Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Ruth Fleisch

36 Iterative Design Process for Development and Virtual Commissioning of Plant Control Software

Authors: Thorsten Prante, Robert Schöch, Ruth Fleisch, Vaheh Khachatouri, Alexander Walch

Abstract:

The development of industrial plant control software is a complex and often very expensive task. One of the core problems is that a lot of the implementation and adaptation work can only be done after the plant hardware has been installed. In this paper, we present our approach to virtually developing and validating plant-level control software of production plants. This way, plant control software can be virtually commissioned before actual ramp-up of a plant, reducing actual commissioning costs and time. Technically, this is achieved by linking the actual plant-wide process control software (often called plant server) and an elaborate virtual plant model together to form an emulation system. Method-wise, we are suggesting a four-step iterative process with well-defined increments and time frame. Our work is based on practical experiences from planning to commissioning and start-up of several cut-to-size plants.

Keywords: iterative system design, virtual plant engineering, plant control software, simulation and emulation, virtual commissioning

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35 Meat Consumption for Family Health in Nigeria

Authors: Chigbu Ruth Nnena

Abstract:

This paper discussed the concept of meat its nutritive value in family meals. The paper further discussed the selection, storage and preparation of meat in family meal the Nigerian way. The paper made the following recommendations among others; that families in Nigeria should rear cow meat for easy access to the meant and that family should purchase meat that are fresh from chain shops in the market to avoid meat contamination among others.

Keywords: Meat, Selection, storage meals, concept and preparation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
34 LogiSun: An Interactive Robot to Reduce Pollution on the Beach

Authors: Ruth Manzanares, Victor Honores, Hugo Zapata, Javier Cansaya, Deivid Yavar, Junior Meza

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LogiSum is a robot focused on education like a solution to the ecological crisis. This robot allows reducing the pollution on the beaches by stimulating environmental awareness of not contaminating through the collection of waste. Through the use of the methodology of design thinking, it is intended to reinforce values in adults and with a greater focus on children, so as not to contaminate the beaches. The goal is to encourage the use of the container of the robot LogiSum to put the garbage, with visual interaction and simulation of dialogue with the function of the robot. The results obtained of the testings of the interaction of children with the robot showed an encouraging behavior. With the robot, children left the waste in the right places and not bury it in the sand or in the floor.

Keywords: Pollution Reduction, social robot, interaction human-robot, robot container, beach pollution

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33 Insectivorous Medicinal Plant Drosera Ecologyand its Biodiversity Conservation through Tissue Culture and Sustainable Biotechnology

Authors: Sushil Pradhan

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Biotechnology contributes to sustainable development in several ways such as biofertilizer production, biopesticide production and management of environmental pollution, tissue culture and biodiversity conservation in vitro, in vivo and in situ, Insectivorous medicinal plant Drosera burmannii Vahl belongs to the Family-Droseraceae under Order-Caryophyllales, Dicotyledoneae, Angiospermeae which has 31 (thirty one) living genera and 194 species besides 7 (seven) extinct (fossil) genera. Locally it is known as “Patkanduri” in Odia. Its Hindi name is “Mukhajali” and its English name is “Sundew”. The earliest species of Drosera was first reported in 1753 by Carolous Linnaeus called Drosera indica L (Indian Sundew). The latest species of Drosera reported by Fleisch A, Robinson, AS, McPherson S, Heinrich V, Gironella E and Madulida D.A. (2011) is Drosera ultramafica from Malaysia. More than 50 % species of Drosera have been reported from Australia and next to Australia is South Africa. India harbours only 3 species such as D. indica L, Drosera burmannii Vahl and D. peltata L. From our Odisha only D. burmannii Vahl is being reported for the first time from the district of Subarnapur near Sonepur (Arjunpur Reserve Forest Area). Drosera plant is autotrophic but to supplement its Nitrogen (N2) requirement it adopts heterotrophic mode of nutrition (insectivorous/carnivorous) as well. The colour of plant in mostly red and about 20-30cm in height with beautiful pink or white pentamerous flowers. Plants grow luxuriantly during November to February in shady and moist places near small water bodies of running water stream. Medicinally it is a popular herb in the locality for the treatment of cold and cough in children in rainy season by the local Doctors (Kabiraj and Baidya). In the present field investigation an attempt has been made to understand the unique reproductive phase and life cycle of the plant thereby planning for its conservation and propagation through various techniques of tissue culture and biotechnology. More importantly besides morphological and anatomical studies, cytological investigation is being carried out to find out the number of chromosomes in the cell and its genomics as there is no such report as yet for Drosera burmannii Vahl. The ecological significance and biodiversity conservation of Drosera with special reference to energy, environmental and chemical engineering has been discussed in the research paper presentation.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Medicinal, genome, chromosome, insectivorous, drosera

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32 Colombia Fossil Fuel Policies and Their Impact on Urban Air Quality

Authors: Ruth Catacolí, Hector Garcia

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Colombia Urban Areas shows a decreasing of their air quality, no matter the actions developed by the Government facing the mitigation of pressure factors related with air pollution. Examples of these actions were the fossil fuel quality improvement policies (FFQI). This study evaluated the impact of three FFQI in the air quality of Bogotá during the period 1990 - 2006: The phase-out of lead in the gasoline; the sulfur reduction in diesel oil consumed in Bogotá and the oxygenation of gasoline through the addition of ethanol. The results indicate that only the policy of phase-out of lead in gasoline has been effective, showing dropping of lead oxides concentration in the air. Some stakeholders believe that the FFQI evaluated in the study are environmental policies, but no one of these policies has been supported by an environmental impact assessment that shows specific benefits in air quality. The research includes some fuel policy elements to achieve positive impact on the air quality in the urban centers of Colombia.

