Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 260

Search results for: barium sulfate

260 A Physical Treatment Method as a Prevention Method for Barium Sulfate Scaling

Authors: M. A. Salman, G. Al-Nuwaibit, M. Safar, M. Rughaibi, A. Al-Mesri


Barium sulfate (BaSO₄) is a hard scaling usually precipitates on the surface of equipment in many industrial systems, as oil and gas production, desalination and cooling and boiler operation. It is a scale that extremely resistance to both chemical and mechanical cleaning. So, BaSO₄ is a problematic and expensive scaling. Although barium ions are present in most natural waters at a very low concentration as low as 0.008 mg/l, it could result of scaling problems in the presence of high concentration of sulfate ion or when mixing with incompatible waters as in oil produced water. The scaling potential of BaSO₄ using seawater at the intake of seven desalination plants in Kuwait, brine water and Kuwait oil produced water was calculated and compared then the best location in regards of barium sulfate scaling was reported. Finally, a physical treatment method (magnetic treatment method) and chemical treatment method were used to control BaSO₄ scaling using saturated solutions at different operating temperatures, flow velocities, feed pHs and different magnetic strengths. The results of the two methods were discussed, and the more economical one with the reasonable performance was recommended, which is the physical treatment method.

Keywords: magnetic field strength, flow velocity, retention time, barium sulfate

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259 Species Selection for Phytoremediation of Barium Polluted Flooded Soils

Authors: Fabio R. Pires, Paulo R. C. C. Ribeiro, Douglas G. Viana, Robson Bonomo, Fernando B. Egreja Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Luiz F. Martins, Leila B. S. Cruz, Mauro C. P. Nascimento


The use of barite (BaSO₄) as a weighting agent in drilling fluids for oil and gas activities makes barium a potential contaminant in the case of spills onto flooded soils, where barium sulfate solubility is increased due to low redox conditions. In order to select plants able to remove barium in such scenarios, seven plant species were evaluated on barium phytoextraction capacity: Brachiaria arrecta; Cyperus cf. papyrus; Eleocharis acutangula; Eleocharis interstincta; Nephrolepsis cf. rivularis; Paspalum conspersum and Typha domingensis. Plants were grown in pots with 13 kg of soil each, and exposed to six barium concentrations (established with BaCl₂): 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0; 30.0; 65.0 mg kg-1. To simulate flooding conditions, every pot was manteined with a thin irrigation water depth over soil surface (~1.0 cm). Treatments were carried out in triplicate, and pots were distributed randomly inside the greenhouse. Biometric and chemical analyses were performed throughout the experiment, including Ba²⁺ accumulation in shoots and roots. The highest amount of barium was observed in T. domingensis biomass, followed by C. cf. papyrus. However, the latter exported most of the barium to shoot, especially in higher BaCl₂ doses, while the former accumulated barium preferentially in roots. Thus, barium removal with C. cf. papyrus could be achieved by simply harvesting aerial biomass. The amount of barium in C. cf. papyrus was a consequence of high biomass production rather than barium concentration in plant tissues, whereas T. domingensis showed high barium concentration in plant tissues and high biomass production as well. These results make T. domingensis and C. cf. papyrus potential candidates to be applied in phytoremediation schemes to remove barium from flooded soils.

Keywords: barium sulfate, cyperus, drilling fluids, phytoextraction, Typha

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
258 Dose Saving and Image Quality Evaluation for Computed Tomography Head Scanning with Eye Protection

Authors: Yuan-Hao Lee, Chia-Wei Lee, Ming-Fang Lin, Tzu-Huei Wu, Chih-Hsiang Ko, Wing P. Chan


Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a good method for investigating cranial lesions. However, radiation-induced oxidative stress can be accumulated in the eyes and promote carcinogenesis and cataract. In this regard, we aimed to protect the eyes with barium sulfate shield(s) during CT scans and investigate the resultant image quality and radiation dose to the eye. Patients who underwent health examinations were selectively enrolled in this study in compliance with the protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Joint Institutional Review Board at Taipei Medical University. Participants’ brains were scanned with a water-based marker simultaneously by a multislice CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash) under a fixed tube current-time setting or automatic tube current modulation (TCM). The lens dose was measured by Gafchromic films, whose dose response curve was previously fitted using thermoluminescent dosimeters, with or without barium sulfate or bismuth-antimony shield laid above. For the assessment of image quality CT images at slice planes that exhibit the interested regions on the zygomatic, orbital and nasal bones of the head phantom as well as the water-based marker were used for calculating the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. The application of barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shields decreased 24% and 47% of the lens dose on average, respectively. Under topogram-based TCM, the dose saving power of bismuth-antimony shield was mitigated whereas that of barium sulfate shield was enhanced. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of DSCT images were decreased separately by barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shield, resulting in an overall reduction of the CNR. In contrast, the integration of topogram-based TCM elevated signal difference between the ROIs on the zygomatic bones and eyeballs while preferentially decreasing the signal-to-noise ratios upon the use of barium sulfate shield. The results of this study indicate that the balance between eye exposure and image quality can be optimized by combining eye shields with topogram-based TCM on the multislice scanner. Eye shielding could change the photon attenuation characteristics of tissues that are close to the shield. The application of both shields on eye protection hence is not recommended for seeking intraorbital lesions.

Keywords: computed tomography, barium sulfate shield, dose saving, image quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
257 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi


Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
256 Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, M. Sufian, Ahmad Nawaz, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Waleed Afzal Naveed


Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.

Keywords: heavy-metals, larval-instars, lethal-concentration, mortality, silkworm

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255 Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Barium Titanate Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbaş, Ferhat Şen, Memet Vezir Kahraman


The aim of this study was to improve thermal stability, mechanical and surface properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with the addition of BaTiO3. The TPU/ BaTiO3 composites having various ratios of TPU and BaTiO3 were prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared composites was investigated by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra of TPU/ barium titanate composites show that they successfully were prepared. Thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared composites showed high thermal stability, and the char yield increased as barium titanate content increased. The glass transition temperatures of the composites rise with the addition of barium titanate. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. The mechanical properties of the TPU were increased with the contribution of the contribution of the barium titanate it increased. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The contact angles have the tendency to increase the hydrophobic behavior on the surface, when barium titanate was added into TPU. Moreover, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM-EDS mapping images showed that barium titanate particles were dispersed homogeneously. Finally, the obtained results prove that the prepared composites have good thermal, mechanical and surface properties and that they can be used in many applications such as the electronic devices, materials engineering and other emergent.

Keywords: barium titanate, composites, thermoplastic polyurethane, scanning electron microscopy

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254 Importance of CT and Timed Barium Esophagogram in the Contemporary Treatment of Patients with Achalasia

Authors: Sanja Jovanovic, Aleksandar Simic, Ognjan Skrobic, Dragan Masulovic, Aleksandra Djuric-Stefanovic


Introduction: Achalasia is an idiopathic primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by esophageal peristalsis and impaired swallow-induced relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It is a rare disease that affects both genders with an incidence of 1/100.000 and a prevalence rate of 10/100,000 per year. Objective: Laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) represents a therapy of choice for patients with achalasia, providing excellent outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing achalasia subtypes and timed barium esophagogram (TBE) in evaluation of LHM success, as a part of standardized diagnostic protocol. Method: Fifty-one patients with achalasia, confirmed by manometric studies, in addition to standardized diagnostic methods, underwent CT and TBE. CT was done with multiplanar reconstruction, measuring the wall thickness above the esophago-gastric junction in the axial plane. TBE was performed preoperatively and two days postoperatively swallowing low-density barium sulfate, and plane upright frontal films were performed 1, 2 and 5 minutes after the ingestion. In all patients, LHM was done, and pre and postoperative height and weight of the barium column were compared. Results: According to CT findings we divided patients into 3 subtypes of achalasia according to wall thickness: < 4mm as subtype one, between 4 - 9mm as II, and > 10 mm as subtype 3. Correlation of manometric results, as a reference values, and CT findings indicated CT sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 70 % in establishing subtypes of achalasia. The preoperative values of TBE at 1, 2 and 5 minutes were: median barium column height 17.4 ± 7.4, 15.9 ± 6.2 and 13.9 ± 6.2 cm; median column width 5 ± 1.5, 4.7 ± 1.6 and 4.5 ± 1.8 cm respectively. LHM significantly reduced these values (height 7 ± 4.6, 5.8 ± 4.2, 3.7 ± 3.4 cm; width 2.9 ± 1.3, 2.6 ± 1.3 and 2.4 ± 1.4 cm), indicating the quantitative estimates of emptying as excellent (p value < 0.01). Conclusion: CT has high sensitivity and specificity in evaluation of achalasia subtypes, and can be introduced as an additional method for standardized evaluation of these patients. The quantitative assessment of TBE based on measurements of the barium column is an accurate and beneficial method, which adequately estimates esophageal emptying success of LHM.

