Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Elad Arad

8 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport

Abstract:

Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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7 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Impact of Inflation on Global Supply Chains

Authors: Elad Harison

Abstract:

The paper identifies the complex links between post-COVID-19 inflationary pressures and global supply chains. Throughout the COVID-19 lockdowns and long periods after the termination of social distancing policies, consumers, notably in the U.S., have confronted and still face disruptions in the supply of goods. The study analyzes the monetary policy in the U.S. that led to the significant shift in consumer demand during a limited supply period, hence resulting in shortages and emphasizing inflationary dynamics. We argue that the monetary guidelines applied by the U.S. government further elevated the scope of supply chain disruptions.

Keywords: consumer demand, COVID-19, inflation, monetary policy, supply chain

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6 Childhood Apraxia of Speech and Autism: Interaction Influences and Treatment

Authors: Elad Vashdi

Abstract:

It is common to find speech deficit among children diagnosed with Autism. It can be found in the clinical field and recently in research. One of the DSM-V criteria suggests a speech delay (Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language), but doesn't explain the cause of it. A common perception among professionals and families is that the inability to talk results from the autism. Autism is a name for a syndrome which just describes a phenomenon and is defined behaviorally. Since it is not based yet on a physiological gold standard, one can not conclude the nature of a deficit based on the name of the syndrome. A wide retrospective research (n=270) which included children with motor speech difficulties was conducted in Israel. The study analyzed entry evaluations in a private clinic during the years 2006-2013. The data was extracted from the reports. High percentage of children diagnosed with Autism (60%) was found. This result demonstrates the high relationship between Autism and motor speech problem. It also supports recent findings in research of Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) occurrence among children with ASD. Only small percentage of the participants in this research (10%) were diagnosed with CAS even though their verbal deficits well fitted the guidelines for CAS diagnosis set by ASHA in 2007. This fact raises questions regarding the diagnostic procedure in Israel. The understanding that CAS might highly exist within Autism and can have a remarkable influence on the course of early development should be a guiding tool within the diagnosis procedure. CAS can explain the nature of the speech problem among some of the autistic children and guide the treatment in a more accurate way. Calculating the prevalence of CAS which includes the comorbidity with ASD reveals new numbers and suggests treating differently the CAS population.

Keywords: childhood apraxia of speech, Autism, treatment, speech

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5 Rapid Classification of Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae Phyto-Pathogens Pectobacterium and Dickeya Spp. Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning

Authors: George Abu-Aqil, Leah Tsror, Elad Shufan, Shaul Mordechai, Mahmoud Huleihel, Ahmad Salman

Abstract:

Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp which negatively affect a wide range of crops are the main causes of the aggressive diseases of agricultural crops. These aggressive diseases are responsible for a huge economic loss in agriculture including a severe decrease in the quality of the stored vegetables and fruits. Therefore, it is important to detect these pathogenic bacteria at their early stages of infection to control their spread and consequently reduce the economic losses. In addition, early detection is vital for producing non-infected propagative material for future generations. The currently used molecular techniques for the identification of these bacteria at the strain level are expensive and laborious. Other techniques require a long time of ~48 h for detection. Thus, there is a clear need for rapid, non-expensive, accurate and reliable techniques for early detection of these bacteria. In this study, infrared spectroscopy, which is a well-known technique with all its features, was used for rapid detection of Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. at the strain level. The bacteria were isolated from potato plants and tubers with soft rot symptoms and measured by infrared spectroscopy. The obtained spectra were analyzed using different machine learning algorithms. The performances of our approach for taxonomic classification among the bacterial samples were evaluated in terms of success rates. The success rates for the correct classification of the genus, species and strain levels were ~100%, 95.2% and 92.6% respectively.

Keywords: soft rot enterobacteriaceae (SRE), pectobacterium, dickeya, plant infections, potato, solanum tuberosum, infrared spectroscopy, machine learning

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4 Cytokine Profiling in Cultured Endometrial Cells after Hormonal Treatment

Authors: Mark Gavriel, Ariel J. Jaffa, Dan Grisaru, David Elad

Abstract:

The human endometrium-myometrium interface (EMI) is the uterine inner barrier without a separatig layer. It is composed of endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) and endometrial stromal cells (ESC) in the endometrium and myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMC) in the myometrium. The EMI undergoes structural remodeling during the menstruation cycle which are essential for human reproduction. Recently, we co-cultured a layer-by-layer in vitro model of EEC, ESC and MSMC on a synthetic membrane for mechanobiology experiments. We also treated the model with progesterone and β-estradiol in order to mimic the in vivo receptive uterus In the present study we analyzed the cytokines profile in a single layer of EEC the hormonal treated in vitro model of the EMI. The methodologies of this research include simple tissue-engineering . First, we cultured commercial EEC (RL95-2, ATCC® CRL-1671™) in 24-wellplate. Then, we applied an hormonal stimuli protocol with 17-β-estradiol and progesterone in time dependent concentration according to the human physiology that mimics the menstrual cycle. We collected cell supernatant samples of control, pre-ovulation, ovulation and post-ovulaton periods for analysis of the secreted proteins and cytokines. The cytokine profiling was performed using the Proteome Profiler Human XL Cytokine Array Kit (R&D Systems, Inc., USA) that can detect105 human soluble cytokines. The relative quantification of all the cytokines will be analyzed using xMAP – LUMINEX. We conducted a fishing expedition with the 4 membranes Proteome Profiler. We processed the images, quantified the spots intensity and normalized these values by the negative control and reference spots at the membrane. Analyses of the relative quantities that reflected change higher than 5% of the control points of the kit revealed the The results clearly showed that there are significant changes in the cytokine level for inflammation and angiogenesis pathways. Analysis of tissue-engineered models of the uterine wall will enable deeper investigation of molecular and biomechanical aspects of early reproductive stages (e.g. the window of implantation) or developments of pathologies.

Keywords: tissue-engineering, hormonal stimuli, reproduction, multi-layer uterine model, progesterone, β-estradiol, receptive uterine model, fertility

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3 Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Using Infra-Red-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Ahmad Salman, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Elad Shufan, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J. Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

Antimicrobial drugs have an important role in controlling illness associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global health-care problem. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing like disk diffusion are time-consuming and other method including E-test, genotyping are relatively expensive. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 550 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 85% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.

Keywords: antibiotics, E. coli, FTIR, multivariate analysis, susceptibility

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2 A Pilot Study on the Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology (IBEAR)-16

Authors: Samuel Attias, Elad Schiff, Zahi Arnon, Eran Ben-Arye, Yael Keshet, Ibrahim Matter, Boker Lital Keinan

Abstract:

Background: Despite the extensive use of manual therapies, reflexology in particular, no validated tools have been developed to evaluate patients' beliefs, attitudes and expectations regarding reflexology. Such tools however are essential to improve the results of the reflexology treatment, by better adjusting it to the patients' attitudes and expectations. The tool also enables assessing correlations with clinical results of interventional studies using reflexology. Methods: The IBEAR (Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology) tool contains 25 questions (8 demographic and 17 specifically addressing reflexology), and was constructed in several stages: brainstorming by a multidisciplinary team of experts; evaluation of each of the proposed questions by the experts' team; and assessment of the experts' degree of agreement per each question, based on a Likert 1-7 scale (1 – don't agree at all; 7 – agree completely). Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability while the Factor analysis test was used for further validation (228 patients). The questionnaire was tested and re-tested (48h) on a group of 199 patients to assure clarity and reliability, using the Pearson coefficient and the Kappa test. It was modified based on these results into its final form. Results: After its construction, the IBEAR questionnaire passed the expert group's preliminary consensus, evaluation of the questions' clarity (from 5.1 to 7.0), inner validation (from 5.5 to 7) and structural validation (from 5.5 to 6.75). Factor analysis pointed to two content worlds in a division into 4 questions discussing attitudes and expectations versus 5 questions on belief and attitudes. Of the 221 questionnaires collected, a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated on nine questions relating to beliefs, expectations, and attitudes regarding reflexology. This measure stood at 0.716 (satisfactory reliability). At the Test-Retest stage, 199 research participants filled in the questionnaire a second time. The Pearson coefficient for all questions ranged between 0.73 and 0.94 (good to excellent reliability). As for dichotomic answers, Kappa scores ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (mediocre to high). One of the questions was removed from the IBEAR following questionnaire validation. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that the proposed IBEAR-16 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the characterization of potential reflexology patients and may be effectively used in settings which include the evaluation of inpatients' beliefs, expectations, and attitudes toward reflexology.

Keywords: reflexology, attitude, expectation, belief, CAM, inpatient

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1 Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant UPEC Using FTIR-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Ahmad Salman, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Elad Shufan, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J. Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

Antimicrobial drugs have played an indispensable role in controlling illness and death associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global healthcare problem. Many antibiotics had lost their effectiveness since the beginning of the antibiotic era because many bacteria have adapted defenses against these antibiotics. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing require the isolation of the pathogen from a clinical specimen by culturing on the appropriate media (this culturing stage lasts 24 h-first culturing). Then, chosen colonies are grown on media containing antibiotic(s), using micro-diffusion discs (second culturing time is also 24 h) in order to determine its bacterial susceptibility. Other methods, genotyping methods, E-test and automated methods were also developed for testing antimicrobial susceptibility. Most of these methods are expensive and time-consuming. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, effective and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria; nonetheless, its true potential in routine clinical diagnosis has not yet been established. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The UTI E.coli bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 700 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 90% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.

Keywords: antibiotics, E.coli, FTIR, multivariate analysis, susceptibility, UTI

Procedia PDF Downloads 100