Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8174

Search results for: functional group

8174 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
8173 Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Functional Training for Female College Students' Physical Fitness and Sport Skills

Authors: Yangming Zhu, Mingming Guo, Xiaozan Wang

Abstract:

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to integrate functional training into physical education to test the effectiveness of functional training in improving the physical fitness (PF) and sport skills (SS) of female college students. Methods: A total of 54 female college students from East China Normal University were selected for this study (27 in the experimental group and 27 in the control group), and 13 weeks of the experimental intervention was conducted during the semester. During the experimental period, the experimental group was functionally trained for 1 hour per week. The control group performed one-hour weekly sports (such as basketball, football, etc.) as usual. Before and after the experiment, the national students' physical fitness test was used to test the PF of the experimental group and the control group, and the SS of the experimental group and the control group were tested before and after the intervention. Then using SPSS and Excel to organize and analyze the data. Results: The independent sample T-test showed that there was no significant difference in the PF and SS between the experimental group and the control group before the experiment (T PF=71.86, p PF> 0.05, Tₛₛ=82.41,pₛₛ > 0.05); After the experiment, the PF of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (T Improve=71.86, p Improve < 0.05); after the experiment, the SS of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (Tₛₛ = 1.31, pₛₛ <0.01) Conclusions: Integrating functional training into physical education can improve the PF of female college students. At the same time, the integration of functional training into physical education can also effectively improve the SS of female college students. Therefore, it is suggested that functional training be integrated into the daily physical education of female college students so as to improve their PF and SS.

Keywords: functional training, physical fitness, sport skills, female college students

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8172 Dynamic Balance and Functional Performance in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: Mahmoud Ghazy, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi

Abstract:

Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following total hip Arthroplasty (THA), patients usually feel un-satisfied. Methods: Thirty patients with THA (group I) and thirty indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group II) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs. Results: group I had significantly lower TUG and SC time compared with group II four weeks and three months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly four weeks and three months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- operatively in group. But no significant differences in BBS scores four weeks and three months post-operatively in group I compared with group II. Interpretation/Conclusion : Patients with THA still have defects in proprioception, so they needs more concentration on proprioception training.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, hip arthroplasty, total

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8171 The Effectiveness of Using Functional Rehabilitation with Children of Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Bara Yousef

Abstract:

The development of independency and functional participation is an important therapeutic goal for many children with cerebral palsy,They was many therapeutic approach have been used for treatment those children like neurodevelopment treatment, balance training strengthening and stretching exercise. More recently, therapy for children with cerebral palsy has focused on achieving functional goals using task-oriented interventions and summer camping model, which focus on activities that relevant and meaningful to the child, to learn more efficient and effective motor skills. We explore the effectiveness of using functional rehabilitation comparing with regular rehabilitation among 40 Saudi children with cerebral palsy in pediatric unit at Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz Humanitarian City-Ksa ,where 20 children randomly assign in control group who received rehabilitation based on regular therapy approach and other 20 children assign on experiment group who received rehabilitation based on functional therapy approach with an average of 45min OT treatment and 45 min PT treatment- daily within a period of 6 week. Our finding reported that children in experiment group has improved in gross motor function with an average from 49.4 to 57.6 based on GMFM 66 as primary outcome measure and improved in WeeFIM with an average from 52 to 62 while children in control group has improved with an average from 48.4 to 53.7 in GMFM and from 53 to and 58 in WeeFIM. Consequently, there has been growing interest in determining the effects of functional training programs as promising approach for these children.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy (CP), gross motor function measure (GMFM66), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, disability

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8170 Effect of Hydroxyl Functionalization on the Mechanical and Fracture Behaviour of Monolayer Graphene

Authors: Akarsh Verma, Avinash Parashar

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The aim of this article is to study the effects of hydroxyl functional group on the mechanical strength and fracture toughness of graphene. This functional group forms the backbone of intrinsic atomic structure of graphene oxide (GO). Molecular dynamics-based simulations were performed in conjunction with reactive force field (ReaxFF) parameters to capture the mode-I fracture toughness of hydroxyl functionalised graphene. Moreover, these simulations helped in concluding that spatial distribution and concentration of hydroxyl functional group significantly affects the fracture morphology of graphene nanosheet. In contrast to literature investigations, atomistic simulations predicted a transition in the failure morphology of hydroxyl functionalised graphene from brittle to ductile as a function of its spatial distribution on graphene sheet.