Keywords: Air quality management, Urban Air Quality, fuel quality, policy assessment

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31 The Impact of a Staff Well-Being Service for a Multi-Site Research Study

Authors: Ruth Elvish, Alex Turner, Jen Wells

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Over recent years there has been an increasing interest in the topic of well-being at work, and staff support is an area of continued growth. The present qualitative study explored the impact of a staff well-being service that was specifically attached to a five-year multi-site research programme (the Neighbourhoods and Dementia Study, funded by the ESRC/NIHR). The well-being service was led by a clinical psychologist, who offered 1:1 sessions for staff and co-researchers with dementia. To our knowledge, this service was the first of its kind. Methodology: Interviews were undertaken with staff who had used the service and who opted to take part in the study (n=7). Thematic analysis was used as the method of analysis. Findings: Themes included: triggers, mechanisms of change, impact/outcomes, and unique aspects of a dedicated staff well-being service. Conclusions: The study highlights stressors that are pertinent amongst staff within academic settings, and shows the ways in which a dedicated staff well-being service can impact on both professional and personal lives. Positive change was seen in work performance, self-esteem, relationships, and coping. This exploratory study suggests that this well-being service model should be further trialled and evaluated.

Keywords: Service, Academic, Well-being, staff, support

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30 21st Century Teacher Image to Stakeholders of Teacher Education Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Marilyn U. Balagtas, Maria Ruth M. Regalado, Carmelina E. Barrera, Ramer V. Oxiño, Rosarito T. Suatengco, Josephine E. Tondo

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This study presents the perceptions of the students and teachers from kindergarten to tertiary level of the image of the 21st century teacher to provide basis in designing teacher development programs in Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The highlights of the report are the personal, psychosocial, and professional images of the 21st century teacher in basic education and the teacher educators based on a survey done to 612 internal stakeholders of nine member institutions of the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). Data were obtained through the use of a validated researcher-made instrument which allowed generation of both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the teacher image. Through the use of descriptive statistics, the common images of the teacher were drawn, which were validated and enriched by the information drawn from the qualitative data. The study recommends a repertoire of teacher development programs to create the good image of the 21st century teachers for a better Philippines.

Keywords: Teacher Education, teacher image, development program

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29 Testing the Impact of Landmarks on Navigation through the Use of Mobile-Based Games

Authors: Ayse Ozbil, Demet Yesiltepe, Ruth Dalton

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The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of landmarks on spatial navigation. For this study, a mobile-based virtual game, 'Sea Hero Quest' (SHQ), was used. At the beginning of the game, participants were asked to look at maps which included the specific locations of players and checkpoints. After the map disappeared, participants were asked to navigate a boat and find the checkpoints in a pre-given order. By analyzing this data, we aim to better understand an important component of cities, namely landmarks, on spatial navigation. Game levels were analyzed spatially and axial-based integration, choice and connectivity values of levels were calculated to make comparisons. To make this kind of a comparison, we focused on levels which include both local and global landmarks and levels which include only local landmarks. The most significant contribution of this study to urban design and planning fields is that it provides mounting evidence about the utility of landmarks and their roles in cities due to the fact that the game was played more than 2.5 million people. Moreover, by using these results, it can be possible to encourage cities with more global and local landmarks to have more identifiable/readable areas.

Keywords: Virtual Environment, landmarks, spatial navigation, mobile-based games

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28 The Potential Roles of Digital Technologies in Developing Children's Artistic Ability and Promoting Creative Activity in Children Aged

Authors: Rupert Ward, Aber Aboalgasm, Ruth Taylor, Jonathan Glazzard

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Teaching art by digital means is a big challenge for the majority of teachers of art and artistic design courses in primary education schools. These courses can clearly identify relationships between art, technology, and creativity in the classroom .The aim of this article is to present a modern way of teaching art, using digital tools in the art classroom in order to improve creative ability in pupils aged between 9 and 11 years; it also presents a conceptual model for creativity based on digital art. The model could be useful for pupils interested in learning drawing and using an e-drawing package, and for teachers who are interested in teaching their students modern digital art, and improving children’s creativity. This model is designed to show the strategy of teaching art through technology, in order for children to learn how to be creative. This will also help education providers to make suitable choices about which technological approaches they should choose to teach students and enhance their creative ability. It is also expected that use of this model will help to develop social interactive qualities that may improve intellectual ability.

Keywords: Education, Motivation, digital tools, creative activity

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27 Challenges of Technical and Engineering Students in the Application of Scientific Cancer Knowledge to Preserve the Future Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: K. Shaloom Mbambu, M. Pascal Tshimbalanga, K. Ruth Mutala, K. Roger Kabuya, N. Dieudonné Kabeya, Y. L. Kabeya Mukeba

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In this article, the authors examine the even more worrying situation of girls in sub-Saharan Africa. Two-girls on five are private of Global Education, which represents a real loss to the development of communities and countries. Cultural traditions, poverty, violence, early and forced marriages, early pregnancies, and many other gender inequalities were the causes of this cancer development. Namely, "it is no more efficient development tool that is educating girls." The non-schooling of girls and their lack of supervision by liberal professions have serious consequences for the life of each of them. To improve the conditions of their inferior status, girls to men introduce poverty and health risks. Raising awareness among parents and communities on the importance of girls' education, improving children's access to school, girl-boy equality with their rights, creating income, and generating activities for girls, girls, and girls learning of liberal trades to make them self-sufficient. Organizations such as the United Nations Organization can save the children. ASEAD and the AEDA group are predicting the impact of this cancer on the development of a nation's future generation must be preserved.

Keywords: Development, Society, Environment, Sub-Saharan Africa, young girl, higher and vocational education

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26 Status of Hospitality and Tourism Management Progam of Selected Private Higher Education Institutions: Basis for Internationalization

Authors: Ruth Estrada Javier - Reyes

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The study assessed the status of HTM program of selected private higher education institutions for internationalization across the eleven regions of the country. The descriptive survey method of research was used in this study. A devised survey questionnaire was utilized to gather information about the status of Philippine Higher Education Institutions’ internationalization of hospitality and tourism management education programs. The respondents were 12 administrators, 17 deans and program heads, 104 faculty members and 860 HTM students. Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test and F-test were used to treat the data. The results of the study are as follows: HEIs’ HTM education had complied with the policies/standards of CHED as per CMO No. 30 S. 2006. The respondents of the HTM education program were qualified for internationalization as assessed both by administrators and faculty. The private HEIs are ready to apply for international certification of their HTM education programs. The curriculum of HTM education programs in private HEIs are enriched by internationalization requirements. The administrators and faculty of HTM education programs are qualified educators but have limited participation in collaborative international research and linkages. The HEIs are qualified to apply for the internationalization of the Hospitality and Tourism Management education program in preparation to the ASEAN 2015.

