Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: catechol

23 Depolymerization of Lignin in Sugarcane Bagasse by Hydrothermal Liquefaction to Optimize Catechol Formation

Authors: Nirmala Deenadayalu, Kwanele B. Mazibuko, Lethiwe D. Mthembu


Sugarcane bagasse is the residue obtained after the extraction of sugar from the sugarcane. The main aim of this work was to produce catechol from sugarcane bagasse. The optimization of catechol production was investigated using a Box-Behnken design of experiments. The sugarcane bagasse was heated in a Parr reactor at a set temperature. The reactions were carried out at different temperatures (100-250) °C, catalyst loading (1% -10% KOH (m/v)) and reaction times (60 – 240 min) at 17 bar pressure. The solid and liquid fractions were then separated by vacuum filtration. The liquid fraction was analyzed for catechol using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized for the functional groups using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optimized condition for catechol production was 175 oC, 240 min, and 10 % KOH with a catechol yield of 79.11 ppm. Since the maximum time was 240 min and 10 % KOH, a further series of experiments were conducted at 175 oC, 260 min, and 20 % KOH and yielded 2.46 ppm catechol, which was a large reduction in catechol produced. The HPLC peak for catechol was obtained at 2.5 min for the standards and the samples. The FTIR peak at 1750 cm⁻¹ was due to the C=C vibration band of the aromatic ring in the catechol present for both the standard and the samples. The peak at 3325 cm⁻¹ was due to the hydrogen-bonded phenolic OH vibration bands for the catechol. The ANOVA analysis was also performed on the set of experimental data to obtain the factors that most affected the amount of catechol produced.

Keywords: catechol, sugarcane bagasse, lignin, hydrothermal liquefaction

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22 Advanced Catechol-Modified Chitosan Hydrogels with the Inducement of Iron (III) Ion at Acidic Condition

Authors: Ngoc Quang Nguyen, Daewon Sohn


Chitosan (CS) is a natural polycationic polysaccharide and pH-sensitive polymer with incomplete deacetylation from claiming chitin. It is also a guaranteeing material in terms of pharmaceutical, chemical, and sustenance industry due to its exceptional structure (reactive –OH and –NH2 groups). In this study, a catechol-functionalized chitosan (CCS, for an eminent level for substitution) was synthesized and propelled by marine mussel cuticles in place on research those intricate connections between Fe³⁺ and catechol under acidic conditions. The ratios of catechol, chitosan and other reagents decide the structure of the hydrogel. The gel formation is then well-maintained by dual cross-linking through electrostatic interactions between Fe³⁺ and CCS and covalent catechol-coupling-based coordinate bonds. The hydrogels showed enhanced cohesiveness and shock-absorbing properties with increasing pH due to coordinate bonds inspired by mussel byssal threads. Thus, the gelation time, rheological properties, UV-vis and ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and the morphologic aspects were elucidated to describe those crosslinking components and the physical properties of the chitosan backbones and hydrogel frameworks.

Keywords: catechol, chitosan, iron ion, gelation, hydrogel

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21 Electro-oxidation of Catechol in the Presence of Nicotinamide at Different pH

Authors: M. A. Motin, M. A. Aziz, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide as nucleophiles has been studied in aqueous solution with various pH values and different concentration of nicotinamide using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry of catechol in buffer solution (3.00 < pH < 9.00) shows one anodic and corresponding cathodic peak which relates to the transformation of catechol to corresponding o-benzoquinone and vice versa within a quasi reversible two electron transfer process. Cyclic voltammogram of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide in buffer solution of pH 7, show one anodic peak in the first cycle of potential and on the reverse scan the corresponding cathodic peak slowly decreases and new peak is observed at less positive potential. In the second cycle of potential a new anodic peak is observed at less positive potential. This indicates that nicotinamide attached with catechol and formed adduct after first cycle of oxidation. The effect of pH of catechol in presence of nicotinamide was studied by varying pH from 3 to 11. The substitution reaction of catechol with nicotimamide is facilitated at pH 7. In buffer solution of higher pH (>9), the CV shows different pattern. The effect of concentration of nicotinamide was studied by 2mM to 100 mM. The maximum substitution reaction has been found for 50 mM of nicotinamide and of pH 7. The proportionality of the first scan anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate suggests that the peak current of the species at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process. The current functions (1/v-1/2) of the anodic peak decreased with the increasing of scan rate demonstrated that the behavior of the substitution reaction is of ECE type.