Keywords: graphene, graphene oxide, ReaxFF, molecular dynamics

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8169 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: adsorption-cross linking, immobilization, lipase, resin

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8168 Design of Middleware for Mobile Group Control in Physical Proximity

Authors: Moon-Tak Oh, Kyung-Min Park, Tae-Eun Yoon, Hoon Choi, Chil-Woo Lee

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This paper is about middle-ware which enables group-user applications on mobile devices in physical proximity to interact with other devices without intervention of a central server. Requirements of the middle-ware are identified from service usage scenarios, and the functional architecture of the middle-ware is specified. These requirements include group management, synchronization, and resource management. Group Management needs to provide various capabilities to such applications with respect to managing multiple users (e.g., creation of groups, discovery of group or individual users, member join/leave, election of a group manager and service-group association) using D2D communication technology. We designed the middle-ware for the above requirements on the Android platform.

Keywords: group user, middleware, mobile service, physical proximity

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8167 Effect of Rehabilitative Nursing Program on Pain Intensity and Functional Status among Patients with Discectomy

Authors: Amal Shehata

Abstract:

Low back pain related to disc prolapse is localized in the lumbar area and it may be radiated to the lower extremities, starting from neurons near or around the spinal canal. Most of the population may be affected with disc prolapse within their lifetime and leads to lost productivity, disability and loss of function. The study purpose was to examine the effect of rehabilitative nursing program on pain intensity and functional status among patients with discectomy. Design: Aquasi experimental design was utilized. Setting: The study was carried out at neurosurgery department and out patient's clinic of Menoufia University and Teaching hospitals at Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Instrument of the study: Five Instruments were used for data collection: Structured interviewing questionnaire, Functional assessment instrument, Observational check list, Numeric rating Scale and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire. Results: There was an improvement in mean total knowledge score about disease process, discectomy and rehabilitation program in study group (25.32%) than control group (7.32%). There was highly statistically significant improvement in lumbar flexibility among study group (80%) than control group (30%) after rehabilitation program than before. Also there was a decrease in pain score in study group (58% no pain) than control group (28% no pain) after rehabilitation program. There was an improvement in total disability score of study group (zero %) regarding effect of pain on the activity of daily living after rehabilitation program than control group (16%). Conclusion: Application of rehabilitative nursing program for patient with discectomy had proven a positive effect in relation to knowledge score, pain reduction, activity of daily living and functional abilities. Recommendation: A continuous rehabilitative nursing program should be carried out for all patients immediately after discectomy surgery on regular basis. Also A colored illustrated booklet about rehabilitation program should be available and distributed for all patients before surgery.

Keywords: discectomy, rehabilitative nursing program, pain intensity, functional status

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8166 The Influence of Superordinate Identity and Group Size on Group Decision Making through Discussion

Authors: Lin Peng, Jin Zhang, Yuanyuan Miao, Quanquan Zheng

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Group discussion and group decision-making have long been a topic of research interest. Traditional research on group decision making typically focuses on the strategies or functional models of combining members’ preferences to reach an optimal consensus. In this research, we want to explore natural process group decision making through discussion and examine relevant, influential factors--common superordinate identity shared by group and size of the groups. We manipulated the social identity of the groups into either a shared superordinate identity or different subgroup identities. We also manipulated the size to make it either a big (6-8 person) group or small group (3-person group). Using experimental methods, we found members of a superordinate identity group tend to modify more of their own opinions through the discussion, compared to those only identifying with their subgroups. Besides, members of superordinate identity groups also formed stronger identification with group decision--the results of group discussion than their subgroup peers. We also found higher member modification in bigger groups compared to smaller groups. Evaluations of decisions before and after discussion as well as group decisions are strongly linked to group identity, as members of superordinate group feel more confident and satisfied with both the results and decision-making process. Members’ opinions are more similar and homogeneous in smaller groups compared to bigger groups. This research have many implications for further research and applied behaviors in organizations.

