Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 835

Search results for: photocatalytic oxidation

835 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂

Authors: Sherif Ismail

Abstract:

Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.

Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysis

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834 Visible-Light-Driven OVs-BiOCl Nanoplates with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity toward NO Oxidation

Authors: Jiazhen Liao, Xiaolan Zeng

Abstract:

A series of BiOCl nanoplates with different oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentrations were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The concentration of OVs of BiOCl can be tuned by the ratios of water/ethylene glycol. Such nanoplates containing oxygen vacancies served as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for NO oxidation. Compared with pure BiOCl, the enhanced photocatalytic performance was mainly attributed to the introduction of OVs, which greatly enhanced light absorption, promoted electron transfer, activated oxygen molecules. The present work could provide insights into the understanding of the role of OVs in photocatalysts for reference. Combined with characterization analysis, such as XRD(X-ray diffraction), XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM(Transmission Electron Microscopy), PL(Fluorescence Spectroscopy), and DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, the effect of vacancies on photoelectrochemical properties of BiOCl photocatalysts are shown. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanisms of photocatalytic NO oxidation were also revealed. According to the results of in situ DRIFTS ( Diffused Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy), various intermediates were produced during different time intervals of NO photodegradation. The possible pathways are summarized below. First, visible light irradiation induces electron-hole pairs on the surface of OV-BOC (BiOCl with oxygen vacancies). Second, photogenerated electrons form superoxide radical with the contacted oxygen. Then, the NO molecules adsorbed on the surface of OV-BOC are attacked by superoxide radical and form nitrate instead of NO₂ (by-products). Oxygen vacancies greatly improve the photocatalytic oxidation activity of NO and effectively inhibit the production of harmful by-products during the oxidation of NO.

Keywords: OVs-BiOCl nanoplate, oxygen vacancies, NO oxidation, photocatalysis

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833 Formation of ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Using Partial Oxidation and Chemical Precipitation Synthesis Methods

Authors: Saba Didarataee, Abbas Ali Khodadadi, Yadollah Mortazavi, Fatemeh Mousavi

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Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most attractive alternative methods for hydrogen evolution. A variety of nanoparticle engineering techniques were introduced to improve the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Among these methods, heterojunction formation is an appealing method due to its ability to effectively preventing electron-hole recombination and improving photocatalytic activity. Reaching an optimal ratio of the two target semiconductors for the formation of heterojunctions is still an open question. Considering environmental issues as well as the cost and availability, ZnS and ZnO are frequently studied as potential choices. In this study, first, the ZnS nanoparticle was synthesized in a hydrothermal process; the formation of ZnS nanorods with a diameter of 14-30 nm was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Then two different methods, partial oxidation and chemical precipitation were employed to construct ZnS/ZnO core-shell heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis were carried out to determine crystallite phase, surface area, and bandgap of photocatalysts. Furthermore, the temperature of oxidation was specified by a temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and was fixed at 510℃, at which mild oxidation occurred. The bandgap was calculated by the Kubelka-Munk method and decreased by increasing oxide content from 3.53 (pure ZnS) to 3.18 (pure ZnO). The optimal samples were determined by testing the photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution in a quartz photoreactor with side irradiation of UVC lamps with a wavelength of 254 nm. In both procedures, it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnS/ZnO composite was sensibly higher than the pure ZnS and ZnO, which is attributed to forming a type-II heterostructure. The best ratio of oxide to sulfide was 0.24 and 0.37 in partial oxidation and chemical precipitation, respectively. The highest hydrogen evolution was 1081 µmol/gr.h, gained from partial oxidizing of ZnS nanoparticles at 510℃ for 30 minutes.

Keywords: heterostructure, hydrogen, partial oxidation, photocatalyst, water splitting, ZnS

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832 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Formaldehyde Using the TiO2 Coated SF Filter

Authors: Janjira Triped, Wipada Sanongraj, Wipawee Khamwichit

Abstract:

The research work covered in this study includes the morphological structure and optical properties of TiO2-coated silk fibroin (SF) filters at 2.5% wt. TiO2/vol. PVA solution. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous morphology of the TiO2-coated SF filters. An average diameter of the SF fiber was estimated to be approximately 10µm. Also, it was confirmed that TiO2 can be adhered more on SF filter surface at higher TiO2 dosages. The activity of semiconductor materials was studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer method. The spectral data recorded shows the strong cut off at 390 nm. The calculated band-gap energy was about 3.19 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the filter was tested for gaseous formaldehyde removal in a modeling room with the total volume of 2.66 m3. The highest removal efficiency (54.72 ± 1.75%) was obtained at the initial formaldehyde concentration of about 5.00 ± 0.50ppm.