Keywords: Internationalization, status, Hospitality and Tourism Management Program, Private Higher Education Institutions

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25 Classroom Management Practices of Hotel, Restaurant, and Institution Management Instructors

Authors: Diana Ruth Caga-Anan

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Classroom management is a critical skill but the styles are constantly evolving. It is constantly under pressure particularly in the college education level due to diversity in student profiles, modes of delivery, and marketization of higher education. This study sought to analyze the extent of implementation of classroom management practices (CMPs) of the college instructors of the Hotel, Restaurant, and Institution Management of a premier university in the Philippines. It was also determined if their length of teaching affects their classroom management style. A questionnaire with sixteen 'evidenced-based' CMPs grouped into five critical features of classroom management, adopted from the literature search of Simonsen et al. (2008), was administered to 4 instructor-respondents and to their 88 students. Weighted mean scores of each of the CMPs revealed that there were differences between the instructors’ self-scores and their students’ ratings on their implementation of CMPs. The critical feature of classroom management 'actively engage students in observable ways' got the highest mean score, corresponding to 'always' from the instructors’ self-rating and 'frequently' from their students’ ratings. However, 'use a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behaviors' got the lowest scores from both the instructors and their students corresponding only to 'occasionally'. Analysis of variance showed that the only CMP affected by the length of teaching is the practice of 'prompting students to respond'. Based on the findings, some recommendations for the instructors to improve on the critical feature where they scored low are discussed and suggestions are included for future research.

Keywords: Classroom Management, CMPs, critical features, evidence-based classroom management practices

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24 PM10 Chemical Characteristics in a Background Site at the Universidad Libre Bogotá

Authors: Laura X. Martinez, Andrés F. Rodríguez, Ruth A. Catacoli

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One of the most important factors for air pollution is that the concentrations of PM10 maintain a constant trend, with the exception of some places where that frequently surpasses the allowed ranges established by Colombian legislation. The community that surrounds the Universidad Libre Bogotá is inhabited by a considerable number of students and workers, all of whom are possibly being exposed to PM10 for long periods of time while on campus. Thus, the chemical characterization of PM10 found in the ambient air at the Universidad Libre Bogotá was identified as a problem. A Hi-Vol sampler and EPA Test Method 5 were used to determine if the quality of air is adequate for the human respiratory system. Additionally, quartz fiber filters were utilized during sampling. Samples were taken three days a week during a dry period throughout the months of November and December 2015. The gravimetric analysis method was used to determine PM10 concentrations. The chemical characterization includes non-conventional carcinogenic pollutants. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for the determination of metals and VOCs were analyzed using the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) method. In this way, concentrations of PM10, ranging from values of 13 µg/m3 to 66 µg/m3, were obtained; these values were below standard conditions. This evidence concludes that the PM10 concentrations during an exposure period of 24 hours are lower than the values established by Colombian law, Resolution 610 of 2010; however, when comparing these with the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), these concentrations could possibly exceed permissible levels.

Keywords: Air quality, Particulate Matter, Gas Chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometry

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23 Gender Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Adolescent-Parent Bonds: A Case of Mainland China

Authors: Ruth X. Liu

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This study assesses the effects of harsh parental discipline on Chinese adolescents’ bonds to parents. Furthermore, it examines whether the relationship between parental discipline and adolescent-parent bonds may be gender- and domain-specific. The study uses survey data provided by more than 500 middle school students from an urban city in China. Multiple regression models yielded major findings as below: i) Adolescents who experience harsh parental discipline are less likely to report parental attachment. ii) Verbal discipline exerts stronger effects on parental attachment than physical discipline. iii) There is a same-sex specificity effect for physical discipline. That is, the father’s physical punishment is inversely related to boys’ bonds to father, whereas the mother’s physical discipline is negatively related to girls’ bonds to mother. iv) Regarding verbal discipline, there is a cross-sex effect such that paternal verbal discipline is negatively related to girls’ bonds to father, whereas maternal verbal discipline is related to boys’ bonds to parents and girls’ bonds to mother only. Besides the independent effects, there are interactive effects between parental discipline and styles of harsh actions. Specifically, v) father’s verbal discipline is more strongly associated with girls’ bonds to father when mother uses low verbal discipline. vi) Father’s physical discipline is related to higher bonds of girls to mothers when mother uses low physical discipline. Lastly, vii) physical and verbal discipline rendered by mother jointly affect girls’ attachment to father. These findings are important as they illustrate the relevance of attachment theory and gendered theory of parenting to a unique cultural setting of mainland China.

Keywords: Gender, China, bonds to parents, physical and verbal discipline

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22 A Case of Survival with Self-Draining Haemopericardium Secondary to Stabbing

Authors: Balakrishna Valluru, Ruth Suckling

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A 16 year old male was found collapsed on the road following stab injuries to the chest and abdomen and was transported to the emergency department by ambulance. On arrival in the emergency department the patient was breathless and appeared pale. He was maintaining his airway with spontaneous breathing and had a heart rate of 122 beats per minute with a blood pressure of 83/63 mmHg. He was resuscitated initially with three units of packed red cells. Clinical examination identified three incisional wounds each measuring 2 cm. These were in the left para-sternal region, right infra-scapular region and left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The chest wound over the left parasternal area at the level of 4tth intercostal space was bleeding intermittently on leaning forwards and was relieving his breathlessness intermittently. CT imaging was performed to characterize his injuries and determine his management. CT scan of chest and abdomen showed moderate size haemopericardium with left sided haemopneumothorax. The patient underwent urgent surgical repair of the left ventricle and left anterior descending artery. He recovered without complications and was discharged from the hospital. This case highlights the fact that the potential to develop a life threatening cardiac tamponade was mitigated by the left parasternal stab wound. This injury fortuitously provided a pericardial window through which the bleeding from the injured left ventricle and left anterior descending artery could drain into the left hemithorax providing an opportunity for timely surgical intervention to repair the cardiac injuries.