Keywords: achalasia, computed tomography, esophagography, myotomy

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253 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long


In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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252 Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate

Authors: M. N. Hanina, M. Hairul Shahril, I. Ismatul Nurul Asyikin, A. K. Abdul Jalil, M. R. Salina, M. R. Maryam, M. Rosfarizan


The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332, streptomycin sulfate, extracellular proteins, antibiotics

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251 BaFe12O19/Polythiophene Nanocomposite as Electrochemical Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: H. Farokhi, A. Bahadoran


This paper is focused on the absorbance and magnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite based on conducting polymer, carbon black and barium hexaferrite in epoxy resin on the E-glass fibre substrate. The highly conductive nanocomposite was provided by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of carbon black (C) and barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) as electromagnetic absorbance material. The structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). SEM images showed the uniformly coated PAni on the surface of carbon black and barium hexaferrite. XRD peaks also verified the presence of carbon black and barium hexaferrite in the nanocomposite. The microwave characteristics determined from the magnetic and dielectric properties of the elastomeric composites obtained from scattering data by fitting the samples in a waveguide, where measured in the frequency in X-band frequency range, the range of 8 to 12 GHz. The reflection losses were evaluated to be less than −5dB over the whole X-band frequency (8–12 GHz) for the thickness of 1.4mm.

Keywords: conductive polymer, magnetic materials, capacitance, electrochemical cell

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250 Effects of Body Positioning on Videofluoroscopic Barium Esophagram in Healthy Cats

Authors: Hyeona Kim, Kichang Lee, Seunghee Lee, Jeongsu An, Kyungjun Min


Contrast videofluoroscopy is the diagnostic imaging technique for evaluating cat with dysphagia. Generally, videofluoroscopic studies have been done with the cat restrained in lateral recumbency. It is different from the neutral position such as standing or sternal recumbency which is actual swallowing posture. We hypothesized that measurement of esophageal transit and peristalsis would be affected by body position. This experimental study analyzed the imaging findings of barium esophagram in 5 cats. Each cat underwent videofluoroscopy during swallowing of liquid barium and barium-soaked kibble in standing position and lateral recumbency. Esophageal transit time and the number of esophageal peristaltic waves were compared among body positions. Transit time in the cervical esophagus (0.57s), cranial thoracic esophagus (2.5s), and caudal thoracic esophagus(1.10s) was delayed when cats were in lateral recumbency for liquid barium. For kibble, transit time was more delayed than that of liquid through the entire esophagus in lateral recumbency. Liquid and kibble frequently started to delay at thoracic inlet region, transit time in the thoracic esophagus was significantly delayed than the cervical esophagus. In standing position, 60.2% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. In lateral recumbency, 50.5% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. Other variables were not significantly different. Lateral body positioning increases entire esophageal transit time and thoracic esophageal transit time is most significantly delayed. Thus, lateral recumbency decreases the number of primary esophageal peristalsis.

Keywords: barium esophagram, body positioning, cat, videofluoroscopy

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249 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage the sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20 and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96% and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge, turbidity removal

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248 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process Improvement of the Treated Water Quality by Using the Sludge Produced by the Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Derraz, M. Farhaoui


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage Sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20, and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96%, and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge reuse, turbidity removal

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247 Structural Investigation and Hyperfine Interactions of BaBiₓLaₓFe₁₂₋₂ₓO₁₉ (0.0 ≤ X ≤ 0.5) Hexaferrites