Keywords: photocatalytic oxidation process, formaldehyde (HCHO), silk fibroin (SF), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

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831 [Keynote Talk]: Photocatalytic Cleaning Performance of Air Filters for a Binary Mixture

Authors: Lexuan Zhong, Chang-Seo Lee, Fariborz Haghighat, Stuart Batterman, John C. Little

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Ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UV-PCO) technology has been recommended as a green approach to health indoor environment when it is integrated into mechanical ventilation systems for inorganic and organic compounds removal as well as energy saving due to less outdoor air intakes. Although much research has been devoted to UV-PCO, limited information is available on the UV-PCO behavior tested by the mixtures in literature. This project investigated UV-PCO performance and by-product generation using a single and a mixture of acetone and MEK at 100 ppb each in a single-pass duct system in an effort to obtain knowledge associated with competitive photochemical reactions involved in. The experiments were performed at 20 % RH, 22 °C, and a gas flow rate of 128 m3/h (75 cfm). Results show that acetone and MEK mutually reduced each other’s PCO removal efficiency, particularly negative removal efficiency for acetone. These findings were different from previous observation of facilitatory effects on the adsorption of acetone and MEK on photocatalyst surfaces.

Keywords: by-products, inhibitory effect, mixture, photocatalytic oxidation

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830 Photocatalytic Glucose Electrooxidation Applications of Titanium Dioxide Supported CD and CdTe Catalysts

Authors: Hilal Kivrak, Aykut ÇağLar, Nahit Aktaş, Ali Osman Solak

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At present, Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. These catalysts are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ are employed as catalysts for the photocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to investigate their glucose electrooxidation activities of catalysts at long and under UV illumination (ʎ=354 nm). CdTe/TiO₂ catalyst is showed the best photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation activity compared to Cd/TiO₂ catalyst.

Keywords: cadmium, NaBH4 reduction method, photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation, Tellerium, TiO2

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829 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik

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In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxide

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828 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez

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Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: black sand mineral, methyl orange, oxidation, photocatalysis, reduction

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827 Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile

Authors: Z. Younsi, L. Koufi, H. Gidik, D. Lahem, W. Wim Thielemans

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This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.

Keywords: benzene, C₆H₆, efficiency, photocatalytic degradation, textile fabrics, titanium dioxide, TiO₂, toluene, C₇H₈, visible light

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826 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal

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Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.

Keywords: simulation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor, titanium dioxide

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825 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite

Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun

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The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.

Keywords: composite, dyes, photocatalytic activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6

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824 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

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Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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823 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

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In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

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822 Transition Metal Carbodiimide vs. Spinel Matrices for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation

Authors: Karla Lienau, Rafael Müller, René Moré, Debora Ressnig, Dan Cook, Richard Walton, Greta R. Patzke

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The increasing demand for renewable energy sources and storable fuels underscores the high potential of artificial photosynthesis. The four electron transfer process of water oxidation remains the bottleneck of water splitting, so that special emphasis is placed on the development of economic, stable and efficient water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Our investigations introduced cobalt carbodiimide CoNCN and its transition metal analogues as WOC types, and further studies are focused on the interaction of different transition metals in the convenient all-nitrogen/carbon matrix. This provides further insights into the nature of the ‘true catalyst’ for cobalt centers in this non-oxide environment. Water oxidation activity is evaluated with complementary methods, namely photocatalytically using a Ru-dye sensitized standard setup as well as electrocatalytically, via immobilization of the WOCs on glassy carbon electrodes. To further explore the tuning potential of transition metal combinations, complementary investigations were carried out in oxidic spinel WOC matrices with more versatile host options than the carbodiimide framework. The influence of the preparative history on the WOC performance was evaluated with different synthetic methods (e.g. hydrothermally or microwave assisted). Moreover, the growth mechanism of nanoscale Co3O4-spinel as a benchmark WOC was investigated with in-situ PXRD techniques.

