Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: by-products

57 Alternative Water Resources and Brominated Byproducts

Authors: Nora Kuiper, Candace Rowell, Hugues Preud'Homme, Basem Shomar


As the global dependence on seawater desalination as a primary drinking water resource increases, a unique class of secondary pollutants is emerging. The presence of bromide salts in seawater may result in increased levels of bromine and brominated byproducts in drinking water. The State of Qatar offers a unique setting to study these pollutants and their impacts on consumers as the country is 100% dependent on seawater desalination to supply municipal tap water and locally produced bottled water. Tap water (n=115) and bottled water (n=62) samples were collected throughout the State of Qatar and analyzed for a suite of inorganic and organic compounds, including 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with an emphasis on brominated byproducts. All VOC identification and quantification was completed using a Bruker Scion GCMSMS with static headspace technologies. A risk survey tool was used to collect information regarding local consumption habits, health outcomes and perception of water sources for adults and children. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Dibromomethane, bromoform, and bromobenzene were detected in 61%, 88% and 2%, of the drinking water samples analyzed. The levels of dibromomethane ranged from approximately 100-500 ng/L and the concentrations of bromoform ranged from approximately 5-50 µg/L. Additionally, bromobenzene concentrations were 60 ng/L. The presence of brominated compounds in drinking water is a public health concern specific to populations using seawater as a feed water source and may pose unique risks that have not been previously studied. Risk assessments are ongoing to quantify the risks associated with prolonged consumption of disinfection byproducts; specifically the risks of brominated trihalomethanes as the levels of bromoform found in Qatar’s drinking water reach more than 60% of the US EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level of all THMs.

Keywords: brominated byproducts, desalination, trihalomethanes, risk assessment

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56 Incidence of Fungal Infections and Mycotoxicosis in Pork Meat and Pork By-Products in Egyptian Markets

Authors: Ashraf Samir Hakim, Randa Mohamed Alarousy


The consumption of food contaminated with molds (microscopic filamentous fungi) and their toxic metabolites results in the development of food-borne mycotoxicosis. The spores of molds are ubiquitously spread in the environment and can be detected everywhere. Ochratoxin A is a potentially carcinogenic fungal toxin found in a variety of food commodities , not only is considered the most abundant and hence the most commonly detected member but also is the most toxic one.Ochratoxin A is the most abundant and hence the most commonly detected member, but is also the most toxic of the three. A very limited research works concerning foods of porcine origin in Egypt were obtained in spite of presence a considerable swine population and consumers. In this study, the quality of various ready-to-eat local and imported pork meat and meat byproducts sold in Egyptian markets as well as edible organs as liver and kidney were assessed for the presence of various molds and their toxins as a raw material. Mycological analysis was conducted on (n=110) samples which included pig livers n=10 and kidneys n=10 from the Basateen slaughter house; local n=70 and 20 imported processed pork meat byproducts.The isolates were identified using traditional mycological and biochemical tests while, Ochratoxin A levels were quantitatively analyzed using the high performance liquid. Results of conventional mycological tests for detecting the presence of fungal growth (yeasts or molds) were negative, while the results of mycotoxins concentrations were be greatly above the permiceable limits or "tolerable weekly intake" (TWI) of ochratoxin A established by EFSA in 2006 in local pork and pork byproducts while the imported samples showed a very slightly increasing.Since ochratoxin A is stable and generally resistant to heat and processing, control of ochratoxin A contamination lies in the control of the growth of the toxin-producing fungi. Effective prevention of ochratoxin A contamination therefore depends on good farming and agricultural practices. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) including methods to reduce fungal infection and growth during harvest, storage, transport and processing provide the primary line of defense against contamination with ochratoxin A. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of mycological assessment, especially the mycotoxins in pork byproducts in Egypt.

Keywords: Egyptian markets, mycotoxicosis, ochratoxin A, pork meat, pork by-products

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55 Gasification of Trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid with Ethanol at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Wei-Ling Lin


Lignin is a major constituent of woody biomass, and exists abundantly in nature. It is the major byproducts from the paper industry and bioethanol production processes. The byproducts are mainly used for low-valued applications. Instead, lignin can be converted into higher-valued gaseous fuel, thereby helping to curtail the ever-growing price of oil and to slow down the trend of global warming. Although biochemical treatment is capable of converting cellulose into liquid ethanol fuel, it cannot be applied to the conversion of lignin. Alternatively, it is possible to convert lignin into gaseous fuel thermochemically. In the present work, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a model compound for lignin, which closely resembles the basic building blocks of lignin, is gasified in an autoclave with ethanol at elevated temperatures and pressures, that are above the critical point of ethanol. Ethanol, instead of water, is chosen, because ethanol dissolves trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid easily and helps to convert it into lighter gaseous species relatively well. The major operating parameters for the gasification reaction include temperature (673-873 K), reaction pressure (5-25 MPa) and feed concentration (0.05-0.3 M). Generally, more than 80% of the reactant, including trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ethanol, were converted into gaseous products at an operating condition of 873 K and 5 MPa.