Keywords: group decision making, group size, identification, modification, superordinate identity

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8165 Effect of Muscle Energy Technique on Anterior Pelvic Tilt in Lumbar Spondylosis Patients

Authors: Enas El Sayed Abutaleb, Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Shahenda Abd El Rasol

Abstract:

Background: Muscle energy techniques (MET) have been widely used by manual therapists over the past years, but still limited research validated its use and there was limited evidence to substantiate the theories used to explain its effects. Objective: To investigate the effect of muscle energy technique (MET) on anterior pelvic tilt in patients with lumbar spondylosis. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Subjects: Thirty patients with anterior pelvic tilt from both sexes were involved, aged between 35 to 50 years old and they were divided into MET and control groups with 15 patients in each. Methods: All patients received 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks where the study group received MET, Ultrasound and Infrared, and the control group received U.S and I.R only. Pelvic angle was measured by palpation meter, pain severity by the visual analogue scale and functional disabilities by the Oswestry disability index. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in all measured variables. The MET group was significantly better than the control group in pelvic angle, pain severity, and functional disability as p-value were (0.001, 0.0001, 0.0001) respectively. Conclusion and implication: The study group fulfilled greater improvement in all measured variables than the control group which implies that application of MET in combination with U.S and I.R were more effective in improving pelvic tilting angle, pain severity and functional disabilities than using electrotherapy only.

Keywords: anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar spondylosis, muscle energy technique exercise, pelvic tilting angle

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8164 Long-Term Follow-Up of Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein

Abstract:

Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel unsatisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much. Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation. Methods: Thirty patients with CRTKA (group I), thirty with PSTKA (group II) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively, three, six and twelve months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs, follow-up to all groups for twelve months. Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II three, six and twelve months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly six months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively in group I and II with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively. But no significant differences in BBS scores, pain scores and TUG and SC time between six and twelve months post-operatively in group I and II. Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised PCL.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, knee arthroplasty, long-term

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8163 Biomechanical Evaluation of the Chronic Stroke with 3D-Printed Hand Device

Authors: Chen-Sheng Chen, Tsung-Yi Huang, Pi-Chang Sun

Abstract:

Chronic stroke patients often have complaints about hand dysfunction due to flexor hypertonia and extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independence. Constraint-induced movement therapy has shown to be a successful treatment for patients who have acquired certain level of wrist and finger extension. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of task-oriented approach incorporating 3D-printed dynamic hand device by evaluating hand functional performance. This study manufactured a hand device using 3d printer for chronic stroke. The experimental group engaged task-oriented approach with dynamic hand device, but the control group only received task-oriented approach. Outcome measurements include palmar pinch force (PPF), lateral pinch force (LPF), grip force (GF), and Box and Blocks Test (BBT). The results of study revealed the improvement of PPF in experimental group but not in control group. Meanwhile, improvement in LPF, GF and BBT can be found in both groups. This study demonstrates that the 3D-printed dynamic hand device is an effective therapeutic assistive device to improve pinch force, grasp force, and dexterity and facilitate motivation during home program in individuals with chronic stroke.

Keywords: 3D printing, biomechanics, hand orthosis, stroke

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8162 Further Evidence for the Existence of Broiler Chicken PFN (Pale, Firm and Non-Exudative Meat) and PSE (Pale, Soft and Exudative) in Brazilian Commercial Flocks

Authors: Leila M. Carvalho, Maria Erica S. Oliveira, Arnoud C. Neto, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Marta S. Madruga

Abstract:

The quality of broiler breast meat is changing as a result of the continuing emphasis on genetic selection for a more efficient meat production. Breast meat has been classified as PSE (pale, soft, exudative), DFD (dark, firm, dry) and normal color meat, and recently a third group has emerged: the so-called PFN (pale, firm, non-exudative) meat. This classification was based on pH, color and functional properties. The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of PFN and PSE meat by biochemical characterization and functional properties. Twenty four hours of refrigerated fillet, Pectoralis major, m. samples (n= 838) were taken from Cobb flocks 42-48 days old, obtained in Northeastern Brazil tropical region, the Northeastern, considered to have only dry and wet seasons. Color (L*), pH, water holding capacity (WHC), values were evaluated and compared with PSE group samples. These samples were classified as Normal (465.8), PSE meat (L*≥53; pH<5.8) and PFN (L*≥53; pH>5.8). The occurrence of control meat, PSE and PFN was 69.09%, 11.10% and 19.81%, respectively. Samples from PFN presented 4.0-5.0% higher WHC in relation to PSE meat and similar to control group. These results are explained by the fact that PSE meat syndrome occurs because of higher protein denaturation as the consequence of a simultaneous lower pH values under warm carcass sooner after slaughtering impairing the myofibril proteins functional properties. Conversely, PFN samples follow normal glycolysis rate maintaining the normal proteins activities. In conclusion, the results reported herein confirm the existence of this emerging broiler meat group with similar properties as control group and it should be considered as normal breast meat group.