Keywords: stab, incisional, haemo-pericardium, haemo-pneumothorax

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21 Investigation of Wood Chips as Internal Carbon Source Supporting Denitrification Process in Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Ruth Lorivi, Jianzheng Li, John J. Ambuchi, Kaiwen Deng

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Nitrogen removal from wastewater is accomplished by nitrification and denitrification processes. Successful denitrification requires carbon, therefore, if placed after biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrification process, a carbon source has to be re-introduced into the water. To avoid adding a carbon source, denitrification is usually placed before BOD and nitrification processes. This process however involves recycling the nitrified effluent. In this study wood chips were used as internal carbon source which enabled placement of denitrification after BOD and nitrification process without effluent recycling. To investigate the efficiency of a wood packed aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor on carbon and nutrients removal from domestic wastewater, a three compartment baffled reactor was presented. Each of the three compartments was packed with 329 g wood chips 1x1cm acting as an internal carbon source for denitrification. The proposed mode of operation was aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic (OAA) with no effluent recycling. The operating temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were 24 ± 2 , 24 h, less than 4 mg/L and 7 ± 1 respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) attained was 99, 87 and 83% respectively. TN removal rate was limited by nitrification as 97% of ammonia converted into nitrate and nitrite was denitrified. These results show that application of wood chips in wastewater treatment processes is an efficient internal carbon source. 

Keywords: Denitrification, Nitrification, aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor, wood chip

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20 Exploration of Sweet Potato Cultivar Markets Availability in North West Province, South Africa

Authors: V. M. Mmbengwa, J. R. M. Mabuso, C. P. Du Plooy, S. Laurrie, H. D. van Schalkwyk

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Sweet potato products are necessary for the provision of essential nutrients in every household, regardless of their poverty status. Their consumption appears to be highly influenced by socio-economic factors, such as malnutrition, food insecurity and unemployment. Therefore, market availability is crucial for these cultivars to resolve some of the socio-economic factors. The aim of the study was to investigate market availability of sweet potato cultivars in the North West Province. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used. Qualitative methodology was used to explain the quantitative outcomes of the variables. On the other hand, quantitative results were used to test the hypothesis. The study used SPSS software to analyse the data. Cross-tabulation and Chi-square statistics were used to obtain the descriptive and inferential analyses, respectively. The study found that the Blesbok cultivar is dominating the markets of the North West Province, with the Monate cultivar dominating in the Bojanala Platinum (75 %) and Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati (25 %) districts. It is also found that a unit increase in the supply of sweet potato cultivars in both local and district municipal markets is accompanied by a reduced demand of 28 % and 33 % at district and local markets, respectively. All these results were found to be significant at p<0.05. The results further revealed that in four out of nine local municipality markets, the Blesbok cultivar seems to be solely available in those four local municipal markets of North West Province. It can be concluded that Blesbok, relative to other cultivars, is the most commercialised sweet potato variety and that consumers across this Province are highly aware of it. For other cultivars to assume market prominence in this Province, a well-designed marketing campaign for creating awareness may be required. This campaign may be based on nutritional advantages of different cultivars, of which Blesbok is relatively inferior, compared to orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Markets, sweet potato, cultivar

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19 Attitudes, Experiences and Good Practices of Writing Online Course Material: A Case Study in Makerere University

Authors: Ruth Nsibirano

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Online mode of delivery in higher institutions of learning, popularly known in some circles as e-Learning or distance education is a new phenomenon that is steadily taking root in African universities but specifically at Makerere University. For slightly over a decade, the Department of Open and Distance Learning has been offering the first generation mode of distance education. In this, learning and teaching experiences were based on the use of hard copy materials circulated through postal services in a rather correspondence mode. There were more challenges to this including high dropout rates, limited support to the learners and sustainability issues. Fortunately, the Department was supported by the Norwegian Government through a NORHED grant to “leapfrog” to the fifth generation of distance education that makes more use of educational technologies and tools. The capacity of faculty staff was gradually enhanced through a series of training to handle the upgraded structure of fifth generation distance education. The trained staff was then tasked to develop modules befitting an online delivery mode, for use on the program. This paper will present attitudes, experiences of the course writers with a view of sharing the good practices that enabled them leap from e-faculty trainees to distinct online course writers. This perspective will hopefully serve as building blocks to enhance the capacity of other upcoming distance education programs in low capacity universities and also promote the uptake of e-Education on the continent and beyond. Methodologically the findings were collected through individual interviews with the 30 course writers. In addition, semi structured questionnaires were designed to collect data on the profile, challenges and lessons from the writers. Findings show that the attitudes of course writers on project supported activities are so much tagged to the returns from their committed efforts. In conclusion, therefore, it is strategically useful to assess and selectively choose which individual to nominate for involvement at the initial stages.

Keywords: Distance Education, online course content, staff attitudes, best practices in online learning

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18 A Shared Space: A Pioneering Approach to Interprofessional Education in New Zealand

Authors: Maria L. Ulloa, Ruth M. Crawford, Stephanie Kelly, Joey Domdom

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In recent decades health and social service delivery have become more collaborative and interdisciplinary. Emerging trends suggest the need for an integrative and interprofessional approach to meet the challenges faced by professionals navigating the complexities of health and social service practice environments. Terms such as multidisciplinary practice, interprofessional collaboration, interprofessional education and transprofessional practice have become the common language used across a range of social services and health providers in western democratic systems. In Aotearoa New Zealand, one example of an interprofessional collaborative approach to curriculum design and delivery in health and social service is the development of an innovative Masters of Professional Practice programme. This qualification is the result of a strategic partnership between two tertiary institutions – Whitireia New Zealand (NZ) and the Wellington Institute of Technology (Weltec) in Wellington. The Master of Professional Practice programme was designed and delivered from the perspective of a collaborative, interprofessional and relational approach. Teachers and students in the programme come from a diverse range of cultural, professional and personal backgrounds and are engaged in courses using a blended learning approach that incorporates the values and pedagogies of interprofessional education. Students are actively engaged in professional practice while undertaking the programme. This presentation describes the themes of exploratory qualitative formative observations of engagement in class and online, student assessments, student research projects, as well as qualitative interviews with the programme teaching staff. These formative findings reveal the development of critical practice skills around the common themes of the programme: research and evidence based practice, education, leadership, working with diversity and advancing critical reflection of professional identities and interprofessional practice. This presentation will provide evidence of enhanced learning experiences in higher education and learning in multi-disciplinary contexts.

