelihood of myocarditis is developed. Conclusion. The greatest significance in the diagnosis of latent myocarditis in patients with 'idiopathic' arrhythmias and DCM have AHA. The use of complex of noninvasive criteria allows estimate the probability of myocarditis and determine the indications for EMB.

Keywords: myocarditis, "idiopathic" arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial biopsy, viral genome, anti-heart antibodies

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2708 A Study of EFL Learners with Different Goal Orientations in Response to Cognitive Diagnostic Reading Feedback

Authors: Yuxuan Tang

Abstract:

Cognitive diagnostic assessment has received much attention in second language education, and assessment for it can provide pedagogically useful feedback for language learners. However, there is a lack of research on how students interpret and use cognitive diagnostic feedback. Thus the present study aims to adopt a mixed-method approach mainly to explore the relationship between the goal-orientation and students' response to cognitive diagnostic feedback. Almost 200 Chinese undergraduates from two universities in Xi'an, China, will be invited to do a cognitive diagnostic reading test, and each student will receive specialized cognitive diagnostic feedback, comprising of students' reading attributes mastery level generated by applying a well-selected cognitive diagnostic model, students' perceived reading ability assessed by a self-assessing questionnaire and students’ level position in the whole class. And a goal-orientation questionnaire and a self-generated questionnaire on the perception of feedback will be given to students the moment they receive feedback. In addition, interviews of students will be conducted on their future plans to see whether they have awareness of carrying out studying plans. The study aims to find a new perspective towards how students use and interpret cognitive diagnostic feedback in terms of their different goal-orientation (self-based, task-based, and other-based goals) by applying the newest goal orientation model, which is an important construct of motivation in psychology, seldom researched under language learning area. And the study is expected to provide evidence on how diagnostic feedback promotes students' learning under the educational belief of assessment for learning. Practically speaking, according to the personalized diagnostic feedback, students can take remedial self-learning more purposefully, and teachers can target students' weaknesses to adjust teaching methods and carry out tailored teaching.

Keywords: assessment for learning, cognitive diagnostic assessment, goal-orientation, personalized feedback

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2707 Enhancing the Interpretation of Group-Level Diagnostic Results from Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment: Application of Quantile Regression and Cluster Analysis

Authors: Wenbo Du, Xiaomei Ma

Abstract:

With the empowerment of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment (CDA), various domains of language testing and assessment have been investigated to dig out more diagnostic information. What is noticeable is that most of the extant empirical CDA-based research puts much emphasis on individual-level diagnostic purpose with very few concerned about learners’ group-level performance. Even though the personalized diagnostic feedback is the unique feature that differentiates CDA from other assessment tools, group-level diagnostic information cannot be overlooked in that it might be more practical in classroom setting. Additionally, the group-level diagnostic information obtained via current CDA always results in a “flat pattern”, that is, the mastery/non-mastery of all tested skills accounts for the two highest proportion. In that case, the outcome does not bring too much benefits than the original total score. To address these issues, the present study attempts to apply cluster analysis for group classification and quantile regression analysis to pinpoint learners’ performance at different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced) thus to enhance the interpretation of the CDA results extracted from a group of EFL learners’ reading performance on a diagnostic reading test designed by PELDiaG research team from a key university in China. The results show that EM method in cluster analysis yield more appropriate classification results than that of CDA, and quantile regression analysis does picture more insightful characteristics of learners with different reading proficiencies. The findings are helpful and practical for instructors to refine EFL reading curriculum and instructional plan tailored based on the group classification results and quantile regression analysis. Meanwhile, these innovative statistical methods could also make up the deficiencies of CDA and push forward the development of language testing and assessment in the future.

Keywords: cognitive diagnostic assessment, diagnostic feedback, EFL reading, quantile regression

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2706 PM Electrical Machines Diagnostic: Methods Selected

Authors: M. Barański

Abstract:

This paper presents a several diagnostic methods designed to electrical machines especially for permanent magnets (PM) machines. Those machines are commonly used in small wind and water systems and vehicles drives. Those methods are preferred by the author in periodic diagnostic of electrical machines. The special attention should be paid to diagnostic method of turn-to-turn insulation and vibrations. Both of those methods were created in Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Komel. The vibration diagnostic method is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation. This is method of determination the technical condition of PM electrical machine basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical machines with permanent magnets and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, generator, main insulation, permanent magnet, thermography, turn-to-traction drive, turn insulation, vibrations

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2705 The Benefits of Security Culture for Improving Physical Protection Systems at Detection and Radiation Measurement Laboratory

Authors: Ari S. Prabowo, Nia Febriyanti, Haryono B. Santosa

Abstract:

Security function that is called as Physical Protection Systems (PPS) has functions to detect, delay and response. Physical Protection Systems (PPS) in Detection and Radiation Measurement Laboratory needs to be improved continually by using internal resources. The nuclear security culture provides some potentials to support this research. The study starts by identifying the security function’s weaknesses and its strengths of security culture as a purpose. Secondly, the strengths of security culture are implemented in the laboratory management. Finally, a simulation was done to measure its effectiveness. Some changes were happened in laboratory personnel behaviors and procedures. All became more prudent. The results showed a good influence of nuclear security culture in laboratory security functions.