Keywords: broiler breast meat, funcional properties, PFN, PSE

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8161 Similarity of the Disposition of the Electrostatic Potential of Tetrazole and Carboxylic Group to Investigate Their Bioisosteric Relationship

Authors: Alya A. Arabi

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Bioisosteres are functional groups that can be interchangeably used without affecting the potency of the drug. Bioisosteres have similar pharmacological properties. Bioisosterism is useful for modifying the physicochemical properties of a drug while obeying the Lipinski’s rules. Bioisosteres are key in optimizing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of a drug. Tetrazole and carboxylate anions are non-classic bioisosteres. Density functional theory was used to obtain the wavefunction of the molecules and the optimized geometries. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to uncover the similarity of the average electron density in tetrazole and carboxylate anions. This similarity between the bioisosteres capped by a methyl group was valid despite the fact that the groups have different volumes, charges, energies, or electron populations. The biochemical correspondence of tetrazole and carboxylic acid was also determined to be a result of the similarity of the topography of the electrostatic potential (ESP). The ESP demonstrates the pharmacological and biochemical resemblance for a matching “key-and-lock” interaction.

Keywords: bioisosteres, carboxylic acid, density functional theory, electrostatic potential, tetrazole

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8160 Effect of pH-Dependent Surface Charge on the Electroosmotic Flow through Nanochannel

Authors: Partha P. Gopmandal, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Naren Bag

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In this article, we have studied the effect of pH-regulated surface charge on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) through nanochannel filled with binary symmetric electrolyte solution. The channel wall possesses either an acidic or a basic functional group. Going beyond the widely employed Debye-Huckel linearization, we develop a mathematical model based on Nernst-Planck equation for the charged species, Poisson equation for the induced potential, Stokes equation for fluid flow. A finite volume based numerical algorithm is adopted to study the effect of key parameters on the EOF. We have computed the coupled governing equations through the finite volume method and our results found to be in good agreement with the analytical solution obtained from the corresponding linear model based on low surface charge condition or strong electrolyte solution. The influence of the surface charge density, reaction constant of the functional groups, bulk pH, and concentration of the electrolyte solution on the overall flow rate is studied extensively. We find the effect of surface charge diminishes with the increase in electrolyte concentration. In addition for strong electrolyte, the surface charge becomes independent of pH due to complete dissociation of the functional groups.

Keywords: electroosmosis, finite volume method, functional group, surface charge

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8159 Relationship between Prolonged Timed up and Go Test and Worse Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Factors Profile in a Population Aged 60-65 Years

Authors: Bartłomiej K. Sołtysik, Agnieszka Guligowska, Łukasz Kroc, Małgorzata Pigłowska, Elizavetta Fife, Tomasz Kostka

Abstract:

Introduction: Functional capacity is one of the basic determinants of health in older age. Functional capacity may be influenced by multiple disorders, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence regarding the association of functional status and cardiometabolic risk factors. Aim: The aim of this research is to check possible association between functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factor in a group of younger seniors. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 300 participants aged 60-65 years (50% were women). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, uric acid, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and blood pressure were measured. Smoking status and physical activity level (by Seven Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire ) were analysed. Functional status was assessed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test. The data were compared according to gender, and then separately for both sexes regarding prolonged TUG score (>7 s). The limit of significance was set at p≤0.05 for all analyses. Results: Women presented with higher serum lipids and longer TUG. Men had higher blood pressure, glucose, uric acid, the prevalence of hypertension and history of heart infarct. In women group, those with prolonged TUG displayed significantly higher obesity rate (BMI, WHTR), uric acid, hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD), but lower physical activity level, TC or LDL-C. Men with prolonged TUG were heavier smokers, had higher TG, lower HDL and presented with higher prevalence of diabetes and IHD. Discussion: This study shows association between functional status and risk profile of cardiometabolic disorders. In women, the relationship of lower functional status to cardiometabolic diseases may be mediated by overweight/obesity. In men, locomotor problems may be related to smoking. Higher education level may be considered as a protective factor regardless of gender.

Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, functional capacity, TUG test, seniors

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8158 Obesity and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Large Joint Osteoarthritis

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Anna Musiienko, Nataliia Zaverukha, Roksolana Povoroznyuk

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Along with the global aging of population, the number of people with somatic diseases is increasing, including such interrelated pathologies as obesity, osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP). The objective of the study is to examine the connection between body mass index (BMI), OA and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, femoral neck and trabecular bone score (TBS) in postmenopausal women with OA. We have observed 359 postmenopausal women (50-89 years old) and divided them into four groups by age: 50-59 yrs, 60-69 yrs, 70-79 yrs and over 80 years old. In addition, according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Clinical classification criteria for knee and hip OA, we divided them into 2 groups: group I – 117 females with symptomatic OA (including 89 patients with knee OA, 28 patients with hip OA) and group II –242 women with a normal functional activity of large joints. Analysis of data was performed taking into account their BMI, classified by World Health Organization (WHO). Diagnosis of obesity was established when BMI was above 30 kg/m2. In woman with obesity, a symptomatic OA was detected in 44 postmenopausal women (41.1%), a normal functional activity of large joints - in 63 women (58.9%). However, in women with normal BMI – 73 women, who account for 29.0% of cases, a symptomatic OA was detected. According to a chi-squared (χ2) test, a significantly higher level of BMI was detected in postmenopausal women with OA (χ2 = 5.05, p = 0.02). Women with a symptomatic OA had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine compared with women who had a normal functional activity of large joints. No significant differences of BMD of femoral necks or TBS were detected in either the group with OA or with a normal functional activity of large joints.

Keywords: bone mineral density, body mass index, obesity, overweight, postmenopausal women, osteoarthritis

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8157 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho

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Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity

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8156 Functional Feeding Groups and Trophic Levels of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Assemblages in Albertine Rift Rivers and Streams in South Western Uganda

Authors: Peace Liz Sasha Musonge

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Behavioral aspects of species nutrition such as feeding methods and food type are archetypal biological traits signifying how species have adapted to their environment. This concept of functional feeding groups (FFG) analysis is currently used to ascertain the trophic levels of the aquatic food web in a specific microhabitat. However, in Eastern Africa, information about the FFG classification of benthic macroinvertebrates in highland rivers and streams is almost absent, and existing studies have fragmented datasets. For this reason, we carried out a robust study to determine the feed type, trophic level and FFGs, of 56 macroinvertebrate taxa (identified to family level) from Albertine rift valley streams. Our findings showed that all five major functional feeding groups were represented; Gatherer Collectors (GC); Predators (PR); shredders (SH); Scrapers (SC); and Filterer collectors. The most dominant functional feeding group was the Gatherer Collectors (GC) that accounted for 53.5% of the total population. The most abundant (GC) families were Baetidae (7813 individuals), Chironomidae NTP (5628) and Caenidae (1848). Majority of the macroinvertebrate population feed on Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) from the stream bottom. In terms of taxa richness the Predators (PR) had the highest value of 24 taxa and the Filterer Collectors group had the least number of taxa (3). The families that had the highest number of predators (PR) were Corixidae (1024 individuals), Coenagrionidae (445) and Libellulidae (283). However, Predators accounted for only 7.4% of the population. The findings highlighted the functional feeding groups and habitat type of macroinvertebrate communities along an altitudinal gradient.

Keywords: trophic levels, functional feeding groups, macroinvertebrates, Albertine rift

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8155 Effects of Bedside Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients in Activities and Daily Living Function

Authors: Chiung-Hua Chan, Fang-Yuan Chang, Li-Chi Huang

Abstract:

Stroke patients received regular rehabilitation therapy have measurable advancement in muscle strength, balance, control upper and lower physical activity, walking speed and endurance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between increases in bedside rehabilitation time and the function of activities and daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. The study was quasi-experimental research design and randomized sampling. The researcher collected 12 stroke patients of stroke patients transferred to rehabilitation ward unit of a medical center during 1 January to 31 March 2017. All participants then were assigned to case group and control group. Data collection was through direct observation of assessment ADL of stroke patients by researchers on Day 1. Case group received regular rehabilitation, exercises in increase of bedside rehabilitation schedules exercise programs by ward nurses. Bedside rehabilitation exercise content with physical, functional and linguistic frequency and time, Control group only give routine rehabilitation schedule care. This was a randomized study performed in 12 patients who were stroke patients and transferred to rehabilitation ward unit of a medical center during 1 January to 31 March 2017. First, the researcher explained the purpose and method of the study to the patients or the family members. All participants completed a consent informed before participation. Patients were randomly assigned to a ‘bedside rehabilitation program’ (BRP) group and a control (C) group. The BRP group received bedside rehabilitation schedules exercise programs by ward nurses. while the C group did not. Both groups received routine rehabilitation schedule. The Functional Independence Measure was used to measure outcome at the first, 14th and the 28th day of rehabilitation ward admitted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. After implementation of standardized ‘‘bedside rehabilitation program’, the results were: (1) the increasing of bedside rehabilitation had significant difference (p<.05) in promotion ADL function of stroke patients (2) the extend time of the bedside rehabilitation has significant difference (p<.05) in promotion ADL function of stroke patients compared with the control group. This study demonstrated that the ‘bedside rehabilitation program’ enhanced the ADL function in stroke patients. The nurses and rehabilitation ward managers need to understand that the extend time and frequency of rehabilitation provide a chance to enhanced the ADL function of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, bedside rehabilitation, functional activity, ADL