Keywords: carbodiimide, photocatalysis, spinels, water oxidation

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821 Doped and Co-doped ZnO Based Nanoparticles and their Photocatalytic and Gas Sensing Property

Authors: Neha Verma, Manik Rakhra

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Statement of the Problem: Nowadays, a tremendous increase in population and advanced industrialization augment the problems related to air and water pollutions. Growing industries promoting environmental danger, which is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. For safeguard, the environment, detection of perilous gases and release of colored wastewater is required for eutrophication pollution. Researchers around the globe are trying their best efforts to save the environment. For this remediation advanced oxidation process is used for potential applications. ZnO is an important semiconductor photocatalyst with high photocatalytic and gas sensing activities. For efficient photocatalytic and gas sensing properties, it is necessary to prepare a doped/co-doped ZnO compound to decrease the electron-hole recombination rates. However, lanthanide doped and co-doped metal oxide is seldom studied for photocatalytic and gas sensing applications. The purpose of this study is to describe the best photocatalyst for the photodegradation of dyes and gas sensing properties. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Economical framework has to be used for the synthesis of ZnO. In the depth literature survey, a simple combustion method is utilized for gas sensing and photocatalytic activities. Findings: Rare earth doped and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were the best photocatalysts for photodegradation of organic dyes and different gas sensing applications by varying various factors such as pH, aging time, and different concentrations of doping and codoping metals in ZnO. Complete degradation of dye was observed only in min. Gas sensing nanodevice showed a better response and quick recovery time for doped/co-doped ZnO. Conclusion & Significance: In order to prevent air and water pollution, well crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid and economic method, which is used as photocatalyst for photodegradation of organic dyes and gas sensing applications to sense the release of hazardous gases from the environment.

Keywords: ZnO, photocatalyst, photodegradation of dye, gas sensor

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820 Facile Synthesis of Sulfur Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Vishnu V. Pillai, Sunil P. Lonkar, Akhil M. Abraham, Saeed M. Alhassan

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An effectual technology for wastewater treatment is a great demand now in order to encounter the water pollution caused by organic pollutants. Photocatalytic oxidation technology is widely used in removal of such unsafe contaminants. Among the semi-conducting metal oxides, robust and thermally stable TiO2 has emerged as a fascinating material for photocatalysis. Enhanced catalytic activity was observed for nanostructured TiO2 due to its higher surface, chemical stability and higher oxidation ability. However, higher charge carrier recombination and wide band gap of TiO2 limits its use as a photocatalyst in the UV region. It is desirable to develop a photocatalyst that can efficiently absorb the visible light, which occupies the main part of the solar spectrum. Hence, in order to extend its photocatalytic efficiency under visible light, TiO2 nanoparticles are often doped with metallic or non-metallic elements. Non-metallic doping of TiO2 has attracted much attention due to the low thermal stability and enhanced recombination of charge carriers endowed by metallic doping of TiO2. Amongst, sulfur doped TiO2 is most widely used photocatalyst in environmental purification. However, the most of S-TiO2 synthesis technique uses toxic chemicals and complex procedures. Hence, a facile, scalable and environmentally benign preparation process for S-TiO2 is highly desirable. In present work, we have demonstrated new and facile solid-state reaction method for S-TiO2 synthesis that uses abundant elemental sulfur as S source and moderate temperatures. The resulting nano-sized S-TiO2 has been successfully employed as visible light photocatalyst in methylene blue dye removal from aqueous media.