Keywords: redox interaction, catechol, nicotinamide, substituion reaction, pH effect

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20 Applicability and Reusability of Fly Ash and Base Treated Fly Ash for Adsorption of Catechol from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Modeling

Authors: S. Agarwal, A. Rani


Catechol is a natural polyphenolic compound that widely exists in higher plants such as teas, vegetables, fruits, tobaccos, and some traditional Chinese medicines. The fly ash-based zeolites are capable of absorbing a wide range of pollutants. But the process of zeolite synthesis is time-consuming and requires technical setups by the industries. The marketed costs of zeolites are quite high restricting its use by small-scale industries for the removal of phenolic compounds. The present research proposes a simple method of alkaline treatment of FA to produce an effective adsorbent for catechol removal from wastewater. The experimental parameter such as pH, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of catechol were studied in batch reactor. For this purpose the adsorbent materials were mixed with aqueous solutions containing catechol ranging in 50 – 200 mg/L initial concentrations and then shaken continuously in a thermostatic Orbital Incubator Shaker at 30 ± 0.1 °C for 24 h. The samples were withdrawn from the shaker at predetermined time interval and separated by centrifugation (Centrifuge machine MBL-20) at 2000 rpm for 4 min. to yield a clear supernatant for analysis of the equilibrium concentrations of the solutes. The concentrations were measured with Double Beam UV/Visible spectrophotometer (model Spectrscan UV 2600/02) at the wavelength of 275 nm for catechol. In the present study, the use of low-cost adsorbent (BTFA) derived from coal fly ash (FA), has been investigated as a substitute of expensive methods for the sequestration of catechol. The FA and BTFA adsorbents were well characterized by XRF, FE-SEM with EDX, FTIR, and surface area and porosity measurement which proves the chemical constituents, functional groups and morphology of the adsorbents. The catechol adsorption capacities of synthesized BTFA and native material were determined. The adsorption was slightly increased with an increase in pH value. The monolayer adsorption capacities of FA and BTFA for catechol were 100 mg g⁻¹ and 333.33 mg g⁻¹ respectively, and maximum adsorption occurs within 60 minutes for both adsorbents used in this test. The equilibrium data are fitted by Freundlich isotherm found on the basis of error analysis (RMSE, SSE, and χ²). Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and exothermic on the basis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS°, and ΔH°). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model better fitted the data for both FA and BTFA. BTFA showed large adsorptive characteristics, high separation selectivity, and excellent recyclability than FA. These findings indicate that BTFA could be employed as an effective and inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of catechol from wastewater.

Keywords: catechol, fly ash, isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic parameters

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19 Vanadium (V) Complexes of a Tripodal Ligand, Their Characterization and Biological Implications

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Bhawna Uprety, Fernando Avecilla, Pedro Adão, J. Costa Pessoa


The reaction of the tripodal tetradentate dibasic ligand 6,6'–(2–(pyridin–2–yl)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L1 I, with [VIVO(acac)2] in CH3CN gives the VVO–complex, [VVO(acac)(L1)] 1. Crystallization of 1 in CH3CN at ~0 ºC, gives dark blue crystals of 1, while at room temperature it affords dark green crystals of [{VVO(L1)}2µ–O] 3. Upon prolonged treatment of 1 in MeOH [VVO(OMe)(MeOH)(L1)] 2 is obtained. All three complexes are analyzed by single–crystal X–ray diffraction, depicting distorted octahedral geometry around vanadium. In the reaction of H2L1 with VIVOSO4 partial hydrolysis of the tripodal ligand results in elimination of the pyridyl fragment of L1 and the formation of H[VVO2(L2)] 4, containing the ONO tridentate ligand 6,6'–azanediylbis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L2 II. Compound 4, which was not fully characterized, undergoes dimerization in acetone yielding the hydroxido–bridged [{VVO(L2)}2µ–(HO)2] 5, having distorted octahedral geometry around each vanadium. In contrast, from a solution of 4 in acetonitrile, the dinuclear compound [{VVO(L2)}2µ–O] 6 is obtained, with trigonal bipyramidal geometry around each vanadium. The methoxido complex 2 is successfully employed as a functional catechol–oxidase mimic in the oxidation of catechol to o–quinone under air. The process is confirmed to follow a Michaelis–Menten type kinetics with respect to catechol, the Vmax and KM values obtained being 7.66×10–6 M min -1 and 0.0557 M, respectively, and the turnover frequency is 0.0541 min–1. Complex 2 is also used as a catalyst precursor for the oxidative bromination of thymol in aqueous medium. The selectivity shows quite interesting trends, namely when not using excess of primary oxidizing agent, H2O2 the para mono–brominated product corresponds to ~93 % of the products and no dibromo derivative is formed.