Authors: Hakan Gungunes, Ismail A. Auwal, Abdulhadi Baykal, Sagar E. Shirsath


Barium hexaferrite, BaFe₁₂O₁₉, substituted by Bi³⁺ and La³⁺ (BaBiₓLaₓFe₁₂₋₂ₓO₁₉ where 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The effect of substituted Bi³⁺ and La³⁺ ions on the structure, morphology, magnetic and cation distributions of barium hexaferrite were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. XRD powder patterns were refined by the Rietveld analysis method which confirmed the formation of single phase magneto-plumbite structure and the substitution of La³⁺ and Bi³⁺ ions into the lattice of barium ferrite. These results show that both La³⁺ and Bi³⁺ ions completely enter into barium hexaferrite lattice without disturbing the hexagonal ferrite structure. The EDX spectra confirmed the presence of all the constituents in expected elemental percentage. From 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field values on Bi and La substitutions have been determined. Cation distribution in the presently investigated hexaferrite system was estimated using the relative area of Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Keywords: hexaferrite, mössbauer, cation distribution, solid state synthesis

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246 Recovery of Boron as Homogeneous Perborate Particles from Synthetic Wastewater by Integrating Chemical Oxo-Precipitation with Fluidized-Bed Homogeneous Granulation

Authors: Chiung-Chin Huang, Jui-Yen Lin, Yao-Hui Huang


Among current techniques of boron removal from wastewater with high boron concentration, chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) is one of the promising methods due to its milder condition. COP uses H2O2 to transform boric acid to perborates which can easily precipitate with barium ions at room temperature. However, the generation of the waste sludge that requires sludge/water separation and sludge dewatering is troublesome. This work presents an innovative technology which integrates chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) with fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHG) to reclaim boron as homogeneous perborate particles. By conducting COP in a fluidized-bed reactor, the barium perborate can be granulated to form homogeneous particles (>1.0 mm) with low water content (< 10%). Under the suitable condition, more than 70% of boron can be recovered from 600 ppm of boron solution and the residual boron is lower than 100 ppm.

Keywords: barium, perborate, chemical oxo-precipitation, boron removal, fluidized-bed, granulation

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245 Study on Sintering System of Calcium Barium Sulphoaluminate by XRD Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Xiaopeng Shang, Xin YU, Jun CHANG


Calcium barium sulphoaluminate (CBSA), derived from calcium sulphoaluminate(CSA), has excellent cementitious properties. In this study, the sintering system of CBSA with a theoretical stoichiometric Ca3BaAl6SO16 was investigated. Rietveld refinement was performed using TOPAS 4.2 software to quantitatively calculate the content of CBSA and the actual ionic site occupancy of Ba2+. The results indicate that the contents of Ca4-xBaxAl6SO16 increases with increasing sintering temperature in the 1200℃-1400℃ ranges. When sintered at 1400℃ for 180min, the content of CBSA reaches 88.4%. However, CBSA begins to decompose at 1440℃ and the content of which decreases. The replacement rate of Ba2+ was also enlarged by increasing sintering temperature and prolonged sintering time. Sintering at 1400℃ for 180min is considered as the optimum when replacement rate of Ba2+ and the content of CBSA were taken into account. Ca3.2Ba0.8Al6SO16 with a content of 88.4% was synthesized.

Keywords: calcium barium sulphoaluminate, sintering system, Ba2+ replacement rate, Rietveld refinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
244 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa


The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, sulfate attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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243 Influence of BaTiO₃ on the Biological Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite: Collagen Composites

Authors: Cristina Busuioc, Georgeta Voicu, Sorin-Ion Jinga


The human bone presents in its dry form piezoelectric properties, which means that a mechanical stress results in electric polarization and an applied electric field causes strain. The immediate consequence was the revealing of piezoelectricity role in bone remodelling, as well as the integration of ceramic materials with piezoelectric behaviour in the composition of unitary or composite biomaterials. Thus, we prepared hydroxyapatite - collagen hybrid materials with barium titanate addition in order to achieve a better osseointegration. Barium titanate powder synthesized by a combined sol-gel-hydrothermal method, commercial hydroxyapatite and laboratory extracted collagen gel were employed as starting materials. Before the composites, fabrication, the powder with piezoelectric features was characterized in detail from the compositional, structural, morphological and electrical point of view. The next step was to elucidate the influence of barium titanate presence especially on the biological properties of the final materials. The biocompatibility of the hybrid supports without or with piezoelectric addition was investigated on mouse osteoblast cells through LDH cytotoxicity assay, LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay, and MTT cell proliferation assay. All results indicated that the analysed materials do not exert cytotoxic effects and present the ability to sustain cell survival and to promote their proliferation. In conclusion, barium titanate nanoparticles exhibit a good biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties, while the derived composite materials based on hydroxyapatite as oxide phase and collagen as polymeric phase can be successfully used for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: barium titanate, hybrid composites, piezoelectricity, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
242 Predicting Long-Term Performance of Concrete under Sulfate Attack