Keywords: Diversity, exploratory research, interprofessional education, professional identity

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17 Investigation of the Bioactivity and Efficacy of Personal Care Products Formulated Using Extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss

Authors: Ade O. Oyewole, Sunday O. Okoh, Ruth O. Ishola, Adenike D. Odusote, Chima C. Igwe, Gloria N. Elemo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Azadirachta indica (Neem tree) also referred to as an all-purpose tree is used in a wide range of medical preparations in tropical and subtropical countries for prevention and management of various livestock, crops products and human diseases. In Nigeria however, the potentials of this plant have not been fully exploited thus it causes an environmental nuisance during the fruiting season. With a rise in the demand for herbal personal care products globally extracts from different parts of the neem plant were used as the bio-active ingredients in the formulation of personal care products. In this study, formulated neem soap, body cream, lotion, toothpaste and shampoo are analyzed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, and toxicity properties. The efficacies of these products for management of infectious diseases, both oral and dermal, were also investigated in vitro. Oil from the neem seeds obtained using a mechanical press and acetone extracts of both the neem bark and leaves obtained by the maceration method were used in the formulation and production of the neem personal care products. The antimicrobial and toxicity properties of these products were investigated by agar diffusion, and haemolytic methods respectively. The five neem products (NPs) exhibited strong antibacterial activities against four multi–drug resistant pathogenic and three none pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli (180), Listeria ivanovii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Vibro spp., Streptococcus uberis, Mycobacterium smegmatis), except the neem lotion with insignificant activity against E. coli and S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range was between 0.20-0.40 mg/ mL. The 5 NPs demonstrated moderate activity against three clinical dermatophytes isolates (Tinea corporis, Tinea capitis, and Tinea cruiz) as well as one fungal strain (Candida albican) with the MIC ranging between 0.30 - 0.50 mg/ mL and 0.550 mg/mL respectively. The soap and shampoo were the most active against test bacteria and fungi. The haemolytic analysis results on the 5 NPs indicated none toxicity at 0.50 mg/ mL in sheep red blood cells (SRBC).

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Personal Care Products, azadirachta indica, multi–drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

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16 The Effect of SIAH1 on PINK1 Homeostasis in Parkinson Disease

Authors: Fatimah Abd Elghani, Raymonde Szargel, Vered Shani, Hazem Safory, Haya Hamza, Mor Savyon, Ruth Rott, Rina Bandopadhyay, Simone Engelender

Abstract:

Background: PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson’s disease. Down regulation of PINK1 results in abnormal mitochondrial morphology and altered membrane potential. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, it’s cellular, and submitochondrial localization remains unclear, in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in PINK1 degradation and how this may affect PINK1 stability and function, with implications for mitochondrial function in PD. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of proteasome activity was shown to lead to PINK1 accumulation, indicating that PINK1 degradation depends on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Methods: Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH1 as a PINK1-interacting protein in HEK293 cells as well as on rat brain tissues. In addition, we determined the effect of SIAH 1, SIAH2 and Parkin on PINK1 steady-state levels by Western blot analysis, and checked their possibility to ubiquitinate and mediate PINK1 degradation through the proteasome carried out in vivo ubiquitination experiments. Results: We have obtained results showing that SIAH-1 interacts with and ubiquitinates PINK1. The ubiquitination promoted by SIAH-1 leads to the proteasomal degradation of PINK1. We confirmed these findings by knocking down SIAH-1 and observing important accumulation of PINK1 in cells. Besides, we found that SIAH-1 decreases PINK1 steady-state levels but not the E3 ligase Parkin. We also investigated the interaction of SIAH-1 with PINK1 disease mutants and its ability to promote their ubiquitination and degradation. Although, no clear difference in the ability of SIAH-1 to promote the degradation of PINK1 disease mutants was observed. It is possible that dysfunction of proteasomal activity in the disease may lead to the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated PINK1 in patients with PINK1 mutations, with possible implications to the pathogenesis of PD. Conclusions: Here, we demonstrated that SIAH-1 ubiquitinates and promotes the degradation of PINK1. In addition, SIAH-1 represents now a target that may help the improvement of mitophagy in PD. Further investigations needed to understand how mitophagy is regulated by PINK1-SIAH-1 axis to provide targets for future therapeutics.

Keywords: parkinson's disease, substantia nigra, PINK1, PTEN-induced kinase1, SIAH, seven in absentia homolog

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15 Feminising Football and Its Fandom: The Ideological Construction of Women's Super League

Authors: Donna Woodhouse, Beth Fielding-Lloyd, Ruth Sequerra

Abstract:

This paper explores the structure and culture of the English Football Association (FA) the governing body of soccer in England, in relation to the development of the FA Women’s Super League (WSL). In doing so, it examines the organisation’s journey from banning the sport in 1921 to establishing the country’s first semi professional female soccer league in 2011. As the FA has a virtual monopoly on defining the structures of the elite game, we attempted to understand its behaviour in the context of broader issues of power, control and resistance by giving voice to the experiences of those affected by its decisions. Observations were carried out at 39 matches over three years. Semi structured interviews with 17 people involved in the women’s game, identified via snowball sampling, were also carried out. Transcripts accompanied detailed field notes and were inductively coded to identify themes. What emerged was the governing body’s desire to create a new product, jettisoning the long history of the women’s game in order to shape and control the sport in a way it is no longer able to, with the elite male club game. The League created was also shaped by traditional conceptualisations of gender, in terms of the portrayal of its style of play and target audience, setting increased participation and spectatorship targets as measures of ‘success’. The national governing body has demonstrated pseudo inclusion and a lack of enthusiasm for the implementation of equity reforms, driven by a belief that the organisation is already representative, fair and accessible. Despite a consistent external pressure, the Football Association is still dominated at its most senior levels by males. Via claiming to hold a monopoly on expertise around the sport, maintaining complex committee structures and procedures, and with membership rules rooted in the amateur game, it remains a deeply gendered organisation, resistant to structural and cultural change. In WSL, the FA's structure and culture have created a franchise over which it retains almost complete control, dictating the terms of conditions of entry and marginalising alternative voices. The organisation presents a feminised version of both play and spectatorship, portraying the sport as a distinct, and lesser, version of soccer.