Keywords: oxidovanadium (V) complexes, tripodal ligand, crystal structure, catechol oxidase mimetic activity

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18 Biodegradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge Sample from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Boitumelo Setlhare, Mduduzi P. Mokoena, Ademola O. Olaniran


Agricultural and industrial activities have led to increasing production of xenobiotics such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a derivative of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which is a widely used herbicide. Bioremediation offers an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for degradation of the compound through the activities of the various microbial enzymes involved in the catabolic pathway. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial isolate indigenous to contaminated sites in Durban, South Africa for 2,4-DCP degradation. One bacterium capable of utilizing 2,4-DCP as sole carbon source was isolated using culture enrichment technique and identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain UFB2 via PCR amplification and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate was able to degrade up to 75.11% of 2,4-DCP in batch cultures within 10 days, with the degradation rate constant of 0.14 mg/l/d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relatedness of this bacterial isolate to other Pseudomonas sp. previously characterized for chlorophenol degradation. PCR amplification of the catabolic genes involved in 2,4-DCP degradation revealed the presence of the correct amplicons for phenol hydroxylase (600 bp), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (214 bp), muconate isomerase (851 bp), cis-dienelactone hydrolase (577 bp), and trans-dienelactone hydrolase (491 bp) genes. Enzyme assays revealed activity as high as 21840 mU/mg, 15630 mU/mg, 2340 mU/mg and 1490 mU/mg obtained for phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, cis-dienelactone hydroxylase and trans-dienelactone hydroxylase, respectively. The absence of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene and the corresponding enzyme in this isolate suggests that the organism followed ortho-pathway for 2,4-DCP degradation. Furthermore, the absence of malaycetate reductase genes showed that the bacterium may not be able to completely mineralize 2,4-DCP. Further studies are required to optimize 2,4-DCP degradation by this isolate as well as to elucidate the mechanism of 2,4-DCP degradation.

Keywords: biodegradation, catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase, 2, 4-dichlorophenol, phenol hydroxylase, Pseudomonas chlororaphis

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17 Electrochemical Behavior of Iron (III) Complexes with Catechol at Different pH

Authors: K. M. Salim Reza, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Aziz, M. A. Motin, M. M. Rahman, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of Fe (III) in presence of Catechol (Cc) has been carried out in buffer solution of different pH, scan rate, variation of Fe (III) concentration and Cc concentration. Uncoordinated Fe(III) or Cc has been found to undergo reversible electrode reaction whereas coordinated Fe-Cc is irreversible. The peak positions of the voltammogram of Fe- Cc shifted with respect to that of free Fe (III) or Cc and also developed a new peak at 0.12 V. The peak current of Fe-Cc decreases significantly compared with that of free Fe(III) or Cc in the same experimental conditions. These behaviors ascribed the formation of complex of Fe with Cc. The complex was formed either by the addition of Cc into Fe(III) or by the addition of Fe(III) into Cc. The effect of pH of Fe-Cc complex was studied by varying pH from 2 to 8.5. The electro chemical oxidation of Fe-Cc is facilitated in lower pH media. The slope of the plots of anodic peak current, Ep against pH of Fe-Cc complexe is 30 mV, indicates that the oxidation of Fe-Cc complexes proceeded via the 2e−/2H+ processes. The proportionality of the anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate of suggests that the peak current of the different complexes at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, Fe-Cc Complex, pH effect, redox interaction

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16 Copper (II) Complex of New Tetradentate Asymmetrical Schiff Base Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catecholase-Mimetic Activity

Authors: Cahit Demetgul, Sahin Bayraktar, Neslihan Beyazit


Metalloenzymes are enzyme proteins containing metal ions, which are directly bound to the protein or to enzyme-bound nonprotein components. One of the major metalloenzymes that play a key role in oxidation reactions is catechol oxidase, which shows catecholase activity i.e. oxidation of a broad range of catechols to quinones through the four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Studies on the model compounds mimicking the catecholase activity are very useful and promising for the development of new, more efficient bioinspired catalysts, for in vitro oxidation reactions. In this study, a new tetradentate asymmetrical Schiff-base and its Cu(II) complex were synthesized by condensation of 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one and by using an appropriate Cu(II) salt, respectively. The prepared compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis and magnetic susceptibility. The catecholase-mimicking activity of the new Schiff Base Cu(II) complex was performed for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) in methanol at 25 °C, where the electronic spectra were recorded at different time intervals. The yield of the quinone (3,5-DTBQ) was determined from the measured absorbance at 400 nm of the resulting solution. The compatibility of catalytic reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics was also investigated. In conclusion, we have found that our new Schiff Base Cu(II) complex presents a significant capacity to catalyze the oxidation reaction of the catechol to o-quinone.