Authors: Elakneswaran Yogarajah, Toyoharu Nawa, Eiji Owaki


Cement-based materials have been using in various reinforced concrete structural components as well as in nuclear waste repositories. The sulfate attack has been an environmental issue for cement-based materials exposed to sulfate bearing groundwater or soils, and it plays an important role in the durability of concrete structures. The reaction between penetrating sulfate ions and cement hydrates can result in swelling, spalling and cracking of cement matrix in concrete. These processes induce a reduction of mechanical properties and a decrease of service life of an affected structure. It has been identified that the precipitation of secondary sulfate bearing phases such as ettringite, gypsum, and thaumasite can cause the damage. Furthermore, crystallization of soluble salts such as sodium sulfate crystals induces degradation due to formation and phase changes. Crystallization of mirabilite (Na₂SO₄:10H₂O) and thenardite (Na₂SO₄) or their phase changes (mirabilite to thenardite or vice versa) due to temperature or sodium sulfate concentration do not involve any chemical interaction with cement hydrates. Over the past couple of decades, an intensive work has been carried out on sulfate attack in cement-based materials. However, there are several uncertainties still exist regarding the mechanism for the damage of concrete in sulfate environments. In this study, modelling work has been conducted to investigate the chemical degradation of cementitious materials in various sulfate environments. Both internal and external sulfate attack are considered for the simulation. In the internal sulfate attack, hydrate assemblage and pore solution chemistry of co-hydrating Portland cement (PC) and slag mixing with sodium sulfate solution are calculated to determine the degradation of the PC and slag-blended cementitious materials. Pitzer interactions coefficients were used to calculate the activity coefficients of solution chemistry at high ionic strength. The deterioration mechanism of co-hydrating cementitious materials with 25% of Na₂SO₄ by weight is the formation of mirabilite crystals and ettringite. Their formation strongly depends on sodium sulfate concentration and temperature. For the external sulfate attack, the deterioration of various types of cementitious materials under external sulfate ingress is simulated through reactive transport model. The reactive transport model is verified with experimental data in terms of phase assemblage of various cementitious materials with spatial distribution for different sulfate solution. Finally, the reactive transport model is used to predict the long-term performance of cementitious materials exposed to 10% of Na₂SO₄ for 1000 years. The dissolution of cement hydrates and secondary formation of sulfate-bearing products mainly ettringite are the dominant degradation mechanisms, but not the sodium sulfate crystallization.

Keywords: thermodynamic calculations, reactive transport, radioactive waste disposal, PHREEQC

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
241 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz


In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
240 Effect of Permeability Reducing Admixture Utilization on Sulfate Resistance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixture

Authors: Ali Mardani-Aghabaglou, Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Semsi Yazici


In this study, the effect of permeability reducing admixture (PRA) utilization on fresh properties, compressive strength and sulfate resistance of self-consolidating concrete (SSC) were investigated. For this aim, two different commercial PRA were used at two utilization ratios as %0.1 and %0.2 wt. CEM I 42.5 R type cement and crushed limestone aggregate having Dmax of 15 mm were used for preparing of SCC mixtures. In all mixtures, cement content, water/cement ratio, and flow value were kept constant as 450 kg, 0.40 and 65 ± 2 cm, respectively. In order to obtain desired flow value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used at different content. T50 flow time, flow value, L-box, and U-funnel of SCC mixture were measured as fresh properties. 1, 3, 7 and 28-day compressive strength of SCC mixture were obtained on 150 mm cubic specimens. To investigate the sulfate resistance of SCC mixture 75x75x285 mm prismatic specimens were produced. After 28-day water curing, specimens were immersed in %5 sodium sulfate solution during 210 days. The length change of specimens was measured at 5-day time intervals up to 210 days. According to the test results, all fresh properties of SCC mixtures were in accordance with the European federation of specialist construction chemicals and concrete systems (EFNARC) critter for SCC mixtures. The utilization of PRA had no significant effect on compressive strength and fresh properties of SCC mixtures. Regardless of PRA type, sulfate resistance of SCC mixture increased by adding of PRA into the SCC mixtures. The length changes of the SCC mixtures containing %1 and %2 PRA were measured as %8 and %14 less than that of control mixture containing no PRA, respectively.