Keywords: laboratory, physical protection system, security culture, security function

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2704 Performance of the New Laboratory-Based Algorithm for HIV Diagnosis in Southwestern China

Authors: Yanhua Zhao, Chenli Rao, Dongdong Li, Chuanmin Tao

Abstract:

The Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) issued a new laboratory-based algorithm for HIV diagnosis on April 2016, which initially screens with a combination HIV-1/HIV-2 antigen/antibody fourth-generation immunoassay (IA) followed, when reactive, an HIV-1/HIV-2 undifferentiated antibody IA in duplicate. Reactive specimens with concordant results undergo supplemental tests with western blots, or HIV-1 nucleic acid tests (NATs) and non-reactive specimens with discordant results receive HIV-1 NATs or p24 antigen tests or 2-4 weeks follow-up tests. However, little data evaluating the application of the new algorithm have been reported to date. The study was to evaluate the performance of new laboratory-based HIV diagnostic algorithm in an inpatient population of Southwest China over the initial 6 months by compared with the old algorithm. Plasma specimens collected from inpatients from May 1, 2016, to October 31, 2016, are submitted to the laboratory for screening HIV infection performed by both the new HIV testing algorithm and the old version. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithms and the difference of the categorized numbers of plasmas were calculated. Under the new algorithm for HIV diagnosis, 170 of the total 52 749 plasma specimens were confirmed as positively HIV-infected (0.32%). The sensitivity and specificity of the new algorithm were 100% (170/170) and 100% (52 579/52 579), respectively; while 167 HIV-1 positive specimens were identified by the old algorithm with sensitivity 98.24% (167/170) and 100% (52 579/52 579), respectively. Three acute HIV-1 infections (AHIs) and two early HIV-1 infections (EHIs) were identified by the new algorithm; the former was missed by old procedure. Compared with the old version, the new algorithm produced fewer WB-indeterminate results (2 vs. 16, p = 0.001), which led to fewer follow-up tests. Therefore, the new HIV testing algorithm is more sensitive for detecting acute HIV-1 infections with maintaining the ability to verify the established HIV-1 infections and can dramatically decrease the greater number of WB-indeterminate specimens.

Keywords: algorithm, diagnosis, HIV, laboratory

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2703 Acute Phase Proteins as Biomarkers of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Wael El-Deeb

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic importance of acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in cattle. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 99 lactating cows. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n=84) and control healthy cows (n=15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed hematuria and pyuria in UTI group. The isolated bacteria were E.coli (43/84) Corynebacterium spp, (31/84), Proteus spp. (6/84) and Streptococcus spp (4/84). The concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP), fibrinogen (Fb), total protein, albumen, and globulin were higher in cows with UTI when compared to healthy ones. Fifty-one of 84 cows with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of Hp, SAA, AGP, total protein, and globulin were associated with the odds of treatment failure. Conclusively, acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cows with UTI.

Keywords: cows, urinary, infections, haptoglobin, serum Amyloid A

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2702 Evaluation of Apolipoprotein Profile in HIV/Aids Subjects in Pre and Post 12 Months Antiretroviral Therapy Using 1.5 NG/ML Troponin Diagnostic Cut-off for Myocardial Infarction in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: I. P. Ezeugwunne, C. C. Onyenekwe, J. E. Ahaneku, G. I. Ahaneku

Abstract:

Introduction: It has been reported that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) might occur at 1.5 ng/ml troponin level. HIV infection has been documented to influence antiviral drugs, stimulate the production of proteins that enhance fatty acids synthesis. Information on cardiac status in HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria is scanty. Aim: To evaluate the Apolipoprotein profile of HIV subjects in pre-and-post 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 1.5 ng/ml troponin diagnostic cut-off for myocardial infarction (MI) in Nnewi, South Eastern, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 30 symptomatic HIV subjects without malaria co-infection with a mean age of 40.70 ±10.56 years were randomly recruited for this prospective case-controlled study. Serum apolipoproteins (Apo A1, A2, B, C2,C3 and Apo E), troponin and CD4 counts were measured using standard laboratory methods. Parameters were re-classified based on 1.5 ng/ml troponin diagnostic cut-off for MI. Analysis of variance and student paired t-tests were used for data analyses. Results: paired-wise comparison showed that there were significantly higher levels of CD4 counts, Apo A2, Apo C2, Apo E but lower levels of ApoA1, ApoB and ApoC3 in symptomatic HIV subjects before antiretroviral therapy (ART) when compared with after therapy at p<0.05 respectively. The troponin value was significantly higher amongst the group studied at p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The increased values of troponin observed among the groups were higher than the diagnostic cut-off for AMI. This may imply that AMI may occur at any group of studies. But the significant reduction in the serum levels of Apo A2, Apo B, Apo C3, Apo E and a significant increase in serum levels of Apo A1, Apo C2 and blood CD4 counts as the length of therapy lengthened may indicate possible cardio-protective effects of the ART on the heart, which may connote recovery.

Keywords: ART, apolipoprotein, HIV, myocardial infarction

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2701 Permanent Magnet Machine Can Be a Vibration Sensor for Itself

Authors: M. Barański

Abstract:

The article presents a new vibration diagnostic method designed to (PM) machines with permanent magnets. Those devices are commonly used in small wind and water systems or vehicles drives. The author’s method is very innovative and unique. Specific structural properties of PM machines are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical PM machines and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals. In this article, the method genesis, the similarity of machines with permanent magnet to vibration sensor and simulation and laboratory tests results will be discussed. The method of determination the technical condition of electrical machine with permanent magnets basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669, and it is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation.

Keywords: vibrations, generator, permanent magnet, traction drive, electrical vehicle

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2700 The Combination Of Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score (ADD-RS) With D-dimer As A Diagnostic Tool To Exclude The Diagnosis Of Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS)

Authors: Mohamed Hamada Abdelkader Fayed

Abstract:

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a screening test to exclude AAS. Methods: We conducted research for the studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD- RS)+ D-dimer to exclude the diagnosis of AAS, We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane of Trials up to 31 December 2020. Results: We identified 3 studies using (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a diagnostic tool for AAS, involving 3261 patients were AAS was diagnosed in 559(17.14%) patients. Overall results showed that the pooled sensitivities were 97.6 (95% CI 0.95.6, 99.6) at (ADD-RS)≤1(low risk group) with D-dimer and 97.4(95% CI 0.95.4,, 99.4) at (ADD-RS)>1(High risk group) with D-dimer., the failure rate was 0.48% at low risk group and 4.3% at high risk group respectively. Conclusions: (ADD-RS) with D-dimer was a useful screening test with high sensitivity to exclude Acute Aortic Syndrome.

Keywords: aortic dissection detection risk score, D-dimer, acute aortic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy

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2699 African Swine Fewer Situation and Diagnostic Methods in Lithuania

Authors: Simona Pileviciene

Abstract:

On 24th January 2014, Lithuania notified two primary cases of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boars. The animals were tested positive for ASF virus (ASFV) genome by real-time PCR at the National Reference Laboratory for ASF in Lithuania (NRL), results were confirmed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for African swine fever (CISA-INIA). Intensive wild and domestic animal monitoring program was started. During the period of 2014-2017 ASF was confirmed in two large commercial pig holding with the highest biosecurity. Pigs were killed and destroyed. Since 2014 ASF outbreak territory from east and south has expanded to the middle of Lithuania. Diagnosis by PCR is one of the highly recommended diagnostic methods by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of ASF. The aim of the present study was to compare singleplex real-time PCR assays to a duplex assay allowing the identification of ASF and internal control in a single PCR tube and to compare primers, that target the p72 gene (ASF 250 bp and ASF 75 bp) effectivity. Multiplex real-time PCR assays prove to be less time consuming and cost-efficient and therefore have a high potential to be applied in the routine analysis. It is important to have effective and fast method that allows virus detection at the beginning of disease for wild boar population and in outbreaks for domestic pigs. For experiments, we used reference samples (INIA, Spain), and positive samples from infected animals in Lithuania. Results show 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: African swine fewer, real-time PCR, wild boar, domestic pig

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2698 Effect of Open-Ended Laboratory toward Learners Performance in Environmental Engineering Course: Case Study of Civil Engineering at Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Authors: N. Bolong, J. Makinda, I. Saad

Abstract:

Laboratory activities have produced benefits in student learning. With current drives of new technology resources and evolving era of education methods, renewal status of learning and teaching in laboratory methods are in progress, for both learners and the educators. To enhance learning outcomes in laboratory works particularly in engineering practices and testing, learning via hands-on by instruction may not sufficient. This paper describes and compares techniques and implementation of traditional (expository) with open-ended laboratory (problem-based) for two consecutive cohorts studying environmental laboratory course in civil engineering program. The transition of traditional to problem-based findings and effect were investigated in terms of course assessment student feedback survey, course outcome learning measurement and student performance grades. It was proved that students have demonstrated better performance in their grades and 12% increase in the course outcome (CO) in problem-based open-ended laboratory style than traditional method; although in perception, students has responded less favorable in their feedback.