Keywords: catecholase activity, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Schiff base, transition metals

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15 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport


Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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14 Synthesis of [email protected] Cu Core−Shell Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement of Cu by Pd²⁺ Ions as a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Dihydroxybenzene Isomers Speciation

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Parisa Jahani, Amir Shafiee, Mehrdad Mofidi


The dihydroxybenzene isomers, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) have been widely recognized as important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and low degradability in the ecological environment. Speciation of HQ, CC and RS is very important for environmental analysis because they co-exist of these isomers in environmental samples and are too difficult to degrade as an environmental contaminant with high toxicity. There are many analytical methods have been reported for detecting these isomers, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical methods. These methods have attractive advantages such as simple and fast response, low maintenance costs, wide linear analysis range, high efficiency, excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. A novel modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with [email protected] Cu/CNTs core−shell nanowires for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) is described. A detailed investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry was performed in order to elucidate the preparation process and properties of the GCE/ Pd/CuNWs-CNTs. The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified GPE/LFOR toward HQ, CC and RS were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and Chronoamperometry. Under optimum conditions, the calibrations curves were linear up to 228 µM for each with detection limits of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 µM for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. The diffusion coefficient for the oxidation of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode was calculated as 6.5×10⁻⁵, 1.6 ×10⁻⁵ and 8.5 ×10⁻⁵ cm² s⁻¹, respectively. DPV was used for the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode and the relative standard deviations were 2.1%, 1.9% and 1.7% for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. Moreover, GCE/Pd/CuNWs-CNTs was successfully used for determination of HQ, CC and RS in real samples.

Keywords: dihydroxybenzene isomers, galvanized copper nanowires, electrochemical sensor, Palladium, speciation

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13 Dwindling the Stability of DNA Sequence by Base Substitution at Intersection of COMT and MIR4761 Gene

Authors: Srishty Gulati, Anju Singh, Shrikant Kukreti


The manifestation of structural polymorphism in DNA depends on the sequence and surrounding environment. Ample of folded DNA structures have been found in the cellular system out of which DNA hairpins are very common, however, are indispensable due to their role in the replication initiation sites, recombination, transcription regulation, and protein recognition. We enumerate this approach in our study, where the two base substitutions and change in temperature embark destabilization of DNA structure and misbalance the equilibrium between two structures of a sequence present at the overlapping region of the human COMT gene and MIR4761 gene. COMT and MIR4761 gene encodes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and microRNAs (miRNAs), respectively. Environmental changes and errors during cell division lead to genetic abnormalities. The COMT gene entailed in dopamine regulation fosters neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, velocardiofacial syndrome, etc. A 19-mer deoxyoligonucleotide sequence 5'-AGGACAAGGTGTGCATGCC-3' (COMT19) is located at exon-4 on chromosome 22 and band q11.2 at the intersection of COMT and MIR4761 gene. Bioinformatics studies suggest that this sequence is conserved in humans and few other organisms and is involved in recognition of transcription factors in the vicinity of 3'-end. Non-denaturating gel electrophoresis and CD spectroscopy of COMT sequences indicate the formation of hairpin type DNA structures. Temperature-dependent CD studies revealed an unusual shift in the slipped DNA-Hairpin DNA equilibrium with the change in temperature. Also, UV-thermal melting techniques suggest that the two base substitutions on the complementary strand of COMT19 did not affect the structure but reduces the stability of duplex. This study gives insight about the possibility of existing structurally polymorphic transient states within DNA segments present at the intersection of COMT and MIR4761 gene.

Keywords: base-substitution, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), hairpin-DNA, structural polymorphism

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12 Exploring Bio-Inspired Catecholamine Chemistry to Design Durable Anti-Fungal Wound Dressings

Authors: Chetna Dhand, Venkatesh Mayandi, Silvia Marrero Diaz, Roger W. Beuerman, Seeram Ramakrishna, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan


Sturdy Insect Cuticle Sclerotization, Incredible Substrate independent Mussel’s bioadhesion, Tanning of Leather are some of catechol(amine)s mediated natural processes. Chemical contemplation spots toward a mechanism instigated with the formation of the quinone moieties from the respective catechol(amine)s, via oxidation, followed by the nucleophilic addition of the amino acids/proteins/peptides to this quinone leads to the development of highly strong, cross-linked and water-resistant proteinacious structures. Inspired with this remarkable catechol(amine)s chemistry towards amino acids/proteins/peptides, we attempted to design highly stable and water-resistant antifungal wound dressing mats with exceptional durability using collagen (protein), dopamine (catecholamine) and antifungal drugs (Amphotericin B and Caspofungin) as the key materials. Electrospinning technique has been used to fabricate desired nanofibrous mat including Collagen (COLL), COLL/Dopamine (COLL/DP) and calcium incorporated COLL/DP (COLL-DP-Ca2+). The prepared protein-based scaffolds have been studied for their microscopic investigations (SEM, TEM, and AFM), structural analysis (FT-IR), mechanical properties, water wettability characteristics and aqueous stability. Biocompatibility of these scaffolds has been analyzed for dermal fibroblast cells using MTS assay, Cell TrackerTM Green CMFDA and confocal imaging. Being the winner sample, COLL-DP-Ca2+ scaffold has been selected for incorporating two antifungal drugs namely Caspofungin (Peptide based) and Amphotericin B (Non-Peptide based). Antifungal efficiency of the designed mats has been evaluated for eight diverse fungal strains employing different microbial assays including disc diffusion, cell-viability assay, time kill kinetics etc. To confirm the durability of these mats, in term of their antifungal activity, drug leaching studies has been performed and monitored using disc diffusion assay each day. Ex-vivo fungal infection model has also been developed and utilized to validate the antifungal efficacy of the designed wound dressings. Results clearly reveal dopamine mediated crosslinking within COLL-antifungal scaffolds that leads to the generation of highly stable, mechanical tough, biocompatible wound dressings having the zone of inhabitation of ≥ 2 cm for almost all the investigated fungal strains. Leaching studies and Ex-vivo model has confirmed the durability of these wound dressing for more than 3 weeks and certified their suitability for commercialization. A model has also been proposed to enlighten the chemical mechanism involved for the development of these antifungal wound dressings with exceptional robustness.

Keywords: catecholamine chemistry, electrospinning technique, antifungals, wound dressings, collagen

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11 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik


In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic, titanium dioxide

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10 Potential of Polyphenols from Tamarix Gallica towards Common Pathological Features of Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Diseases

Authors: Asma Ben Hmidene, Mizuho Hanaki, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Hiroko Isoda, Hideyuki Shigemori


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized as a peripheral metabolic disorder and a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, respectively. It is now widely recognized that T2DM and AD share many pathophysiological features including glucose metabolism, increased oxidative stress and amyloid aggregation. Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the components of the amyloid deposits in the AD brain and while the component of the amyloidogenic peptide deposit in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans is identified as human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). These two proteins are originated from the amyloid precursor protein and have a high sequence similarity. Although the amino acid sequences of amyloidogenic proteins are diverse, they all adopt a similar structure in aggregates called cross-beta-spine. Add at that, extensive studies in the past years have found that like Aβ1-42, IAPP forms early intermediate assemblies as spherical oligomers, implicating that these oligomers possess a common folding pattern or conformation. These similarities can be used in the search for effective pharmacotherapy for DM, since potent therapeutic agents such as antioxidants with a catechol moiety, proved to inhibit Aβ aggregation, may play a key role in the inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP treatment of patients with DM. Tamarix gallica is one of the halophyte species having a powerful antioxidant system. Although it was traditionally used for the treatment of various liver metabolic disorders, there is no report about the use of this plant for the treatment or prevention of T2DM and AD. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate their protective effect towards T2DM and AD by isolation and identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors, with antioxidant potential, that play an important role in the glucose metabolism in diabetic patient, as well as, the polymerization of hIAPP and Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship study was conducted for both assays. And as for α-glucosidase inhibitors, their mechanism of action and their synergistic potential when applied with a very low concentration of acarbose were also suggesting that they can be used not only as α-glucosidase inhibitors but also be combined with established α-glucosidase inhibitors to reduce their adverse effect. The antioxidant potential of the purified substances was evaluated by DPPH and SOD assays. Th-T assay using 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) for AD and hIAPP which is a 37-residue peptide secreted by the pancreatic β –cells for T2DM and Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were conducted to evaluate the amyloid aggragation of the actives substances. For α-glucosidase, p-NPG and glucose oxidase assays were performed for determining the inhibition potential and structure-activity relationship study. The Enzyme kinetic protocol was used to study the mechanism of action. From this research, it was concluded that polyphenols playing a role in the glucose metabolism and oxidative stress can also inhibit the amyloid aggregation, and that substances with a catechol and glucuronide moieties inhibiting amyloid-β aggregation, might be used to inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP.

Keywords: α-glucosidase inhibitors, amyloid aggregation inhibition, mechanism of action, polyphenols, structure activity relationship, synergistic potential, tamarix gallica

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9 Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis

Authors: David D. Adams, Ibrahim B. Bello


Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.

