Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3281

Search results for: plant tissues

3281 Trace Element Phytoremediation Potential of Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban

Authors: Ranju Chowdhury, Santosh K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Trace element accumulation potential of ten mangrove species in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) along with host sediments was carried out at 2 study sites of diverse environmental stresses of Indian Sundarban Wetland, a UNESCO world heritage site. The study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to investigate the extent of accumulation and the distribution of trace metals in plant tissues (ii) to determine whether sediment trace metal levels are correlated with trace metal levels in tissues and (iii) to find out the suitable candidate for phytoremediation species. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most trace metals than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The concentrations of studied 11 trace elements (expressed in µg g -1) showed wide range of variations in host sediment with the following descending order: Fe (2865.31-3019.62) > Mn (646.04- 648.47 > Cu (35.03- 41.55) > Zn (32.51- 36.33) > Ni (34.4- 36.60) > Cr (27.5- 29.54) > Pb (11.6- 20.34) > Co (6.79- 8.55) > As (3.22- 4.41) > Cd (0.19- 0.22) > Hg (0.06- 0.07). The ranges of concentration of trace metals (expressed in µg g -1) for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissues were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.20- 938.13, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726.24, 5.41- 11.34, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 respectively. Among all trace elements, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in Excoecaria agallocha (2.97 and 52.20 µg g -1 respectively). The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in E. agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for trace metal bioaccumulation. Therefore, phytoremediation could be extensively used for the removal of the toxic contaminants for sustainable management of Sundarban coastal regions.

Keywords: Indian Sundarban, mangroves, phytoremediation, trace elements

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3280 Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Tissues of Ipomoea Batatas and Manihot Esculenta Irrigated with Water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Sa’idu A. Abdullah, Jafar Lawan, A. U. Adamu, Fowotade, S. A., Hamisu Abdu

Abstract:

Scarcity of quality water in many communities compels inhabitants to use any available water resources for domestic, recreational, industrial and agricultural purposes. Global concern on the potential health hazards of anthropogenic inputs into our ecosystems imposes the need for constant monitoring of levels of pollutants in order to ensure compliance with internationally acceptable criteria. In this research, assessment of bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn was carried out using tissues of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) irrigated with water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam in Kazaure, Jigawa State. The metal concentrations were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The result of the analysis revealed the presence of the metals in varying concentrations. Cd and Co showed higher concentrations in the tubers of Manihot esculenta but all the other investigated metals were more concentrated in the leaves of the plant. Cd and Cu on the other hand showed higher concentration in the root of Ipomoea batatas while the remaining investigated metals were concentrated more in the leaves of the plant. The result of analysis of water samples from five sampling stations in the Dam showed the presence of the metals as follows: Cd, (0.063±0.02 mg/L), Co (0.086±0.03 mg/L), Cu (0.167±0.08 mg/L), Pb (0.22±0.01 mg/L) and Zn (0.047±0.01 mg/L) respectively. The results of bioaccumulation studies using the Bioaccumulation Factors (BAF) index indicated Ipomoea batatas to have higher bioaccumulation potential for Cd, Co and Cu while Pb and Zn were more accumulated in Manihot esculenta. The levels of the metals in both the water samples and plant tissues were all below the WHO permissible limit. This is indicative that the inhabitants of the community under investigation are not at any health risk.

Keywords: agriculture, bioaccumulation, heavy metal, plant tissues

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3279 Micro-CT Imaging Of Hard Tissues

Authors: Amir Davood Elmi

Abstract:

From the earliest light microscope to the most innovative X-ray imaging techniques, all of them have refined and improved our knowledge about the organization and composition of living tissues. The old techniques are time consuming and ultimately destructive to the tissues under the examination. In recent few decades, thanks to the boost of technology, non-destructive visualization techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), and optical projection tomography (OPT), have come to the forefront. Among these techniques, CT is excellent for mineralized tissues such as bone or dentine. In addition, CT it is faster than other aforementioned techniques and the sample remains intact. In this article, applications, advantages, and limitations of micro-CT is discussed, in addition to some information about micro-CT of soft tissue.