Keywords: engineering education, open-ended laboratory, environmental engineering lab

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2697 Effects of Non-Diagnostic Haptic Information on Consumers' Product Judgments and Decisions

Authors: Eun Young Park, Jongwon Park

Abstract:

A physical touch of a product can provide ample diagnostic information about the product attributes and quality. However, consumers’ product judgments and purchases can be erroneously influenced by non-diagnostic haptic information. For example, consumers’ evaluations of the coffee they drink could be affected by the heaviness of a cup that is used for just serving the coffee. This important issue has received little attention in prior research. The present research contributes to the literature by identifying when and how non-diagnostic haptic information can have an influence and why such influence occurs. Specifically, five studies experimentally varied the content of non-diagnostic haptic information, such as the weight of a cup (heavy vs. light) and the texture of a cup holder (smooth vs. rough), and then assessed the impact of the manipulation on product judgments and decisions. Results show that non-diagnostic haptic information has a biasing impact on consumer judgments. For example, the heavy (vs. light) cup increases consumers’ perception of the richness of coffee in it, and the rough (vs. smooth) texture of a cup holder increases the perception of the healthfulness of fruit juice in it, which in turn increases consumers’ purchase intentions of the product. When consumers are cognitively distracted during the touch experience, the impact of the content of haptic information is no longer evident, but the valence (positive vs. negative) of the haptic experience influences product judgments. However, consumers are able to avoid the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information, if and only if they are both knowledgeable about the product category and undistracted from processing the touch experience. In sum, the nature of the influence by non-diagnostic haptic information (i.e., assimilation effect vs. contrast effect vs. null effect) is determined by the content and valence of haptic information, the relative impact of which depends on whether consumers can identify the content and source of the haptic information. Theoretically, to our best knowledge, this research is the first to document the empirical evidence of the interplay between cognitive and affective processes that determines the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information. Managerial implications are discussed.

Keywords: consumer behavior, haptic information, product judgments, touch effect

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2696 Application of Web Aided Education on Laboratory of the Physics Course

Authors: Nigmet Koklu, Dundar Yener

Abstract:

Recently, distance education that make use of web technology is used widely all around the world to overcome geographical and time based problems in education. Graphics, animation and other auxiliary visual sources help student to understand the subjects easily. Especially some theoretical courses that are quite difficult to understand such as physics and chemistry require visual material for students to understand topics clearly. In this study, physics applications for laboratory of physics course were developed. All facilities of web-based educational technology were used for students in laboratory studies to avoid making mistakes and to learn better physics subjects.

Keywords: physics education, laboratory, web-based education, distance education

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2695 Assessment of Diagnostic Enzymes as Indices of Heavy Metal Pollution in Tilapia Fish

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Essien U. Essien

Abstract:

Diagnostic enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined as indices of heavy metal pollution in Tilapia guinensis. Three different sets of fishes treated with lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were used for the study while a fourth group with no heavy metal served as a control. Fishes in each of the groups were exposed to 2.65 mg/l of Pb, 0.85 mg/l of Fe and 0.35 mg/l of Cu in aerated aquaria for 96 hours. Tissue fractionation of the liver tissues was carried out and the three diagnostic enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) were estimated. Serum levels of the same diagnostic enzymes were also measured. The mean values of the serum enzyme activity for ALP in each experimental group were 19.5±1.62, 29.67±2.17 and 1.15±0.27 IU/L for Pb, Fe and Cu groups compared with 9.99±1.34 IU/L enzyme activity in the control. This result showed that Pb and Fe caused increased release of the enzyme into the blood circulation indicating increased tissue damage while Cu caused a reduction in the serum level as compared with the level in the control group. The mean values of enzyme activity obtained in the liver were 102.14±6.12, 140.17±2.06 and 168.23±3.52 IU/L for Pb, Fe and Cu groups, respectively compared to 91.20±9.42 IU/L enzyme activity for the control group. The serum and liver AST and ALT activities obtained in Pb, Fe, Cu and control groups are reported. It was generally noted that the presence of the heavy metal caused liver tissues damage and consequent increased level of the diagnostic enzymes in the serum.