Keywords: spent engine oil, pollution, bacteria, enzyme, bioremediation, mechanic workshop

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8 Role of Organic Wastewater Constituents in Iron Redox Cycling for Ferric Sludge Reuse in the Fenton-Based Treatment

Authors: J. Bolobajev, M. Trapido, A. Goi


The practical application of the Fenton-based treatment method for organic compounds-contaminated water purification is limited mainly because of the large amount of ferric sludge formed during the treatment, where ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is used as the activator of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation processes. Reuse of ferric sludge collected from clarifiers to substitute Fe(II) salts allows reducing the total cost of Fenton-type treatment technologies and minimizing the accumulation of hazardous ferric waste. Dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) from the sludge to liquid phase at acidic pH and autocatalytic transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by phenolic compounds (tannic acid, lignin, phenol, catechol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone) added or present as water/wastewater constituents were found to be essentially involved in the Fenton-based oxidation mechanism. Observed enhanced formation of highly reactive species, hydroxyl radicals, resulted in a substantial organic contaminant degradation increase. Sludge reuse at acidic pH and in the presence of ferric iron reductants is a novel strategy in the Fenton-based treatment application for organic compounds-contaminated water purification.

Keywords: ferric sludge recycling, ferric iron reductant, water treatment, organic pollutant

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7 Synthesis and Theoretical Calculations of Carbazole Substituted Pyridopyrimidine Urea/Thioure Derivatives and Studies Their PPO Enzyme Activity

Authors: Arleta Rifati Nixha, Mustafa Arslan, Adem Ergün, Nahit Gencer


Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), sometimes referred to as phenol oxidase, catecholase, phenolase, catechol oxidase, or even tyrosinase, is considered to be an o-dipenol. PPO (EC, a multifunctional copper containing enzyme, is widely distributed in nature. It catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: a hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and an oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity), both using molecular oxygen. Additionaly, investigation demonstrated that various dermatological disorders, such as age spots and freckle, were caused by the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation. Tyrosinase has also been linked to Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. Nitrogen heterocycles have received a great deal of attention in the literature because of biological properties. Especially, among these heterocyclic systems, pyridine containing compounds have been the subject of expanding research efforts in heteroaromatic and biological chemistry. The pyrido [2,3-d] pyrimidine heterocycles, which are those annelated to a pyrimidine ring, are important because of their wide range of biological and pharmaceutical applications (i.e., bronchodilators, vasodilators) and their anti-allergic, cardiotonic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective activities. In this study series of 12 new carbazole substituted pyridopyrimidine urea(thiourea) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated effect on PPO. Additionally, we presented structure-activity relationship analyses and theoretical calculations of the compounds.

Keywords: carbazole, pyridopyrimidine, urea, thiourea, tyrosinase inhibitors

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6 The Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Activity of Iron(II) Complex with New N2O2 Donor Schiff Base Ligand

Authors: Neslihan Beyazit, Sahin Bayraktar, Cahit Demetgul


Transition metal ions have an important role in biochemistry and biomimetic systems and may provide the basis of models for active sites of biological targets. The presence of copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) is crucial in many biological processes. Tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands are well known to form stable transition metal complexes and these complexes have also applications in clinical and analytical fields. In this study, we present salient structural features and the details of cathecholase activity of Fe(II) complex of a new Schiff Base ligand. A new asymmetrical N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand and its Fe(II) complex were synthesized by condensation of 4-nitro-1,2 phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one and by using an appropriate Fe(II) salt, respectively. Schiff base ligand and its metal complex were characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility. In order to determine the kinetics parameters of catechol oxidase-like activity of Schiff base Fe(II) complex, the oxidation of the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) was measured at 25°C by monitoring the increase of the absorption band at 390-400 nm of the product 3,5-di-tert-butylcatequinone (3,5-DTBQ). The compatibility of catalytic reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics also investigated by the method of initial rates by monitoring the growth of the 390–400 nm band of 3,5-DTBQ as a function of time. Kinetic studies showed that Fe(II) complex of the new N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand was capable of acting as a model compound for simulating the catecholase properties of type-3 copper proteins.

Keywords: catecholase activity, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Schiff base, transition metals

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5 Biodegradation of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid by Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2 Proceeds via Decarboxylation and Cleavage of Nitrogen-Containing Ring

Authors: Miaomiao Zhang, Sabrina Beckmann, Haluk Ertan, Rocky Chau, Mike Manefield