Keywords: organisational culture, soccer, football association, women’s super league

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14 Detection, Isolation, and Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Acute and Chronic Staphylococcus aureus Infection in an Endothelial Cell Culture Model

Authors: Jürgen Popp, Astrid Tannert, Anuradha Ramoji, Christina Ebert, Frederike Gladigau, Lorena Tuchscherr, Ute Neugebauer

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Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular pathogen, which by entering host cells may evade immunologic host response as well as antimicrobial treatment. In that way, S. aureus can cause persistent intracellular infections which are difficult to treat. Depending on the strain, S. aureus may persist at different intracellular locations like the phagolysosome. The first barrier invading pathogens from the blood stream that they have to cross are the endothelial cells lining the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels. Upon proceeding from an acute to a chronic infection, intracellular pathogens undergo certain biochemical and structural changes including a deceleration of metabolic processes to adopt for long-term intracellular survival and the development of a special phenotype designated as small colony variant. In this study, the endothelial cell line Ea.hy 926 was used as a model for acute and chronic S. aureus infection. To this end, Ea.hy 926 cells were cultured on QIAscout™ Microraft Arrays, a special graded cell culture substrate that contains around 12,000 microrafts of 200 µm edge length. After attachment to the substrate, the endothelial cells were infected with GFP-expressing S. aureus for 3 weeks. The acute infection and the development of persistent bacteria was followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning the whole Microraft Array for the presence and for detailed determination of the intracellular location of fluorescent intracellular bacteria every second day. After three weeks of infection representative microrafts containing infected cells, cells with protruded infections and cells that did never show any infection were isolated and fixed for Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation. For comparison, also microrafts with acute infection were isolated. The acquired Raman spectra are correlated with the fluorescence microscopic images to give hints about a) the molecular alterations in endothelial cells during acute and chronic infection compared to non-infected cells, and b) metabolic and structural changes within the pathogen when entering a mode of persistence within host cells. We thank Dr. Ruth Kläver from QIAGEN GmbH for her support regarding QIAscout technology. Financial support by the BMBF via the CSCC (FKZ 01EO1502) and from the DFG via the Jena Biophotonic and Imaging Laboratory (JBIL, FKZ PO 633/29-1, BA 1601/10-1) is highly acknowledged.

Keywords: Intracellular infection, correlative image analysis, pathogen-host adaption, Raman micro-spectroscopy

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13 Consideration of Whether Participation in the International '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence' Campaign Is an Effective Teaching Tool for Raising Awareness and Understanding of Gender Based Violence

Authors: Kayliegh Richardson, Ana Speed

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The international campaign, '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence', seeks to raise awareness and understanding of gender based violence in a variety of settings. The campaign requires its participants to join in for advancing the right to education and challenging violence, discrimination, and inequality and take into account intersections such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status and other social identifiers. The authors of this paper are both clinic supervisors at Northumbria University in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. As part of their research project, the authors are going to ask final year students on the MLaw degree at Northumbria University to become involved in the campaign by participating in a variety of awareness-raising activities during the course of the 16 days, which runs from 27 November 2017 until 10 December 2017. As part of the campaign, the authors will be running the following activities for students to participate in 1. Documentary showing of Banaz, a love story followed by discussion group. 2. 16 blogs for 16 days. Students will contribute to our family law blog over the 16 days, with articles about gender based violence. 3. Guest lecture on domestic violence (potentially run by a domestic violence organisation) 4. Workshop by Professor Ruth Lewis who will be presenting her innovative research in gender based violence and online abuse. 5. Poster competition - the students are asked to submit a poster about the different forms of gender based violence or proposals for ending violence against women and girls. The research aims are to identify whether participation in the project: 1. increases the students' engagement with issues of gender justice 2. is an effective educational tool for raising the students' awareness and understanding of gender based violence in its many forms. 3. increases the students' understanding of the domestic and international framework for protecting victims (in particular women and children) of gender based violence. After the activities, an impartial, experienced researcher will be holding a focus group with volunteering students to discuss their experiences of participating in the activities and whether they felt that participation in the project achieved the aims set out above. This paper will discuss the activities undertaken by the students and will address the data gathered during the focus group. Finally, the authors will discuss their thoughts on whether awareness of gender-based violence and other international family law issues can be appropriately raised in an educational setting.

Keywords: gender based violence, clinical legal education, international family law, domestic abuse

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12 Antimicrobial Properties of SEBS Compounds with Copper Microparticles

Authors: Daiane Tomacheski, Vanda Ferreira Ribeiro, Douglas Naue Simões, Michele Pitto, Ruth Marlene Campomanes Santana

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Indoor environments, such as car cabins and public transportation vehicles are places where users are subject to air quality. Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeasts) enter these environments through windows, ventilation systems and may use the organic particles present as a growth substrate. In addition, atmospheric pollutants can act as potential carbon and nitrogen sources for some microorganisms. Compounds base SEBS copolymers, poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene, are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), fully recyclable and largely used in automotive parts. Metals, such as cooper and silver, have biocidal activities and the production of the SEBS compounds by melting blending with these agents can be a good option for producing compounds for use in plastic parts of ventilation systems and automotive air-conditioning, in order to minimize the problems caused by growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of copper microparticles as antimicrobial agent in compositions based on SEBS/PP/oil/calcite. Copper microparticles were used in weight proportion of 0%, 1%, 2% and 4%. The compounds were prepared using a co-rotating double screw extruder (L/D ratio of 40/1 and 16 mm screw diameter). The processing parameters were 300 rpm of screw rotation rate, with a temperature profile between 150 to 190°C. SEBS based TPE compounds were injection molded. The compounds emission were characterized by gravimetric fogging test. Compounds were characterized by physical (density and staining by contact), mechanical (hardness and tension properties) and rheological properties (melt volume rate – MVR). Antibacterial properties were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. To avaluate the abilities toward the fungi have been chosen Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cladosporium cladosporioides (C. cladosporioides) and Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum). The results of biological tests showed a reduction on bacteria in up to 88% in E.coli and up to 93% in S. aureus. The tests with fungi showed no conclusive results because the sample without copper also demonstrated inhibition of the development of these microorganisms. The copper addition did not cause significant variations in mechanical properties, in the MVR and the emission behavior of the compounds. The density increases with the increment of copper in compounds.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, SEBS, air conditioner, cooper