Keywords: permeability reducing admixture, self-consolidating concrete, fresh properties, sulfate resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
239 The Effectiveness of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Minimizing Methane and Sludge Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Authors: K. Abdul Halim, E. L. Yong


Palm oil industry is a major revenue earner in Malaysia, despite the growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. Through the oil extraction processes, palm oil mill effluent (POME) contributes to the largest liquid wastes generated. Due to the high amount of organic compound, POME can cause inland water pollution if discharged untreated into the water course as well as affect the aquatic ecosystem. For more than 20 years, Malaysia adopted the conventional biological treatment known as lagoon system that apply biological treatment. Besides having difficulties in complying with the standard, a large build up area is needed and retention time is higher. Although anaerobic digester is more favorable, this process comes along with enormous volumes of sludge and methane gas, demanding attention from the mill operators. In order to reduce the sludge production, denitrifiers are to be removed first. Sulfate reducing bacteria has shown the capability to inhibit the growth of methanogens. This is expected to substantially reduce both the sludge and methane production in anaerobic digesters. In this paper, the effectiveness of sulfate reducing bacteria in minimizing sludge and methane will be examined.

Keywords: methane reduction, palm oil mill effluent, sludge minimization, sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
238 Textile Dyeing with Natural Dye from Sappan Tree (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) Extract

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nattida Tumpat


Natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing process. The dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was extracted using water and ethanol. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. Brazilein, the major dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was confirmed in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts by UV–VIS spectrum. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordant had a shade of reddish-brown, while those post-mordanted with aluminum potassium sulfate, ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate produced a variety of wine red to dark purple color shades. Cotton fabric and silk yarn dyeing was studied using aluminum potassium sulfate as a mordant. The observed color strength was enhanced with increase in mordant concentration.

Keywords: natural dyes, plant materials, dyeing, mordant

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
237 A Cheap Mesoporous Silica from Fly Ash as an Adsorbent for Sulfate in Water

Authors: Ximena Castillo, Jaime Pizarro


This research describes the development of a very cheap mesoporous silica material similar to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) and using a silicate extract as precursor. This precursor is obtained from cheap fly ash by an easy calcination process at 850 °C and a green extraction with water. The obtained mesoporous fly ash material had a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a pore size of 5.7 nm. It was functionalized with ethylene diamino moieties via the well-known SAMMS method, followed by a DRIFT analysis that clearly showed the successful functionalization. An excellent adsorbent was obtained for the adsorption of sulfate anions by the solid’s modification with copper forming a copper-ethylenediamine complex. The adsorption of sulfates was studied in a batch system ( experimental conditions: pH=8.0; 5 min). The kinetics data were adjusted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model. The maximum sulfate adsorption capacity of this very cheap fly ash based adsorbent was 146.1 mg g-1, 3 times greater than the values reported in literature and commercial adsorbent materials.

Keywords: fly ash, mesoporous materials, SAMMS, sulfate

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
236 Screening the Growth Inhibition Mechanism of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria by Chitosan/Lignosulfonate Nanocomposite in Seawater Media