Phenazines are a large class of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocyclic compounds, which are almost exclusively produced by bacteria from diverse genera including Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) as one of 'core' phenazines are converted from chorismic acid before modified to other phenazine derivatives in different cells. Phenazines have attracted enormous interests because of their multiple roles on biocontrol, bacterial interaction, biofilm formation and fitness of their producers. However, in spite of ecological importance, degradation as a part of phenazines’ fate only have extremely limited attention now. Here, to isolate PCA-degrading bacteria, 200 mg L-1 PCA was supplied as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source in minimal mineral medium. Quantitative PCR and Reverse-transcript PCR were employed to study abundance and activity of functional gene MFORT 16269 in PCA degradation, respectively. Intermediates and products of PCA degradation were identified with LC-MS/MS. After enrichment and isolation, a PCA-degrading strain was selected from soil and was designated as Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2 based on full 16S rRNA sequencing. As determined by HPLC, strain PCA2 consumed 200 mg L-1 (836 µM) PCA at a rate of 17.4 µM h-1, accompanying with significant cells yield from 1.92 × 105 to 3.11 × 106 cells per mL. Strain PCA2 was capable of degrading other phenazines as well, including phenazine (4.27 µM h-1), pyocyanin (2.72 µM h-1), neutral red (1.30 µM h-1) and 1-hydroxyphenazine (0.55 µM h-1). Moreover, during the incubation, transcript copies of MFORT 16269 gene increased significantly from 2.13 × 106 to 8.82 × 107 copies mL-1, which was 2.77 times faster than that of the corresponding gene copy number (2.20 × 106 to 3.32 × 107 copies mL-1), indicating that MFORT 16269 gene was activated and played roles on PCA degradation. As analyzed by LC-MS/MS, decarboxylation from the ring structure was determined as the first step of PCA degradation, followed by cleavage of nitrogen-containing ring by dioxygenase which catalyzed phenazine to nitrosobenzene. Subsequently, phenylhydroxylamine was detected after incubation for two days and was then transferred to aniline and catechol. Additionally, genomic and proteomic analyses were also carried out for strain PCA2. Overall, the findings presented here showed that a newly isolated strain Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2 was capable of degrading phenazines through decarboxylation and cleavage of nitrogen-containing ring, during which MFORT 16269 gene was activated and played important roles.

Keywords: decarboxylation, MFORT16269 gene, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid degradation, Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2

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4 The Potential of Edaphic Algae for Bioremediation of the Diesel-Contaminated Soil

Authors: C. J. Tien, C. S. Chen, S. F. Huang, Z. X. Wang


Algae in soil ecosystems can produce organic matters and oxygen by photosynthesis. Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen to increase soil nitrogen contents. Secretion of mucilage by some algae increases the soil water content and soil aggregation. These actions will improve soil quality and fertility, and further increase abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. In addition, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic algae are able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of algal addition on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), diversity and activity of bacteria and algae in the diesel-contaminated soil under different nutrient contents and frequency of plowing and irrigation in order to assess the potential bioremediation technique using edaphic algae. The known amount of diesel was added into the farmland soil. This diesel-contaminated soil was subject to five settings, experiment-1 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-2 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, experiment-3 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-4 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, and the control without algal addition. Soil samples were taken every two weeks to analyze TPH concentrations, diversity of bacteria and algae, and catabolic genes encoding functional degrading enzymes. The results show that the TPH removal rates of five settings after the two-month experimental period were in the order: experiment-2 > expermient-4 > experiment-3 > experiment-1 > control. It indicated that algal addition enhanced the degradation of TPH in the diesel-contaminated soil, but not for nutrient addition. Plowing and irrigation every four weeks resulted in more TPH removal than that every two weeks. The banding patterns of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed an increase in diversity of bacteria and algae after algal addition. Three petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading algae (Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nostoc sp.) and two added algal strains (Leptolyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp.) were sequenced from DGGE prominent bands. The four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria Gordonia sp., Mycobacterium sp., Rodococcus sp. and Alcanivorax sp. were abundant in the treated soils. These results suggested that growth of indigenous bacteria and algae were improved after adding edaphic algae. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that relative amounts of four catabolic genes encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, toluene monooxygenase, xylene monooxygenase and phenol monooxygenase were appeared and expressed in the treated soil. The addition of algae increased the expression of these genes at the end of experiments to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. This study demonstrated that edaphic algae were suitable biomaterials for bioremediating diesel-contaminated soils with plowing and irrigation every four weeks.

Keywords: catabolic gene, diesel, diversity, edaphic algae

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3 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama


Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

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2 Development of a Human Skin Explant Model for Drug Metabolism and Toxicity Studies

Authors: K. K. Balavenkatraman, B. Bertschi, K. Bigot, A. Grevot, A. Doelemeyer, S. D. Chibout, A. Wolf, F. Pognan, N. Manevski, O. Kretz, P. Swart, K. Litherland, J. Ashton-Chess, B. Ling, R. Wettstein, D. J. Schaefer