Keywords: Micro-CT, hard tissue, bone, attenuation coefficient, rapid prototyping

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3278 A Review on Silicon Based Induced Resistance in Plants against Insect Pests

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Kamran, Iqra

Abstract:

Development of resistance in insect pests against various groups of insecticides has prompted the use of alternative integrated pest management approaches. Among these induced host plant resistance represents an important strategy as it offers a practical, cheap and long lasting solution to keep pests populations below economic threshold level (ETL). Silicon (Si) has a major role in regulating plant eco-relationship by providing strength to the plant in the form of anti-stress mechanism which was utilized in coping with the environmental extremes to get a better yield and quality end produce. Among biotic stresses, insect herbivore signifies one class against which Si provide defense. Silicon in its neutral form (H₄SiO₄) is absorbed by the plants via roots through an active process accompanied by the help of different transporters which were located in the plasma membrane of root cells or by a passive process mostly regulated by transpiration stream, which occurs via the xylem cells along with the water. Plants tissues mainly the epidermal cell walls are the sinks of absorbed silicon where it polymerizes in the form of amorphous silica or monosilicic acid. The noteworthy function of this absorbed silicon is to provide structural rigidity to the tissues and strength to the cell walls. Silicon has both direct and indirect effects on insect herbivores. Increased abrasiveness and hardness of epidermal plant tissues and reduced digestibility as a result of deposition of Si primarily as phytoliths within cuticle layer is now the most authenticated mechanisms of Si in enhancing plant resistance to insect herbivores. Moreover, increased Si content in the diet also impedes the efficiency by which insects transformed consumed food into the body mass. The palatability of food material has also been changed by Si application, and it also deters herbivore feeding for food. The production of defensive compounds of plants like silica and phenols have also been amplified by the exogenous application of silicon sources which results in reduction of the probing time of certain insects. Some studies also highlighted the role of silicon at the third trophic level as it also attracts natural enemies of insects attacking the crop. Hence, the inclusion of Si in pest management approaches can be a healthy and eco-friendly tool in future.

Keywords: defensive, phytoliths, resistance, stresses

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3277 Phytotreatment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Soil by Chromolaena odorata L. King and Robinson

Authors: R. O. Anyasi, H. I. Atagana

Abstract:

In this study, phytoextraction ability of a weed on Aroclor 1254 was studied under greenhouse conditions. Chromolaena odorata plants were transplanted into soil containing 100, 200, and 500 ppm of Aroclor in 1L pots. The experiments were watered daily at 70 % moisture field capacity. Parameters such as fully expanded leaves per plant, shoot length, leaf chlorophyll content as well as root length at harvest were measured. PCB was not phytotoxic to C. odorata growth but plants in the 500 ppm treatment only showed diminished growth at the sixth week. Percentage increases in height of plant were 45.9, 39.4 and 40.0 for 100, 200 and 500 ppm treatments respectively. Such decreases were observed in the leaf numbers, root length and leaf chlorophyll concentration. The control sample showed 48.3 % increase in plant height which was not significant from the treated samples, an indication that C. odorata could survive such PCB concentration and could be used to remediate contaminated soil. Mean total PCB absorbed by C. odorata plant was between 6.40 and 64.60 ppm per kilogram of soil, leading to percentage PCB absorption of 0.03 and 17.03 % per kilogram of contaminated soil. PCBs were found mostly in the root tissues of the plants, and the Bioaccumulation factor were between 0.006-0.38. Total PCB absorbed by the plant increases as the concentration of the compound is increased. With these high BAF ensured, C. odorata could serve as a promising candidate plant in phytoextraction of PCB from a PCB-contaminated soil.

Keywords: phytoremediation, bioremediation, soil restoration, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), biological treatment, aroclor

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3276 Detection of Pollution in the Catchment Area of Baha Region by Using Some Common Plants as a Bioindicators

Authors: Saad M. Howladar

Abstract:

Although, there are a little data on the use of littoral plants as heavy metals bioaccumulators over large areas of the wetlands environment. So, soil samples and biomass of the five plant species: Pluchea dioscroides, Pulicaria crispa, Lavandula pubescens, Tarchononthus comporatus and Argemone ochroleuca were collected from two different sites (basin and mouth) of four dams at Baha province, KSA. Nutrients and heavy metals were extracted from plant samples (leaves and stems) for analyzing elements (Na, K, Ca, P and N) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Ni). The soils of the mouth of the dam had the highest concentrations of all elements, while that of basin had the highest ones of most heavy metals except Pb. The soil elements in relation to the two sites arranged as: Ca > K > P > Na > N; and the heavy metals as: Cu > Ni > Pb. The present study indicated that Pluchea dioscroides had the highest values of most elements and heavy metals, while Lavandula pubescens had the lowest. In general, leaves attain the highest concentrations of all nutrients and heavy metals in most studied species as compared with stem. It was indicated that Pluchea dioscroides showed a high transfer factor for almost elements and heavy metals such as K, Na, Cu, Ni and Pb, while Pulicaria crispa showed the highest translocation factor of N, P, Ca-Na ratio and Cu. All studied species growing in the basin had almost the highest concentrations of elements and heavy metals as compared with that in the mouth of dam except K in Pluchea dioscroides, Tarchononthus comporatus and Argemone ochroleuca tissues. Otherwise tissues of Tarchononthus comporatus growing in the basin had the lowest concentrations of K and Ni, while that growing in the mouth had the highest of P and N.