Keywords: ethanol, gasification, lignin, supercritical

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54 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Byproducts for Bacteriocin Production Using Newly Isolated Enterococcus faecium BS13

Authors: Vandana Bali, Manab B. Bera, Parmjit S. Panesar


Microbial production of antimicrobials as biopreservatives is the major area of focus nowadays due to increased interest of consumers towards natural and safe preservation of ready to eat food products. The agro-industrial byproduct based medium and optimized process conditions can contribute in economical production of bacteriocins. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was carried out on agro-industrial byproducts utilization for the production of bacteriocin using Enterococcus faecium BS13 isolated from local fermented food. Different agro-industrial byproduct based carbon sources (whey, potato starch liquor, kinnow peel, deoiledrice bran and molasses), nitrogen sources (soya okra, pea pod and corn steep liquor), metal ions and surfactants were tested for optimal bacteriocin production. The effect of various process parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum level, agitation and time were also tested on bacteriocin production. The optimized medium containing whey, supplemented with 4%corn steep liquor and polysorbate-80 displayed maximum bacteriocin activity with 2% inoculum, at pH 6.5, temperature 40oC under shaking conditions (100 rpm).

Keywords: Bacteriocin, biopreservation, corn steep liquor, Enterococcus faecium, waste utilization, whey

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53 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos


Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

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52 A Perspective on Allelopathic Potential of Corylus avellana L.

Authors: Tugba G. Isin Ozkan, Yoshiharu Fujii


One of the most important constrains that decrease the crop yields are weeds. Increased amount and number of chemical herbicides are being utilized every day to control weeds. Chemical herbicides which cause environmental effects, and limitations on implementation of them have led to the nonchemical alternatives in the management of weeds. It is needed increasingly the application of allelopathy as a nonherbicidal innovation to control weed populations in integrated weed management. It is not only because of public concern about herbicide use, but also increased agricultural costs and herbicide resistance weeds. Allelopathy is defined as a common biological phenomenon, direct or indirect interaction which one plant or organism produces biochemicals influence the physiological processes of another neighboring plant or organism. Biochemicals involved in allelopathy are called allelochemicals that influence beneficially or detrimentally the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other plant or organisms. All plant parts could have allelochemicals which are secondary plant metabolites. Allelochemicals are released to environment, influence the germination and seedling growth of neighbors' weeds; that is the way how allelopathy is applied for weed control. Crop cultivars have significantly different ability for inhibiting the growth of certain weeds. So, a high commercial value crop Corylus avellana L. and its byproducts were chosen to introduce for their allelopathic potential in this research. Edible nut of Corylus avellana L., commonly known as hazelnut is commercially valuable crop with byproducts; skin, hard shell, green leafy cover, and tree leaf. Research on allelopathic potential of a plant by using the sandwich bioassay method and investigation growth inhibitory activity is the first step to develop new and environmentally friendly alternatives for weed control. Thus, the objective of this research is to determine allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. and its byproducts by using sandwich method and to determine effective concentrations (EC) of their extracts for inducing half-maximum elongation inhibition on radicle of test plant, EC50. The sandwich method is reliable and fast bioassay, very useful for allelopathic screening under laboratory conditions. In experiments, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds will be test plant, because of its high sensitivity to inhibition by allelochemicals and reliability for germination. In sandwich method, the radicle lengths of dry material treated lettuce seeds and control lettuce seeds will be measured and inhibition of radicle elongation will be determined. Lettuce seeds will also be treated by the methanol extracts of dry hazelnut parts to calculate EC₅₀ values, which are required to induce half-maximal inhibition of growth, as mg dry weight equivalent mL-1. Inhibitory activity of extracts against lettuce seedling elongation will be evaluated, like in sandwich method, by comparing the radicle lengths of treated seeds with that of control seeds and EC₅₀ values will be determined. Research samples are dry parts of Turkish hazelnut, C. avellana L. The results would suggest the opportunity for allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. with its byproducts in plant-plant interaction, might be utilized for further researches, could be beneficial in finding bioactive chemicals from natural products and developing of natural herbicides.

Keywords: allelopathy, Corylus avellana L., EC50, Lactuca sativa L., sandwich method, Turkish hazelnut

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51 The Effect of Metal-Organic Framework Pore Size to Hydrogen Generation of Ammonia Borane via Nanoconfinement