Skin toxicity is poorly detected during preclinical studies, and drug-induced side effects in humans such as rashes, hyperplasia or more serious events like bullous pemphigus or toxic epidermal necrolysis represent an important hurdle for clinical development. In vitro keratinocyte-based epidermal skin models are suitable for the detection of chemical-induced irritancy, but do not recapitulate the biological complexity of full skin and fail to detect potential serious side-effects. Normal healthy skin explants may represent a valuable complementary tool, having the advantage of retaining the full skin architecture and the resident immune cell diversity. This study investigated several conditions for the maintenance of good morphological structure after several days of culture and the retention of phase II metabolism for 24 hours in skin explants in vitro. Human skin samples were collected with informed consent from patients undergoing plastic surgery and immediately transferred and processed in our laboratory by removing the underlying dermal fat. Punch biopsies of 4 mm diameter were cultured in an air-liquid interface using transwell filters. Different cultural conditions such as the effect of calcium, temperature and cultivation media were tested for a period of 14 days and explants were histologically examined after Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Our results demonstrated that the use of Williams E Medium at 32°C maintained the physiological integrity of the skin for approximately one week. Upon prolonged incubation, the upper layers of the epidermis become thickened and some dead cells are present. Interestingly, these effects were prevented by addition of EGFR inhibitors such as Afatinib or Erlotinib. Phase II metabolism of the skin such as glucuronidation (4-methyl umbeliferone), sulfation (minoxidil), N-acetyltransferase (p-toluidene), catechol methylation (2,3-dehydroxy naphthalene), and glutathione conjugation (chlorodinitro benzene) were analyzed by using LCMS. Our results demonstrated that the human skin explants possess metabolic activity for a period of at least 24 hours for all the substrates tested. A time course for glucuronidation with 4-methyl umbeliferone was performed and a linear correlation was obtained over a period of 24 hours. Longer-term culture studies will indicate the possible evolution of such metabolic activities. In summary, these results demonstrate that human skin explants maintain a normal structure for several days in vitro and are metabolically active for at least the first 24 hours. Hence, with further characterisation, this model may be suitable for the study of drug-induced toxicity.

Keywords: human skin explant, phase II metabolism, epidermal growth factor receptor, toxicity

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1 Ionophore-Based Materials for Selective Optical Sensing of Iron(III)

Authors: Natalia Lukasik, Ewa Wagner-Wysiecka


Development of selective, fast-responsive, and economical sensors for diverse ions detection and determination is one of the most extensively studied areas due to its importance in the field of clinical, environmental and industrial analysis. Among chemical sensors, vast popularity has gained ionophore-based optical sensors, where the generated analytical signal is a consequence of the molecular recognition of ion by the ionophore. Change of color occurring during host-guest interactions allows for quantitative analysis and for 'naked-eye' detection without the need of using sophisticated equipment. An example of application of such sensors is colorimetric detection of iron(III) cations. Iron as one of the most significant trace elements plays roles in many biochemical processes. For these reasons, the development of reliable, fast, and selective methods of iron ions determination is highly demanded. Taking all mentioned above into account a chromogenic amide derivative of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was synthesized, and its ability to iron(III) recognition was tested. To the best of authors knowledge (according to chemical abstracts) the obtained ligand has not been described in the literature so far. The catechol moiety was introduced to the ligand structure in order to mimic the action of naturally occurring siderophores-iron(III)-selective receptors. The ligand–ion interactions were studied using spectroscopic methods: UV-Vis spectrophotometry and infrared spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric measurements revealed that the amide exhibits affinity to iron(III) in dimethyl sulfoxide and fully aqueous solution, what is manifested by the change of color from yellow to green. Incorporation of the tested amide into a polymeric matrix (cellulose triacetate) ensured effective recognition of iron(III) at pH 3 with the detection limit 1.58×10⁻⁵ M. For the obtained sensor material parameters like linear response range, response time, selectivity, and possibility of regeneration were determined. In order to evaluate the effect of the size of the sensing material on iron(III) detection nanospheres (in the form of nanoemulsion) containing the tested amide were also prepared. According to DLS (dynamic light scattering) measurements, the size of the nanospheres is 308.02 ± 0.67 nm. Work parameters of the nanospheres were determined and compared with cellulose triacetate-based material. Additionally, for fast, qualitative experiments the test strips were prepared by adsorption of the amide solution on a glass microfiber material. Visual limit of detection of iron(III) at pH 3 by the test strips was estimated at the level 10⁻⁴ M. In conclusion, reported here amide derived from 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid proved to be an effective candidate for optical sensing of iron(III) in fully aqueous solutions. N. L. kindly acknowledges financial support from National Science Centre Poland the grant no. 2017/01/X/ST4/01680. Authors thank for financial support from Gdansk University of Technology grant no. 032406.

Keywords: ion-selective optode, iron(III) recognition, nanospheres, optical sensor

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