Keywords: Baha Region, bioindicators, plant, pollution, dams, heavy metals

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3275 Determination of Parasitic Load in Different Tissues of Murine Toxoplasmosis after Immunization by Excretory-Secretory Antigens using Real Time QPCR

Authors: Ahmad Daryani, Yousef Dadimoghaddam, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Baghar Hashemi

Abstract:

Background: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n= 18) and control (n= 18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2 weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. Results: ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P= 0.000). Conclusion: These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: parasitic load, murine toxoplasmosis, immunization, excretory-secretory antigens, real time QPCR

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3274 Toxicological Effects of Heavy Metals; Copper, Lead and Chromium on Brain and Liver Tissue of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Authors: Ahsan Khan, Nazish Shah, Muhammad Salman

Abstract:

The present study deals with the toxicological effects of copper, lead and chromium on brain and liver tissues of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The average length of experimental fish was 8.5 ± 5.5 cm and weighed 9.5 ± 6.5 g. Grass carp was exposed to lethal concentration (LC₁₅) of copper, lead and chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. (LC₁₅) for copper was 1.5, 1.4, 1.2 and 1mgL⁻¹. Similarly, LC₁₅ of lead was 250, 235, 225 and 216mgL⁻¹ while (LC₁₅) for chromium was 25.5, 22.5, 20 and 18mgL⁻¹ respectively. During the time of exposure against various doses of heavy metals the grass carp showed some behavioral changes. In the initial stages of experiment, the rapid movements and gulping of air were observed. Several times the fish tried to jump to scat from the toxic median. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues of grass carp particularly in liver and brain tissues were observed. Lead was highly accumulated in brain tissue after the exposure of fish for 24 and 48 hours, while highly accumulated in liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 72 and 96 hours. Chromium was highly accumulated in the liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 24 hours while its accumulation was found highly in the brain tissues after the exposure of fish for 48, 72 and 96 hours. Similarly, accumulation of copper concentration was found highly in brain tissues after the exposure of 48 and 96 hours while its accumulation was high in liver tissues after the exposure of 24 and 72 hours. Comparatively maximum accumulation of lead was found in brain and liver tissues of grass carp followed by chromium and copper. Furthermore, accumulation of these metals caused many abnormalities like gliosis, destruction of cell, change in cell shape and shrinkage of cells in brain tissue while in liver tissues aggregation in hepatocytes, widen space between cells and also destruction of cell was observed. These experiments and observations can be useful to monitor the aquatic pollution and quality of aquatic environment system.

Keywords: brain, grass carp, liver, lethal concentration, toxicity

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3273 Exploitation of Endophytes for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Authors: N. P. Eswara Reddy, S. Thahir Basha

Abstract:

Here, we report the success stories of potential leaf, seed and root endophytes against soil borne as well as foliar plant pathogens which are nutritionally adequate and safe for consumption. Endophytes are the microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants are a robust source of potential biocontrol agents and it is presumed that the survival ability of endophytes may be better when compared to phylloplane microflora. Of all the 68 putative leaf endophytes, the endophytes viz., EB9 (100%), and EB35 (100%) which were superior in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing mango anthracnose were identified as Brevundimonas bullata (EB09) and Bacillus thuringiensis (EB35) and further delayed in ripening of mango fruits up to 21 days. As a part, the seed endophyte GSE-4 was identified as Archoromobacter spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut and the root endophyte REB-8 against Rhizoctonia bataticola causing dry root rot of chickpea was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Both recorded least percent disease incidence (PDI) and increased plant growth promotion, respectively. Further, the novel Bacillus subtilis (SEB-2) against Macrophomina pahseolina causing charcoal rot of sunflower provides an ample scope for exploring the endophytes at large scale. The talc-based formulations of these endophytes developed can be commercialized after toxicological studies. At the bottom line these unexplored endophytes are the need of the hour against aggressive plant pathogens and to maintain the quality and abundance of food and feed and also to fetch marginal economy to the farmers will be discussed.