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11 Effect of Accelerated Aging on Antibacterial and Mechanical Properties of SEBS Compounds

Authors: Douglas N. Simões, Michele Pittol, Vanda F. Ribeiro, Daiane Tomacheski, Ruth M. C. Santana

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Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) compounds are used in a wide range of applications, like home appliances, automotive components, medical devices, footwear, and others. These materials are susceptible to microbial attack, causing a crack in polymer chains compounds based on SEBS copolymers, poly (styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene, are a class of TPE, largely used in domestic appliances like refrigerator seals (gaskets), bath mats and sink squeegee. Moisture present in some areas (such as shower area and sink) in addition to organic matter provides favorable conditions for microbial survival and proliferation, contributing to the spread of diseases besides the reduction of product life cycle due the biodegradation process. Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been studied as an alternative antibacterial additive due its biocidal effect. It is important to know the influence of these additives in the properties of the compounds, both at the beginning and during the life cycle. In that sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of accelerated aging in oven on antibacterial and mechanical properties of ZnO loaded SEBS based TPE compounds. Two different comercial zinc oxide, named as WR and Pe were used in proportion of 1%. A compound with no antimicrobial additive (standard) was also tested. The compounds were prepared using a co-rotating double screw extruder (L/D ratio of 40/1 and 16 mm screw diameter). The extrusion parameters were kept constant for all materials, screw rotation rate was set at 226 rpm, with a temperature profile from 150 to 190 ºC. Test specimens were prepared using the injection molding machine at 190 ºC. The Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Effect of Liquids was applied in order to simulate the exposition of TPE samples to detergent ingredients during service. For this purpose, ZnO loaded TPE samples were immersed in a 3.0% w/v detergent (neutral) and accelerated aging in oven at 70°C for 7 days. Compounds were characterized by changes in mechanical (hardness and tension properties) and mass. The Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) Z 2801:2010 was applied to evaluate antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The microbiological tests showed a reduction up to 42% in E. coli and up to 49% in S. aureus population in non-aged samples. There were observed variations in elongation and hardness values with the addition of zinc The changes in tensile at rupture and mass were not significant between non-aged and aged samples.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, zinc oxide, SEBS, domestic appliance

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10 Redeeming the Self-Settling Scores with the Nazis by the Means of Poetics

Authors: Liliane Steiner

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Beyond the testimonial act, that sheds light on the feminine experience in the Holocaust, the survivors' writing voices first and foremost the abjection of the feminine self brutally inflicted by the Nazis in the Holocaust, and in the same movement redeems the self by the means of poetics, and brings it to an existential state of being a subject. This study aims to stress the poetics of this writing in order to promote the Holocaust literature from the margins to the mainstream and to contribute to the commemoration of the Holocaust in the next generations. Methodology: The study of the survivors' redeeming of self is based on Julia Kristeva's theory of the abject: the self-throws out everything that threatens its existence and Liliane Steiner's theory of the post- abjection of hell: the belated act of vomiting the abject experiences settles cores with the author of the abject to redeem the self. The research will focus on Ruth Sender's trilogy The Cage, To Life and The Holocaust Lady as a case study. Findings: The binary mode that characterizes this writing reflects the experience of Jewish women, who were subject(s), were treated violently as object(s), debased, defeminized and, eventually turned into abject by the Nazis. In a tour de force, this writing re-enacts the postponed resistance, that vomited the abject imposed on the feminine self by the very act of narration, which denounces the real abject, the perpetrators. The post-abjection of self is acted out in constructs of abject, relating the abject experience of the Holocaust as well as the rehabilitation of the surviving self (subject). The transcription of abject surfaces in deconstructing the abject through self- characterization, and in the elusive rendering of bad memories, having recourse to literary figures. The narrative 'I' selects, obstructs, mends and tells the past events from an active standpoint, as would a subject in control of its (narrative) fate. In a compensatory movement, the narrating I tells itself by reconstructing the subject and proving time and again that I is other. Moreover, in the belated endeavor to revenge, testify and narrate the abject, the narrative I defies itself, and represents itself as a dialectical I, splitting and multiplying itself in a deconstructing way. The dialectical I is never (one) I. It voices not only the unvoiced but also and mainly the other silenced 'I's. Drawing its nature and construct from traumatic memories, the dialectical I transgresses boundaries to narrate her story, and in the same breath, the story of Jewish women doomed to silence. In this narrative feat, the dialectical I stresses its essential dialectical existence with the past, never to be (one) again. Conclusion: The pattern of I is other generates patterns of subject(s) that defy, transgress and repudiate the abject and its repercussions on the feminine I. The feminine I writes itself as a survivor that defies the abject (Nazis) and takes revenge. The paradigm of metamorphosis that accompanies the journey of the Holocaust memoirist engenders life and surviving as well as a narration that defies stagnation and death.

Keywords: Holocaust, abject, feminine writing, post-abjection

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9 Row Detection and Graph-Based Localization in Tree Nurseries Using a 3D LiDAR