Keywords: diagnostic enzymes, enzyme activity, heavy metals, tissues investigations

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2694 Photomicrograph-Based Neuropathology Consultation in Tanzania; The Utility of Static-Image Neurotelepathology in Low- And Middle-Income Countries

Authors: Francis Zerd, Brian E. Moore, Atuganile E. Malango, Patrick W. Hosokawa, Kevin O. Lillehei, Laurence Lemery Mchome, D. Ryan Ormond

Abstract:

Introduction: Since neuropathologic diagnosis in the developing world is hampered by limitations in technical infrastructure, trained laboratory personnel, and subspecialty-trained pathologists, the use of telepathology for diagnostic support, second-opinion consultations, and ongoing training holds promise as a means of addressing these challenges. This research aims to assess the utility of static teleneuropathology in improving neuropathologic diagnoses in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Consecutive neurosurgical biopsy and resection specimens obtained at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, were selected for retrospective, blinded static-image neuropathologic review followed by on-site review by an expert neuropathologist. Results: A total of 75 neuropathologic cases were reviewed. The agreement of static images and on-site glass diagnosis was 71% with strict criteria and 88% with less stringent criteria. This represents an overall improvement in diagnostic accuracy from 36% by general pathologists to 71% by a neuropathologist using static telepathology (or 76% to 88% with less stringent criteria). Conclusions: Telepathology offers a suitable means of providing diagnostic support, second-opinion consultations, and ongoing training to pathologists practicing in resource-limited countries. Moreover, static digital teleneuropathology is an uncomplicated, cost-effective, and reliable way to achieve these goals.

Keywords: neuropathology, resource-limited settings, static image, Tanzania, teleneuropathology

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2693 Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University

Authors: Dale Daniel G. Bodo

Abstract:

This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.

Keywords: status, BSHRT Program, laboratory tools and equipment, descriptive-correlation

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2692 Development of a Bead Based Fully Automated Mutiplex Tool to Simultaneously Diagnose FIV, FeLV and FIP/FCoV

Authors: Andreas Latz, Daniela Heinz, Fatima Hashemi, Melek Baygül

Abstract:

Introduction: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline coronavirus (FCoV) are serious infectious diseases affecting cats worldwide. Transmission of these viruses occurs primarily through close contact with infected cats (via saliva, nasal secretions, faeces, etc.). FeLV, FIV, and FCoV infections can occur in combination and are expressed in similar clinical symptoms. Diagnosis can therefore be challenging: Symptoms are variable and often non-specific. Sick cats show very similar clinical symptoms: apathy, anorexia, fever, immunodeficiency syndrome, anemia, etc. Sample volume for small companion animals for diagnostic purposes can be challenging to collect. In addition, multiplex diagnosis of diseases can contribute to an easier, cheaper, and faster workflow in the lab as well as to the better differential diagnosis of diseases. For this reason, we wanted to develop a new diagnostic tool that utilizes less sample volume, reagents, and consumables than multiplesingleplex ELISA assays Methods: The Multiplier from Dynextechonogies (USA) has been used as platform to develop a Multiplex diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against FIV and FCoV/FIP and antigens for FeLV. Multiplex diagnostics. The Dynex®Multiplier®is a fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer that significantly simplifies laboratory workflow. The Multiplier®ease-of-use reduces pre-analytical steps by combining the power of efficiently multiplexing multiple assays with the simplicity of automated microplate processing. Plastic beads have been coated with antigens for FIV and FCoV/FIP, as well as antibodies for FeLV. Feline blood samples are incubated with the beads. Read out of results is performed via chemiluminescence Results: Bead coating was optimized for each individual antigen or capture antibody and then combined in the multiplex diagnostic tool. HRP: Antibody conjugates for FIV and FCoV antibodies, as well as detection antibodies for FeLV antigen, have been adjusted and mixed. 3 individual prototyple batches of the assay have been produced. We analyzed for each disease 50 well defined positive and negative samples. Results show an excellent diagnostic performance of the simultaneous detection of antibodies or antigens against these feline diseases in a fully automated system. A 100% concordance with singleplex methods like ELISA or IFA can be observed. Intra- and Inter-Assays showed a high precision of the test with CV values below 10% for each individual bead. Accelerated stability testing indicate a shelf life of at least 1 year. Conclusion: The new tool can be used for multiplex diagnostics of the most important feline infectious diseases. Only a very small sample volume is required. Fully automation results in a very convenient and fast method for diagnosing animal diseases.With its large specimen capacity to process over 576 samples per 8-hours shift and provide up to 3,456 results, very high laboratory productivity and reagent savings can be achieved.

Keywords: Multiplex, FIV, FeLV, FCoV, FIP

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