Keywords: endophytes, plant pathogens, commercialization, abundance of food

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3272 Histopathological Changes in Liver and Muscle of Tilapia Fish from QIRE Exposed to Concentrations of Heavy Metals

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

Abstract:

Toxicity of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) to Tilapia guinensis was carried out for 4 days with a view to determining their effects on the liver and muscle tissues. Tilapia guinensis samples of about 10 - 14cm length and 0.2 – 0.4kg weight each were obtained from University of Calabar fish ponds and acclimated for three (3) days before the experimental set up. Survivors after the 96-hr LC50 test period were selected from test solutions of the heavy metals for the histopathological studies. Histological preparations of liver and muscle tissues were randomly examined for histopathological lesions. Results of the histological examinations showed gross abnormalities in the liver tissues due to pathological and degenerative changes compared to liver and muscle tissues from control samples (tilapia fishes from aquaria without heavy metals). Extensive hepatocyte necrosis with chronic inflammatory changes was observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Cu solution. Similar but less damaging effects were observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Pb and Fe. The extent of lesion observed was therefore heavy metal-related. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the muscle tissues.

Keywords: degenerative changes, heavy metal, hepatocyte necrosis, histopathology, toxicity

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3271 Species Selection for Phytoremediation of Barium Polluted Flooded Soils

Authors: Fabio R. Pires, Paulo R. C. C. Ribeiro, Douglas G. Viana, Robson Bonomo, Fernando B. Egreja Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Luiz F. Martins, Leila B. S. Cruz, Mauro C. P. Nascimento

Abstract:

The use of barite (BaSO₄) as a weighting agent in drilling fluids for oil and gas activities makes barium a potential contaminant in the case of spills onto flooded soils, where barium sulfate solubility is increased due to low redox conditions. In order to select plants able to remove barium in such scenarios, seven plant species were evaluated on barium phytoextraction capacity: Brachiaria arrecta; Cyperus cf. papyrus; Eleocharis acutangula; Eleocharis interstincta; Nephrolepsis cf. rivularis; Paspalum conspersum and Typha domingensis. Plants were grown in pots with 13 kg of soil each, and exposed to six barium concentrations (established with BaCl₂): 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0; 30.0; 65.0 mg kg-1. To simulate flooding conditions, every pot was manteined with a thin irrigation water depth over soil surface (~1.0 cm). Treatments were carried out in triplicate, and pots were distributed randomly inside the greenhouse. Biometric and chemical analyses were performed throughout the experiment, including Ba²⁺ accumulation in shoots and roots. The highest amount of barium was observed in T. domingensis biomass, followed by C. cf. papyrus. However, the latter exported most of the barium to shoot, especially in higher BaCl₂ doses, while the former accumulated barium preferentially in roots. Thus, barium removal with C. cf. papyrus could be achieved by simply harvesting aerial biomass. The amount of barium in C. cf. papyrus was a consequence of high biomass production rather than barium concentration in plant tissues, whereas T. domingensis showed high barium concentration in plant tissues and high biomass production as well. These results make T. domingensis and C. cf. papyrus potential candidates to be applied in phytoremediation schemes to remove barium from flooded soils.

Keywords: barium sulfate, cyperus, drilling fluids, phytoextraction, Typha

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3270 Selection of Endophytcs Fungi Isolated from Date Palm, Halotolerants and Productors of Secondary Metabolite

Authors: Fadila Mohamed Mahmoud., Derkaoui I., Krimi Z.

Abstract:

Date palm is a plant which presents a very good adaptation to the difficult conditions of the environment in particular to the drought and saline stress even at high temperatures. This adaptation is related on the biology of the plant and to the presence of a microflora endophyte which live inside its tissues. Fifteen endophytics fungi isolated from date palm were tested in vitro in the presence of various NaCl concentrations to select halotolerantes isolates. These same endophytes were tested for their colonizing capacity by the description of the production of secondary metabolites more particularly the enzymes (pectinases, proteases, and phosphorylases), and the production of antibiotics and growth hormones. Significant difference was observed between the isolates with respect to the tests carried out.

Keywords: Date palm, Halotolerantes, endophyte, Secondary metabolites.