Keywords: ecofriendly, nanomaterials, methylene blue, photocatalysts

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819 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner

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Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

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818 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 10 in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Merouani Djilali Redha, F. Abdelmalek, A. A. Addou

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Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) utilizing Homogenous photocatalysis (Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions), and Heterogeneous photocatalyse (TiO2 and ZnO) were investigated for the degradation of commercial azo dye ‘Orange G’ wastewater. Fenton and photo-Fenton experimental conditions were: Hydrogen peroxide concentration (10-2 M), Ferrous ions concentration (5.10-4 M), pH (2.8 – 3), UV lamp power (6 watt). Adding more ferrous ions enhanced the oxidation rate for the H2O2/Fe2+ and UV/H2O2/Fe2+ processes. The optimum catalyst loading was found 2.0 g.L-1 in our case for both catalysts TiO2 and ZnO. A comparative study of the photocatalytic degradation showed that these two catalysts have a comparable reactivity; it follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The degradation trends followed the order: UV365/Fenton > UV365/TiO2 > Solar Fenton > Solar TiO2 > Fenton ~UV365/ZnO. Among AOPs, processes using Fenton type reagent are relatively cheap and easy to operate and maintain. Moreover, UV365/Fenton process has been shown as effective in the treatment of OG dye. Dye was degraded following second-order kinetics. The rate constants was 0,041 .10+6 L.M-1.min-1. The degradation was followed by spectrophotometric method, chemical oxygen demand (COD) measures and high performance liquid chromatography analyses (HPLC). Some aromatic and aliphatic degradation compounds were identified. Degradation of Orange G by UV Fenton mechanism was also proposed.

Keywords: AOPs, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, acid orange 10, hydroxyl radical

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817 Nitrogen/Platinum Co-Doped TiO₂ for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant Black

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega

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Elimination of toxic organic compounds from wastewater is currently one of the most important subjects in water pollution control. The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N,Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalyts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. SEM/ EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA, FTIR, RS, PL and UV-Vis were used to characterize the prepared nanomaterials. The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the commercial TiO₂ revealing a shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of BB dye. Enhanced photodegradation efficiency of BB was achieved after 180 min reaction time with initial concentration of 50 ppm BB solution. This was attributed to the rod-like shape of the materials, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of visible light induced by N,Pt co-doping. The co-doped N,Pt also exhibited pseudo-first order kinetic behaviour with half-life and rate constant of 0.37 min 0.1984 min⁻¹ and respectively. N doped TiO₂ and N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performances for the removal of BB from water.

Keywords: N, Pt co-doped TiO₂, dendrimer, photodegradation, visible-light

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816 Improved Visible Light Activities for Degrading Pollutants on ZnO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Decorated with C and Fe Nanoparticles

Authors: Yuvraj S. Malghe, Atul B. Lavand

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In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic degradation processes have attracted a lot of attention and are used widely for the destruction of organic pollutants present in waste water. Among various semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its excellent chemical stability, non-toxicity, relatively low cost and high photo-oxidation power. It has been known that zinc oxide (ZnO) with band gap energy 3.2 eV is a suitable alternative to TiO2 due to its high quantum efficiency, however it corrodes in acidic medium. Unfortunately TiO2 and ZnO both are active only in UV light due to their wide band gaps. Sunlight consist about 5-7% UV light, 46% visible light and 47% infrared radiation. In order to utilize major portion of sunlight (visible spectrum), it is necessary to modify the band gap of TiO2 as well as ZnO. This can be done by several ways such as semiconductor coupling, doping the material with metals/non metals. Doping of TiO2 using transition metals like Fe, Co and non-metals such as N, C or S extends its absorption wavelengths from UV to visible region. In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite using reverse microemulsion method. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of aqueous solution of malachite green (MG). To increase the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite, it is decorated with C and Fe. Pure, carbon (C) doped and carbon, iron(C, Fe) co-doped nanosized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse microemulsion method. These composites were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectrophotometery and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Visible light photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were investigated for degradation of aqueous malachite green (MG) solution. C, Fe co-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibit better photocatalytic activity and showed threefold increase in photocatalytic activity. Effect of amount of catalyst, pH and concentration of MG solution on the photodegradation rate is studied. Stability and reusability of photocatalyst is also studied. C, Fe decorated ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite shows threefold increase in photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: malachite green, nanocomposite, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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815 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye

Authors: Vishakha Parihar

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This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nano-particles iron dope, photocatalytic degradation, Congo red dye, sol-gel process

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814 Photocatalytic Activity of Polypyrrole/ZnO Composites for Degradation of Dye Reactive Red 45 in Wastewater

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Vanja Gilja, Andrea Husak, Sniježana Šuka, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić

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Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as photocatalysts for water purification. However, one particular interest is given on the integration of inorganic ZnO nanoclusters with conducting polymers because the resulting nanocomposites may possess unique properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison to pure ZnO, using UV and also visible light. It is needed to explore the appropriate structure of polypyrrole that can induce activation of ZnO photocatalyst since the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials can result in a synergistic and complementary feature, increasing ZnO photocatalytic efficiency. In this paper several different composites of polypyrrole/zinc oxide (ZnO) were studied. Composite samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of prepared samples was studied as a decomposition of Reactive Red 45 (RR 45) dye, which was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy as a change in absorbance of characteristic wavelength at 542 nm. Results show good photocatalytic efficiency of all nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: photocatalysis, polypyrrole, wastewater, zinc oxide

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813 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari

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A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.

Keywords: bisphenol A, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model, chemical oxygen demand

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812 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi

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Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

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811 Effect of Precursors Aging Time on the Photocatalytic Activity of Zno Thin Films

Authors: N. Kaneva, A. Bojinova, K. Papazova

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Thin ZnO films are deposited on glass substrates via sol–gel method and dip-coating. The films are prepared from zinc acetate dehydrate as a starting reagent. After that the as-prepared ZnO sol is aged for different periods (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days). Nanocrystalline thin films are deposited from various sols. The effect ZnO sols aging time on the structural and photocatalytic properties of the films is studied. The films surface is studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The effect of the aging time of the starting solution is studied inrespect to photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments are conducted upon UV-light illumination and in complete darkness. The variation of the absorption spectra shows the degradation of RB5 dissolved in water, as a result of the reaction acurring on the surface of the films, and promoted by UV irradiation. The initial concentrations of dye (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and the effect of the aging time are varied during the experiments. The results show, that the increasing aging time of starting solution with respect to ZnO generally promotes photocatalytic activity. The thin films obtained from ZnO sol, which is aged 30 days have best photocatalytic degradation of the dye (97,22%) in comparison with the freshly prepared ones (65,92%). The samples and photocatalytic experimental results are reproducible. Nevertheless, all films exhibit a substantial activity in both UV light and darkness, which is promising for the development of new ZnO photocatalysts by sol-gel method.

Keywords: ZnO thin films, sol-gel, photocatalysis, aging time

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810 Remediation of Dye Contaminated Wastewater Using N, Pd Co-Doped TiO₂ Photocatalyst Derived from Polyamidoamine Dendrimer G1 as Template

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega

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The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N, Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV‐Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the calcination atmosphere played an important role in the morphology, crystal structure, spectral absorption, oxygen vacancy concentration, and visible light photocatalytic performance of the catalysts. Anatase phase particles ranging between 9- 20 nm were also confirmed by TEM, SEM, and analysis. The origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity was attributed to both the elemental N and Pd dopants and the existence of oxygen vacancies. Co-doping imparted a shift in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black dye. Co-doped TiO₂ showed greater photocatalytic brilliant black degradation efficiency compared to singly doped N-TiO₂ or Pd-TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. The highest reaction rate constant of 3.132 x 10-2 min⁻¹ was observed for N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd). The results demonstrated that the N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd) sample could completely degrade the dye in 3 h, while the commercial TiO₂ showed the lowest dye degradation efficiency (52.66%).

Keywords: brilliant black, Co-doped TiO₂, polyamidoamine generation 1 (PAMAM G1), photodegradation

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809 ZnO / TiO2 Nanoparticles for Degradation of Cyanide Ion