Authors: K. Rasool


Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) induced biofilm formation is a global industrial concern due to its role in the development of microbial-induced corrosion (MIC). Herein, we have developed a biodegradable chitosan/lignosulfonate nanocomposite ([email protected]) as an efficient green biocide for the inhibition of SRBs biofilms. We investigated in detail the inhibition mechanism of SRBs by [email protected] in seawater media. Stable [email protected]:1 with 150–200 nm average size and zeta potential of + 34.25 mV was synthesized. The biocidal performance of [email protected] was evaluated by sulfate reduction profiles coupled with analysis of extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. As the nanocomposite concentration was increased from 50 to 500 µg/mL, the specific sulfate reduction rate (SSRR) decreased from 0.278 to 0.036 g-sulfate/g-VSS*day showing a relative sulfate reduction inhibition of 86.64% as compared to that of control. Similarly, the specific organic uptake rate (SOUR) decreased from 0.082 to 0.039 0.036 g-TOC/g-VSS*day giving a relative co-substrate oxidation inhibition of 52.19% as compared to that of control. The SRBs spiked with 500 µg/mL [email protected] showed a reduction in cell viability to 1.5 × 106 MPN/mL. To assess the biosafety of the nanocomposite on the marine biota, the 72-hours acute toxicity assays using the zebrafish embryo model revealed that the LC50 for the [email protected] was 103.3 µg/mL. Thus, [email protected] can be classified as environmentally friendly. The nanocomposite showed long-term stability and excellent antibacterial properties against SRBs growth and is thus potentially useful for combating the problems of biofilm growth in harsh marine and aquatic environments.

Keywords: green biocides, chitosan/lignosulfonate nanocomposite, SRBs, toxicity

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235 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows

Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz


This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
234 Electro-Winning of Dilute Solution of Copper Metal from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR

Authors: S. Vasailor, C. Rattanakawin


Electro-winning of copper metal from dilute sulfate solution (13.7 g/L) was performed in a lab electrolytic cell with stainless-steel cathode and lead-alloy anode. The effects of various parameters including cell voltage, electro-winning temperature and time were studied in order to acquire an appropriate current efficiency of copper deposition. The highest efficiency is about 95% obtaining from electro-winning condition of 3V, 55°C and 3,600 s correspondingly. The cathode copper with 95.5% Cu analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry can be obtained from this single-winning condition. In order to increase the copper grade, solvent extraction should be used to increase the sulfate concentration, say 50 g/L, prior to winning the cathode copper effectively.

Keywords: copper metal, current efficiency, dilute sulfate solution, electro-winning

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
233 Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals

Authors: Rakesh Hajiyani, Chetan Chauhan, Harshkant Jethva, Mihir Joshi


Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.

Keywords: crystal growth, dielectric study, optical parameters, organo-metallic crystals, powder xrd, slow evaporation technique, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
232 The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin


In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80°C reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.

Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis, copper borates, copper sulfate, tincalconite

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
231 Benefits of Monitoring Acid Sulfate Potential of Coffee Rock (Indurated Sand) across Entire Dredge Cycle in South East Queensland

Authors: S. Albert, R. Cossu, A. Grinham, C. Heatherington, C. Wilson


Shipping trends suggest increasing vessel size and draught visiting Australian ports highlighting potential challenges to port infrastructure and requiring optimization of shipping channels to ensure safe passage for vessels. The Port of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia has an 80 km long access shipping channel which vessels must transit 15 km of relatively shallow coffee rock (generic class of indurated sands where sand grains are bound within an organic clay matrix) outcrops towards the northern passage in Moreton Bay. This represents a risk to shipping channel deepening and maintenance programs as the dredgeability of this material is more challenging due to its high cohesive strength compared with the surrounding marine sands and potential higher acid sulfate risk. In situ assessment of acid sulfate sediment for dredge spoil control is an important tool in mitigating ecological harm. The coffee rock in an anoxic undisturbed state does not pose any acid sulfate risk, however when disturbed via dredging it’s vital to ensure that any present iron sulfides are either insignificant or neutralized. To better understand the potential risk we examined the reduction potential of coffee rock across the entire dredge cycle in order to accurately portray the true outcome of disturbed acid sulfate sediment in dredging operations in Moreton Bay. In December 2014 a dredge trial was undertaken with a trailing suction hopper dredger. In situ samples were collected prior to dredging revealed acid sulfate potential above threshold guidelines which could lead to expensive dredge spoil management. However, potential acid sulfate risk was then monitored in the hopper and subsequent discharge, both showing a significant reduction in acid sulfate potential had occurred. Additionally, the acid neutralizing capacity significantly increased due to the inclusion of shell fragments (calcium carbonate) from the dredge target areas. This clearly demonstrates the importance of assessing potential acid sulfate risk across the entire dredging cycle and highlights the need to carefully evaluate sources of acidity.

Keywords: acid sulfate, coffee rock, indurated sand, dredging, maintenance dredging

Procedia PDF Downloads 256