Authors: Ionut Vintu, Stefan Laible, Ruth Schulz

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Agricultural robotics has been developing steadily over recent years, with the goal of reducing and even eliminating pesticides used in crops and to increase productivity by taking over human labor. The majority of crops are arranged in rows. The first step towards autonomous robots, capable of driving in fields and performing crop-handling tasks, is for robots to robustly detect the rows of plants. Recent work done towards autonomous driving between plant rows offers big robotic platforms equipped with various expensive sensors as a solution to this problem. These platforms need to be driven over the rows of plants. This approach lacks flexibility and scalability when it comes to the height of plants or distance between rows. This paper proposes instead an algorithm that makes use of cheaper sensors and has a higher variability. The main application is in tree nurseries. Here, plant height can range from a few centimeters to a few meters. Moreover, trees are often removed, leading to gaps within the plant rows. The core idea is to combine row detection algorithms with graph-based localization methods as they are used in SLAM. Nodes in the graph represent the estimated pose of the robot, and the edges embed constraints between these poses or between the robot and certain landmarks. This setup aims to improve individual plant detection and deal with exception handling, like row gaps, which are falsely detected as an end of rows. Four methods were developed for detecting row structures in the fields, all using a point cloud acquired with a 3D LiDAR as an input. Comparing the field coverage and number of damaged plants, the method that uses a local map around the robot proved to perform the best, with 68% covered rows and 25% damaged plants. This method is further used and combined with a graph-based localization algorithm, which uses the local map features to estimate the robot’s position inside the greater field. Testing the upgraded algorithm in a variety of simulated fields shows that the additional information obtained from localization provides a boost in performance over methods that rely purely on perception to navigate. The final algorithm achieved a row coverage of 80% and an accuracy of 27% damaged plants. Future work would focus on achieving a perfect score of 100% covered rows and 0% damaged plants. The main challenges that the algorithm needs to overcome are fields where the height of the plants is too small for the plants to be detected and fields where it is hard to distinguish between individual plants when they are overlapping. The method was also tested on a real robot in a small field with artificial plants. The tests were performed using a small robot platform equipped with wheel encoders, an IMU and an FX10 3D LiDAR. Over ten runs, the system achieved 100% coverage and 0% damaged plants. The framework built within the scope of this work can be further used to integrate data from additional sensors, with the goal of achieving even better results.

Keywords: Agricultural Robots, graph-based localization, row detection

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8 Barbie in India: A Study of Effects of Barbie in Psychological and Social Health

Authors: Suhrita Saha

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Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel Inc and it made debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York in 9 March 1959. From being a fashion doll to a symbol of fetishistic commodification, Barbie has come a long way. A Barbie doll is sold every three seconds across the world, which makes the billion dollar brand the world’s most popular doll for the girls. The 11.5 inch moulded plastic doll has a height of 5 feet 9 inches at 1/6 scale. Her vital statistics have been estimated at 36 inches (chest), 18 inches (waist) and 33 inches (hips). Her weight is permanently set at 110 pounds which would be 35 pounds underweight. Ruth Handler, the creator of Barbie wanted a doll that represented adulthood and allowed children to imagine themselves as teenagers or adults. While Barbie might have been intended to be independent, imaginative and innovative, the physical uniqueness does not confine the doll to the status of a play thing. It is a cultural icon but with far reaching critical implications. The doll is a commodity bearing more social value than practical use value. The way Barbie is produced represents industrialization and commodification of the process of symbolic production. And this symbolic production and consumption is a standardized planned one that produce stereotypical ‘pseudo-individuality’ and suppresses cultural alternatives. Children are being subject to and also arise as subjects in this consumer context. A very gendered, physiologically dissected sexually charged symbolism is imposed upon children (both male and female), childhood, their social worlds, identity, and relationship formation. Barbie is also very popular among Indian children. While the doll is essentially an imaginative representation of the West, it is internalized by the Indian sensibilities. Through observation and questionnaire-based interview within a sample population of adolescent children (primarily female, a few male) and parents (primarily mothers) in Kolkata, an Indian metropolis, the paper puts forth findings of sociological relevance. 1. Barbie creates, recreates, and accentuates already existing divides between the binaries like male- female, fat- thin, sexy- nonsexy, beauty- brain and more. 2. The Indian girl child in her associative process with Barbie wants to be like her and commodifies her own self. The male child also readily accepts this standardized commodification. Definition of beauty is thus based on prejudice and stereotype. 3. Not being able to become Barbie creates health issues both psychological and physiological varying from anorexia to obesity as well as personality disorder. 4. From being a plaything Barbie becomes the game maker. Barbie along with many other forms of simulation further creates a consumer culture and market for all kind of fitness related hyper enchantment and subsequent disillusionment. The construct becomes the reality and the real gets lost in the play world. The paper would thus argue that Barbie from being an innocuous doll transports itself into becoming social construct with long term and irreversible adverse impact.

Keywords: Commodification, Personality Disorder, Barbie, sterotype

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7 Antimicrobial Properties of SEBS Compounds with Zinc Oxide and Zinc Ions

Authors: Douglas N. Simões, Michele Pittol, Vanda F. Ribeiro, Daiane Tomacheski, Ruth M. C. Santana

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The increasing demand of thermoplastic elastomers is related to the wide range of applications, such as automotive, footwear, wire and cable industries, adhesives and medical devices, cell phones, sporting goods, toys and others. These materials are susceptible to microbial attack. Moisture and organic matter present in some areas (such as shower area and sink), provide favorable conditions for microbial proliferation, which contributes to the spread of diseases and reduces the product life cycle. Compounds based on SEBS copolymers, poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene, are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), fully recyclable and largely used in domestic appliances like bath mats and tooth brushes (soft touch). Zinc oxide and zinc ions loaded in personal and home care products have become common in the last years due to its biocidal effect. In that sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc as antimicrobial agent in compounds based on SEBS/polypropylene/oil/ calcite for use as refrigerator seals (gaskets), bath mats and sink squeegee. Two zinc oxides from different suppliers (ZnO-Pe and ZnO-WR) and one masterbatch of zinc ions (M-Zn-ion) were used in proportions of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5%. The compounds were prepared using a co-rotating double screw extruder (L/D ratio of 40/1 and 16 mm screw diameter). The extrusion parameters were kept constant for all materials. Tests specimens were prepared using the injection molding machine. A compound with no antimicrobial additive (standard) was also tested. Compounds were characterized by physical (density), mechanical (hardness and tensile properties) and rheological properties (melt flow rate - MFR). The Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) Z 2801:2010 was applied to evaluate antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) NBR 15275:2014 were used to evaluate antifungal properties against Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans), Candida albicans (C. albicans), and Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum). The microbiological assay showed a reduction over 42% in E. coli and over 49% in S. aureus population. The tests with fungi showed inconclusive results because the sample without zinc also demonstrated an inhibition of fungal development when tested against A. pullulans, C. albicans and P. chrysogenum. In addition, the zinc loaded samples showed worse results than the standard sample when tested against A. niger. The zinc addition did not show significant variation in mechanical properties. However, the density values increased with the rise in ZnO additives concentration, and had a little decrease in M-Zn-ion samples. Also, there were differences in the MFR results in all compounds compared to the standard.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, zinc, SEBS, home device

Procedia PDF Downloads 133