Authors: Masoumeh Tabatabaee, Zahra Shahryarzadeh, Masoud R. Shishebor

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Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is alternative method for the complete degradation many organic pollutants. When a photocatalyst absorbs radiation whose energy hν > Eg an ē from its filled valance band (VB) is promoted to its conduction band (CB) and valance band holes h+ are formed. Electron would reduce any available species, including O2, water and hydroxide ion to form hydroxyl radicals. ZnO and TiO2 are important photocatalysts with high catalytic activity that have attracted much research attention. TiO2 can only absorb a small portion of solar spectrum in the UV region and many methods such as dye sensitization, doping of other metals and using TiO2 with another semiconductor have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar irradiation. Studies have shown that the use of metal oxides or sulfide such as WO3, MoO3, SiO2, MgO, ZnO, and CdS with TiO2 can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Due to similarity of photodegradation mechanism of ZnO with TiO2, it is a suitable semiconductor using with TiO2 and recently nanosized bicomponent TiO2-ZnO photocatalysts were prepared and used for degradation of some pollutants. In this study, Nano-sized ZnO/TiO2 composite was synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of it. The effect of photocatalytic activity of prepared ZnO/TiO2 on the degradation of cyanide ion under UV was investigated. The effect of various parameters such as ZnO/TiO2 concentration, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2, initial dye or cyanide ion concentration, pH and irradiation time on were investigated. Results show that more than 95% of 4 mgL-1 cyanide ion degraded after 60-min reaction time and under UV irradiation.

Keywords: photodegradation, ZnO/TiO2, nanoparticle, cyanide ion

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808 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng

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Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: oxidation, wettability, silicon, SiC

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807 Photocatalytic Eco-Active Ceramic Slabs to Abate Air Pollution under LED Light

Authors: Claudia L. Bianchi, Giuseppina Cerrato, Federico Galli, Federica Minozzi, Valentino Capucci

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At the beginning of the industrial productions, porcelain gres tiles were considered as just a technical material, aesthetically not very beautiful. Today thanks to new industrial production methods, both properties, and beauty of these materials completely fit the market requests. In particular, the possibility to prepare slabs of large sizes is the new frontier of building materials. Beside these noteworthy architectural features, new surface properties have been introduced in the last generation of these materials. In particular, deposition of TiO₂ transforms the traditional ceramic into a photocatalytic eco-active material able to reduce polluting molecules present in air and water, to eliminate bacteria and to reduce the surface dirt thanks to the self-cleaning property. The problem of photocatalytic materials resides in the fact that it is necessary a UV light source to activate the oxidation processes on the surface of the material, processes that are turned off inexorably when the material is illuminated by LED lights and, even more so, when we are in darkness. First, it was necessary a thorough study change the existing plants to deposit the photocatalyst very evenly and this has been done thanks to the advent of digital printing and the development of an ink custom-made that stabilizes the powdered TiO₂ in its formulation. In addition, the commercial TiO₂, which is used for the traditional photocatalytic coating, has been doped with metals in order to activate it even in the visible region and thus in the presence of sunlight or LED. Thanks to this active coating, ceramic slabs are able to purify air eliminating odors and VOCs, and also can be cleaned with very soft detergents due to the self-cleaning properties given by the TiO₂ present at the ceramic surface. Moreover, the presence of dopant metals (patent WO2016157155) also allows the material to work as well as antibacterial in the dark, by eliminating one of the negative features of photocatalytic building materials that have so far limited its use on a large scale. Considering that we are constantly in contact with bacteria, some of which are dangerous for health. Active tiles are 99,99% efficient on all bacteria, from the most common such as Escherichia coli to the most dangerous such as Staphilococcus aureus Methicillin-resistant (MRSA). DIGITALIFE project LIFE13 ENV/IT/000140 – award for best project of October 2017.

Keywords: Ag-doped microsized TiO₂, eco-active ceramic, photocatalysis, digital coating

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806 Investigation on Morphologies, Forming Mechanism, Photocatalytic and Electronic Properties of Co-Zn Ferrite Nanostructure Grown on the Reduced Graphene Oxide Support

Authors: Qinglei Liu, Ali Charkhesht, Tiva Sharifi, Ashkan Bahadoran

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Graphene sheets are promising nanoscale building blocks as a support material for the dispersion of nanoparticles. In this work, a solvothermal method employed to directly grow Co1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite nanospheres on graphene oxide support that is subsequently reduced to graphene. The samples morphology, structure and crystallography were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of the Zn2+ content on photocatalytic activity, electrical conductivity and magnetic property of the samples are also investigated. The results showed that Co1-x Znx Fe2 O4 nanoparticles are dispersed on graphene sheets and obtained nanocomposites are soft magnetic materials. In addition the samples showed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

Keywords: reduced graphene oxide, ferrite, magnetic nanocomposite, photocatalytic activity, solvothermal method

Procedia PDF Downloads 160