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3269 Mechanical Properties of Biological Tissues

Authors: Young June Yoon

Abstract:

We will present four different topics in estimating the mechanical properties of biological tissues. First we elucidate the viscoelastic behavior of collagen molecules whose diameter is a couple of nanometers. By using the molecular dynamics simulation, we observed the viscoelastic behavior in different pulling velocity. Second, the protein layer, so called ‘sheath’ in enamel microstructure reduces the stress concentration in enamel minerals. We examined the result by using the finite element methods. Third, the anisotropic elastic constants of dentin are estimated by micromechanical analysis and estimated results are close to the experimentally measured data. Last, new formulation between the fabric tensor and the wave velocity is established for calcaneus by employing the poroelasticity. This formulation can be simply used for future experiments.

Keywords: tissues, mechanics, mechanical properties, wave propagation

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3268 An Inquiry on Imaging of Soft Tissues in Micro-Computed Tomography

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jana Mrzilkova, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Zdenek Wurst, Petr Zach, Vladimir Musil

Abstract:

Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to elaborate methodology for soft tissue samples imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of rats and mice. We either did a preparation of the organs and fixation in contrast solution or we did cannulation of blood vessels and their injection for imaging of the vascular system. First, we scanned native specimens, then we created corrosive specimens by resins. In the next step, we injected vascular system either by Aurovist contrast agent or by Exitron. In the next step, we focused on soft tissues contrast increase. We scanned samples fixated in Lugol solution, samples fixated in pure ethanol and in formaldehyde solution. All used methods were afterwards compared. Results: Native specimens did not provide sufficient contrast of the tissues in any of organs. Corrosive samples of the blood stream provided great contrast and details; on the other hand, it was necessary to destroy the organ. Further examined possibility was injection of the AuroVist contrast that leads to the great bloodstream contrast. Injection of Exitron contrast agent comparing to Aurovist did not provide such a great contrast. The soft tissues (kidney, heart, lungs, brain, and liver) were best visualized after fixation in ethanol. This type of fixation showed best results in all studied tissues. Lugol solution had great results in muscle tissue. Fixation by formaldehyde solution showed similar quality of contrast in the tissues like ethanol. Conclusion: Before imaging, we need to, first, determinate which structures of the soft tissues we want to visualize. In the case of the bloodstream, the best was AuroVist and corrosive specimens. Muscle tissue is best visualized by Lugol solution. In the case of the organs containing cavities, like kidneys or brain, the best way was ethanol fixation.

Keywords: experimental imaging, fixation, micro-CT, soft tissues

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3267 Iterative Design Process for Development and Virtual Commissioning of Plant Control Software

Authors: Thorsten Prante, Robert Schöch, Ruth Fleisch, Vaheh Khachatouri, Alexander Walch

Abstract:

The development of industrial plant control software is a complex and often very expensive task. One of the core problems is that a lot of the implementation and adaptation work can only be done after the plant hardware has been installed. In this paper, we present our approach to virtually developing and validating plant-level control software of production plants. This way, plant control software can be virtually commissioned before actual ramp-up of a plant, reducing actual commissioning costs and time. Technically, this is achieved by linking the actual plant-wide process control software (often called plant server) and an elaborate virtual plant model together to form an emulation system. Method-wise, we are suggesting a four-step iterative process with well-defined increments and time frame. Our work is based on practical experiences from planning to commissioning and start-up of several cut-to-size plants.

Keywords: iterative system design, virtual plant engineering, plant control software, simulation and emulation, virtual commissioning

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3266 Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobacteria (Rhizobium mililoti 2011) Enhances the Tolerance and the Accumulation of Cadmium in Medicago sativa

Authors: Tahar Ghnaya, Majda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Rim Ghabriche, Chedly Abdelly

Abstract:

It is known that the symbiotic association between plant and microorganisms are beneficial for plant growth and resistance to metal stress. Hence, it was demonstrated that Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have a positive effect on host plants growing in metal polluted soils. Legume plants are those which normally associate to rhizobacteria in order to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect this type of symbiosis on the tolerance and the accumulation of Cd. We chose Medicago sativa, as a modal for host legume plants and Rhizobium mililoti 2011 as rhizobial strain. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants of M. sativa were submitted during three month to 0, 50, and 100 mgCd/kg dry soil. Results showed that the presence of Cd in the medium induced, in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants, a chlorosis and necrosis. However, these symptoms were more pronounced in non-inoculated plants. The beneficial effect of inoculation of M. sativa with R. meliloti, on plant growth was confirmed by the measurement of biomass production which showed that the symbiotic association between host plant and rhizobacteria alleviates significantly Cd effect on biomass production, so inoculated plants produced more dry weight as compared to non-inoculated ones in the presence of all Cd tretments. On the other hand, under symbiosis conditions, Cd was more accumulated in different plant organs. Hence, in these plants, shoot Cd concentration reached 425 and it was 280 µg/gDW in non-inoculated ones in the presence of 100 ppm Cd. This result suggests that symbiosis enhances the absorption and translocation of Cd in this plant. In nodules and roots, we detected the highest Cd concentrations, demonstrating that these organs are able to concentrate Cd in their tissues. These data confirm that M. sataiva, cultivated in symbiosis with Rhizobium mililoti could be used in phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils.

Keywords: Cd, phytoremediation, Medicago sativa, Arbuscular mycorrhizal

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3265 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan

Abstract:

The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

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3264 Thermal Efficiency Analysis and Optimal of Feed Water Heater for Mae Moh Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khomkrit Mongkhuntod, Chatchawal Chaichana, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

Feed Water Heater is the important equipment for thermal power plant. The heating temperature from feed heating process is an impact to power plant efficiency or heat rate. Normally, the degradation of feed water heater that operated for a long time is effect to decrease plant efficiency or increase plant heat rate. For Mae Moh power plant, each unit operated more than 20 years. The degradation of the main equipment is effect of planting efficiency or heat rate. From the efficiency and heat rate analysis, Mae Moh power plant operated in high heat rate more than the commissioning period. Some of the equipment were replaced for improving plant efficiency and plant heat rates such as HP turbine and LP turbine that the result is increased plant efficiency by 5% and decrease plant heat rate by 1%. For the target of power generation plan that Mae Moh power plant must be operated more than 10 years. These work is focus on thermal efficiency analysis of feed water heater to compare with the commissioning data for find the way to improve the feed water heater efficiency that may effect to increase plant efficiency or decrease plant heat rate by use heat balance model simulation and economic value add (EVA) method to study the investment for replacing the new feed water heater and analyze how this project can stay above the break-even point to make the project decision.

Keywords: feed water heater, power plant efficiency, plant heat rate, thermal efficiency analysis

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3263 Eradication of Apple mosaic virus from Corylus avellana L. via Cryotherapy and Confirmation of Virus-Free Plants via Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Ergun Kaya

Abstract:

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is an ilarvirus causing harmful damages and product loses in many plant species. Because of xylem and phloem vessels absence, plant meristem tissues used for meristem cultures are virus-free, but sometimes only meristem cultures are not sufficient for virus elimination. Cryotherapy, a new method based on cryogenic techniques, is used for virus elimination. In this technique, 0.1-0.3mm meristems are excised from organized shoot apex of a selected in vitro donor plant and these meristems are frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using suitable cryogenic technique. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient procedure for ApMV-free hazelnut via cryotherapy technique and confirmation of virus-free plants using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR technique. 100% virus free plantlets were obtained using droplet-vitrification method involved cold hardening in vitro cultures of hazelnut, 24 hours sucrose preculture of meristems on MS medium supplemented with 0.4M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets.

Keywords: droplet vitrification, hazelnut, liquid nitrogen, PVS2

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3262 Simulation Modeling and Analysis of In-Plant Logistics at a Cement Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Sachin Kamble, Shradha Gawankar

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of successful implementation of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) of cement dispatch activities in a cement manufacturing plant located in India. Simulation model was developed for the purpose of identifying and analyzing the areas for improvement. The company was facing a problem of low throughput rate and subsequent forced stoppages of the plant leading to a high production loss of 15000MT per month. It was found from the study that the present systems and procedures related to the in-plant logistics plant required significant changes. The major recommendations included process improvement at the entry gate, reducing the cycle time at the security gate and installation of an additional weigh bridge. This paper demonstrates how BPR can be implemented for improving the in-plant logistics process. Various recommendations helped the plant to increase its throughput by 14%.