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8154 Effect of Psychological Stress to the Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil Edwin Nurdin

Abstract:

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Most patients with FD complain of symptoms related to the intake of meals. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and had an effect on ulcers associated Hp, and may also trigger worsen symptoms in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal. Cells in mucosal gastric stimulate the production of several cytokines, which might associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The cascade of biological events leading to stress-induced FD remains poorly understood. Aim of Study: To determine the prion-flammatory cytokine IL-6, and Helicobacter pylori activity on mucosal gastric of FD and their association with psychological stress. Methods: The subjects of this study were dyspeptic patients who visited M. Djamil General Hospital and in two Community Health Centers in Padang. On the basis of the stress index scale to identify psychological stress by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 42), subjects were divided into two groups of 20 each, stress groups and non-stress groups. All diagnoses were confirmed by review of cortisol and esophagogastroduodenoscopy reports. Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were taken during diagnostic procedures. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosal. The data were statistically analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. All procedures of this study were approved by Research Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty Andalas University. Results: In this study, we enrolled 40 FD patients (26 woman and 14 men) in range between 35-56 years old. Cortisol level of blood FD patients as parameter of stress hormone which taken in the morning was significantly higher in stress group than non-stress group. The expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa was significantly higher in stress group in compared to non-stress group (p<0,05). Helicobacter pylori activity in gastric mucosal in stress group were significantly higher than non-stress group. Conclusion: The present study showed that psychological stress can induce gastric mucosal inflammation and increase of Helicobacter pylori activity.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, interleukin-6, psychological stress

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8153 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

Abstract:

We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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8152 A Social Decision Support Mechanism for Group Purchasing

Authors: Lien-Fa Lin, Yung-Ming Li, Fu-Shun Hsieh

Abstract:

With the advancement of information technology and development of group commerce, people have obviously changed in their lifestyle. However, group commerce faces some challenging problems. The products or services provided by vendors do not satisfactorily reflect customers’ opinions, so that the sale and revenue of group commerce gradually become lower. On the other hand, the process for a formed customer group to reach group-purchasing consensus is time-consuming and the final decision is not the best choice for each group members. In this paper, we design a social decision support mechanism, by using group discussion message to recommend suitable options for group members and we consider social influence and personal preference to generate option ranking list. The proposed mechanism can enhance the group purchasing decision making efficiently and effectively and venders can provide group products or services according to the group option ranking list.

Keywords: social network, group decision, text mining, group commerce

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8151 Efficacy of Cool's and Rhythmic Stabilization Exercises on Scapular up Ward Rotation and Ut/Sa Ratio in Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Authors: Mohammed Moustafa, Khaled Ayad, Waleed Reda

Abstract:

Shoulder impingement syndrome is the most common disorder of the shoulder, resulting in functional loss and disability. Objective: This study was designed to compare between the effects of scapular muscle training versus rhythmic stabilization exercises in treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients participated in this study; they were assigned randomly into two experimental groups. The first experimental group (A) consisted of 15 patients with a mean age (21.87±2.72) years; they received graduated rhythmic stabilization exercises and stretching of the posterior capsule. The second experimental group (B) consisted of 15 patients with a mean age (22.27±2.94) years; they received scapular muscle training exercises in addition to stretching of the posterior capsule. Treatment was given three times per week, every other day, for four consecutive weeks. Patients have been evaluated pretreatment and post treatment for shoulder pain severity and functional disability. Results: Both groups showed highly statistical significant reduction in pain severity and functional disability measured post-treatment when compared with their corresponding values in pretreatment assessment. Conclusion: Both of rhythmic stabilization exercises and scapular muscle training are effective interventions to reduce shoulder pain severity and functional disability.

Keywords: impingement syndrome, scapular exercises, rhythmic stabilization exercises, posterior capsule stretch

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8150 Effect of Therapeutic Exercises with or without Positional Release Technique in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain Patients a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Mohamed N. Mohamed, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Chronic mechanical Low back dysfunction (CMLBD) is the most common problem of the working-age population in modern industrial sociaty; it causes a substantial economic burden due to the wide use of medical services and absence from work. Aim of work: the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of positional release technique on patients with chronic mechanical low back pain. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients from both sexes were diagnosed with CMLBP, aged 20 to 45 years and were divided randomly into two equal groups; sixteen patients each; group A (control group) received therapeutic exercises that include (Stretch and Strength exercises for back and abdominal muscles). Group B (experimental group) received therapeutic exercises with positional release technique; treatment was applied 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, Lumbar range of motion was measured by Inclinometer and Functional disability was measured by Oswestry disability scale. Measurements were taken at two intervals pre-treatment and post-treatment. Results: Data obtained was analyzed via paired and unpaired t-Test. There were statistical differences between the 2 groups, where the experimental group showed greater improvement than control group. Conclusion: Positional release technique is considered as an effective treatment for reducing pain, functional disability and increasing lumbar range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain.

Keywords: chronic mechanical low back pain, traditional physical therapy program, positional release technique, randomized controlled trial

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8149 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay

Abstract:

New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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8148 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee

Abstract:

Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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8147 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy versus Functional Electrical Stimulation on Spasticity, Function and Gait Parameters in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Mohamed A. Eid, Sobhy M. Aly

Abstract:

Background: About 75% of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy walk independently, but most still show abnormal gait patterns because of contractures across the joints and muscle spasticity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) versus functional electrical stimulation (FES) on spasticity, function, and gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: A randomized controlled trail was conducted for 45 children with hemiplegic CP ranging in age from 6 to 9 years. They were assigned randomly using opaque envelopes into three groups. Physical Therapy (PT) group consisted of 15 children and received the conventional physical therapy program (CPTP) in addition to ankle foot orthosis (AFO). ESWT group consisted of 15 children and received the CPTP, AFO in addition to ESWT. FES group also consisted of 15 children and received the CPTP, AFO in addition to FES. All groups received the program of treatment 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Evaluation of spasticity by using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), function by using the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI) and gait parameters by using the 3-D gait analysis was conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Results: Within groups, significant improvements in spasticity, function, and gait (P = 0.05) were observed in both ESWT and FES groups after treatment. While between groups, ESWT group showed significant improvements in all measured variables compared with FES and PT groups (P ˂ 0.05) after treatment. Conclusion: ESWT induced significant improvement than FES in decreasing spasticity and improving function and gait in children with hemiplegic CP. Therefore, ESWT should be included as an adjunctive therapy in the rehabilitation program of these children.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, functional electrical stimulation, function, gait, spasticity

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8146 The Effects of High Velocity Low Amplitude Thrust Manipulation versus Low Velocity Low Amplitude Mobilization in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein, Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar

Abstract:

Background: High-velocity low amplitude thrust (HVLAT) manipulation and low-velocity low amplitude (LVLA) mobilization are an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP). Purpose: This study compared the effects of HVLAT versus LVLA on pain, functional deficits and segmental mobility in treatment of chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Ninety patients suffering from chronic mechanical LBP are classified to three groups; Thirty patients treated by HVLAT (group I), thirty patients treated by LVLA (group II) and thirty patients as control group (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 28.00±2.92, 27.83±2.28 and 28.07±3.05 years and BMI 27.98±2.60, 28.80±2.40 and 28.70±2.53 kg/m2 for group I, II and III respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and modified schoper test were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted two weeks before and after treatment with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The treatment program group one was two weeks single session per week, and for group II two sessions per week for two weeks. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and Oswestry score compared with group II two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mobility in modified schoper increased significantly and the pain scores and Oswestry scores decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: HVLAT is preferable to LVLA mobilization, possibly due to a beneficial neurophysiological effect by Stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule.

Keywords: low back pain, manipulation, mobilization, low velocity

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8145 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations, Lie algebras, quaternions

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