Keywords: in-plant logistics, cement logistics, simulation modelling, business process re-engineering, supply chain management

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3261 Histopathological Features of Infections Caused by Fusarium equiseti (Mart.) Sacc. in Onion Plants from Kebbi State, Northern Nigeria

Authors: Wadzani Dauda Palnam, Alao S. Emmanuel Laykay, Afiniki Bawa Zarafi, Olufunmilola Alabi, Dora N. Iortsuun

Abstract:

Onion production is affected by several diseases including fusariosis. Study was conducted to investigate the histopathological features of different onion tissues infected with Fusarium equiseti by inoculation with soil drench, root dip and mycelia paste methods. This was carried out by fixation, dehydration, clearing, wax embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting of leaf and root sections for microscopical examination at 400x. Once infection occurred in the roots, the pathogen moved through the vascular system to colonize the whole plant. At first, it grew in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex but soon invaded the cells, followed by colonization of the cells by its hyphae and microconidia. At later stages of infection, the cortex tissue became completely disorganized and decomposed as the pathogen advance to the shoot system via the vessel elements; this may be responsible for the early wilting symptom of infected plants arising from the severe water stress due to blockage of the xylem tissues.

Keywords: onion, histopathology, infection, fusaria, inoculation

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3260 The Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma(PRP) on Wounds of OLEFT Rats Using Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA

Authors: Ho Seong Shin

Abstract:

Introduction: A research in relation to wound healing also showed that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was effective on normal tissue regeneration. Nonetheless, there is no evidence that when platelet-rich plasma was applied on diabetic wound, it normalize diabetic wound healing process. In this study, we have analyzed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression to know the effect of PRP on diabetic wounds using Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA. Materials and Methods: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from blood of 6 rats. The whole 120-mL was added immediately to an anticoagulant. Citrate phosphonate dextrose(CPD) buffer (0.15 mg CPDmL) in a ratio of 1 mL of CPD buffer to 5 mL of blood. The blood was then centrifuged at 220g for 20minutes. The supernatant was saved to produce fibrin glue. The participate containing PRP was used for second centrifugation at 480g for 20 minutes. The pellet from the second centrifugation was saved and diluted with supernatant until the platelet concentration became 900,000/μL. Twenty male, 4week-old OLETF rats were underwent operation; each rat had two wounds created on left and right sides. The each wound of left side was treated with PRP gel, the wound of right side was treated with physiologic saline gauze. Results: RT-PCR analysis; The levels of MMP-2 mRNA in PRP applied tissues were positively related to postwounding days, whereas MMP-2 mRNA expression in saline-applied tissues remained in 5day after treatment. MMP-9 mRNA was undetectable in saline-applied tissues for either tissue, except 3day after treatment. Following PRP-applied tissues, MMP-9 mRNA expression was detected, with maximal expression being seen at third day. The levels of MMP-9 mRNA in PRP applied tissues were reported high intensity of optical density related to saline applied tissues.

Keywords: diabetes, MMP-2, MMP-9, OLETF, PRP, wound healing MMP-9

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3259 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour

Abstract:

The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

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3258 Levels of Toxic Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, Atiq A. Mian

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: lethrinus miniatus, arabian gulf, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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3257 Levels of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS). Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found to be 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus Miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: Arabian gulf, Lethrinus miniatus, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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3256 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

Abstract:

Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, colonization, growth, potato

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3255 Association of MMP-2,-9 Overexpression and Imbalance PGR-A/PGR-B Ratio in Endometriosis

Authors: P. Afsharian, S. Mousazadeh, M. Shahhoseini, R. Aflatoonian

Abstract:

Introduction: Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix components to provide normal remodeling and contribute to pathological tissue destruction and cell migration in endometriosis. It is accepted that MMPs are resistant to suppression by progesterone in endometriotic tissues. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by its two progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms, namely PGR-A and PGR-B. The capacity of progesterone affect to gene expression is dependent on the PGR-A/PGR-B ratio. The imbalance ratio in endometriotic tissue may be an important mechanism to be resulted in Progesterone resistance and modify progesterone action via differential regulation of specific progesterone response genes and improve endometriosis disease. Material and methods: RNA was extracted from twenty ectopic (endometriotic) and eutopic (endometrial) tissue samples of women undergoing laparoscopy for endometriosis and 20 healthy fertile women at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. Analysis of PGR-A, PGR-B, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression was performed using Real-time PCR in ectopic and eutopic tissues. Then, Statistical analysis was calculated according to the 2-ΔΔCT equation for all samples. Results: Quantitative RT–PCR analyses of PGR-A and PGR-B mRNA revealed that there were differences in both isoformes of PGRs mRNA expressions between ectopic and control eutopic tissues. We were able to demonstrate low expression levels of PGR-B isoforms in ectopic tissues. Although, PGR-A expression was significantly higher in the same ectopic samples compare to controls.This method permitted us to demonstrate significant overexpression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in ectopic samples compared to control endometrial tissues, as well. Conclusions: Our data suggest that low expression levels of PGR-B and overexpression of PGR-A can alter PGR-A/PGR-B ratio in endometriotic ectopic tissues. Imbalance ratio of PGRs in endometriotic tissue may be able to consequence MMP-2 and MMP-9 overexpression which can be important in pathogenesis and treatment of disease.

Keywords: endometriosis, matrix metalloproteinases, progesterone receptor -A and -B, PGR-A/PGR-B ratio

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3254 Numerical Simulation of Bio-Chemical Diffusion in Bone Scaffolds

Authors: Masoud Madadelahi, Amir Shamloo, Seyedeh Sara Salehi

Abstract:

Previously, some materials like solid metals and their alloys have been used as implants in human’s body. In order to amend fixation of these artificial hard human tissues, some porous structures have been introduced. In this way, tissues in vicinity of the porous structure can be attached more easily to the inserted implant. In particular, the porous bone scaffolds are useful since they can deliver important biomolecules like growth factors and proteins. This study focuses on the properties of the degradable porous hard tissues using a three-dimensional numerical Finite Element Method (FEM). The most important studied properties of these structures are diffusivity flux and concentration of different species like glucose, oxygen, and lactate. The process of cells migration into the scaffold is considered as a diffusion process, and related parameters are studied for different values of production/consumption rates.

Keywords: bone scaffolds, diffusivity, numerical simulation, tissue engineering

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3253 Comparision of Neospora caninum Experimental Infection in Pigeons and Chickens Embryonated Eggs

Authors: S. Bahrami, A. Rezaie, Z. Boroumand, S. Ghavami

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Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite which can cause a serious disease in dogs and cattle. It has been shown that birds may be a permissive intermediate host for N. caninum since parasite DNA has been detected in tissues from birds. It is showed that embryonated chicken egg can be used as an animal model for experimental infection. The aim of present study was to compare experimental infection of Neospora in chicken and pigeons embryonated eggs. An infection with N. caninum Nc1 isolate was conducted in chicken and pigeons embryonated eggs to evaluate LD50. After calculation of LD50, 2LD50 of tachyzoites were injected to eggs. Macroscopic changes of each embryo were noticed and to investigate the parasite distribution in tissues immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular methods were used. In the present study, histopathological changes were considered and sections to those used for histopathological examination including heart, liver, brain and chorioallantoic (CA) membrane were subjected to IHC, too. For PCR procedure, primer pair Np21/Np6 was used for amplification of the Nc5 gene. Pigeon's embryo showed more macroscopic changes than chicken embryo. A hemorrhage of the CA was the main grass lesion. All the infected tissues had histopathological changes. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute neosporosis due to hemorrhage, necrosis and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Based on IHC and molecular results, the parasite aggregation in the heart was more predominant than in the other tissues. These results reinforce that there is genetic susceptibility to N. caninum in pigeons embryonated eggs like chickens embryonated eggs and provide new insights to research an inexpensive and available animal model for N. caninum.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry, Neospora caninum, PCR, pigeon embryonated egg

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3252 Microdosimetry in Biological Cells: A Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Hamidreza Jabal Ameli, Anahita Movahedi

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Purpose: In radionuclide therapy, radioactive atoms are coupled to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for treating cancer tumor while limiting radiation to healthy tissues. We know that tumoral and normal tissues are not equally sensitive to radiation. In fact, biological effects such as cellular repair processes or the presence of less radiosensitive cells such as hypoxic cells should be taken account. For this reason, in this paper, we want to calculate biological effect dose (BED) inside tumoral area and healthy cells around tumors. Methods: In this study, deposited doses of a radionuclide, gold-198, inside cells lattice and surrounding healthy tissues were calculated with Monte Carlo method. The elemental compositions and density of malignant and healthy tissues were obtained from ICRU Report 44. For reaching to real condition of oxygen effects, the necrosis and hypoxia area inside tumors has been assessed. Results: With regard to linear-quadratic expression which was defined in Monte Carlo, results showed that a large amount of BED is deposited in the well-oxygenated part of the hypoxia area compared to necrosis area. Moreover, there is a significant difference between the curves of absorbed dose with BED and without BED.

Keywords: biological dose, monte carlo, hypoxia, radionuclide therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 379