Authors: Jing-Yang Chung, Chi-Wei Liao, Jing Li, Bor Kae Chang, Cheng-Yu Wang


Chemical hydride ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) draws attentions to hydrogen energy researches for its high theoretical gravimetrical capacity (19.6 wt%). Nevertheless, the elevated AB decomposition temperatures (Td) and unwanted byproducts are main hurdles in practical application. It was reported that the byproducts and Td can be reduced with nanoconfinement technique, in which AB molecules are confined in porous materials, such as porous carbon, zeolite, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), etc. Although nanoconfinement empirically shows effectiveness on hydrogen generation temperature reduction in AB, the theoretical mechanism is debatable. Low Td was reported in [email protected] (Zn4O(BDC)3, BDC = benzenedicarboxylate), where Zn atoms form closed metal clusters secondary building unit (SBU) with no exposed active sites. Other than nanosized hydride, it was also observed that catalyst addition facilitates AB decomposition in the composite of Li-catalyzed carbon CMK-3, MOF JUC-32-Y with exposed Y3+, etc. It is believed that nanosized AB is critical for lowering Td, while active sites eliminate byproducts. Nonetheless, some researchers claimed that it is the catalytic sites that are the critical factor to reduce Td, instead of the hydride size. The group physically ground AB with ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, (Zn(2-methylimidazolate)2)), and found similar reduced Td phenomenon, even though AB molecules were not ‘confined’ or forming nanoparticles by physical hand grinding. It shows the catalytic reaction, not nanoconfinement, leads to AB dehydrogenation promotion. In this research, we explored the possible criteria of hydrogen production temperature from nanoconfined AB in MOFs with different pore sizes and active sites. MOFs with metal SBU such as Zn (IRMOF), Zr (UiO), and Al (MIL-53), accompanying with various organic ligands (BDC and BPDC; BPDC = biphenyldicarboxylate) were modified with AB. Excess MOFs were used for AB size constrained in micropores estimated by revisiting Horvath-Kawazoe model. AB dissolved in methanol was added to MOFs crystalline with MOF pore volume to AB ratio 4:1, and the slurry was dried under vacuum to collect [email protected] powders. With TPD-MS (temperature programmed desorption with mass spectroscopy), we observed Td was reduced with smaller MOF pores. For example, it was reduced from 100°C to 64°C when MOF micropore ~1 nm, while ~90°C with pore size up to 5 nm. The behavior of Td as a function of AB crystalline radius obeys thermodynamics when the Gibbs free energy of AB decomposition is zero, and no obvious correlation with metal type was observed. In conclusion, we discovered Td of AB is proportional to the reciprocal of MOF pore size, possibly stronger than the effect of active sites.

Keywords: ammonia borane, chemical hydride, metal-organic framework, nanoconfinement

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50 Study of Synergetic Effect by Combining Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma and Photocatalysis for Abatement of Pollutants in Air Mixture System: Influence of Some Operating Conditions and Identification of Byproducts

Authors: Wala Abou Saoud, Aymen Amine Assadi, Monia Guiza, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Wael Aboussaoud, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, Dominique Wolbert


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constitute one of the most important families of chemicals involved in atmospheric pollution, causing damage to the environment and human health, and need, consequently, to be eliminated. Among the promising technologies, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma - photocatalysis coupling reveals very interesting prospects in terms of process synergy of compounds mineralization’s, with low energy consumption. In this study, the removal of organic compounds such butyraldehyde (BUTY) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (exhaust gasses from animal quartering centers.) in air mixture using DBD plasma coupled with photocatalysis was tested, in order to determine whether or not synergy effect was present. The removal efficiency of these pollutants, a selectivity of CO₂ and CO, and byproducts formation such as ozone formation were investigated in order to evaluate the performance of the combined process. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out in a continuous reactor. Many operating parameters were also investigated such as the specific energy of discharge, the inlet concentration of pollutant and the flowrate. It appears from this study that, the performance of the process has enhanced and a synergetic effect is observed. In fact, we note an enhancement of 10 % on removal efficiency. It is interesting to note that the combined system leads to better CO₂ selectivity than for plasma. Consequently, intermediates by-products have been reduced due to various other species (O•, N, OH•, O₂•-, O₃, NO₂, NOx, etc.). Additionally, the behavior of combining DBD plasma and photocatalysis has shown that the ozone can be easily also decomposed in presence of photocatalyst.

Keywords: combined process, DBD plasma, photocatalysis, pilot scale, synergetic effect, VOCs

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49 Influence of the Use of Fruits Byproducts on the Lipid Profile of Hermetia illucens, Tenebrio molitor and Zophoba morio Larvae

Authors: Rebeca P Ramos-Bueno, Maria Jose Gonzalez-Fernandez, Rosa M. Moreno-Zamora, Antonia Barros Heras, Yolanda Serrano Alonso, Carolina Sanchez Barranco


Insects are a new source of fatty acids (FA), so they are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative for both animal feed and the human diet, and furthermore, their harvesting/rearing require a low-tech and low capital investment. For that reason, lipids obtained by insect breeding open interesting possibilities with alimentary and industrial purposes, i.e., the production of biodiesel. Particularly, certain insect species, especially during the larval stage, contain high proportions of fat which is highly dependent on their feed and stage of development. Among them, Hermetia illucens larvae can be bred on food wastes to produce fat- and protein-rich raw materials for food by-product management. So, insects can act as excellent bioconverters of organic waste to nutrient-rich materials. In this regard, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of fruit byproducts on the FA compositions of Tenebrio molitor, Zophoba morio, and H. illucens larvae. Firstly, oil was extracted with the green solvent ethyl acetate, and FA methyl ester was obtained and analyzed by GC to show the FA profile. In addition, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile was obtained by HPLC. Dehydrated watermelon, tomato, and papaya by-products, as well as wheat-based control feed, were assayed. High FA content was reached by Z. morio larvae fed with all fruits; however, no differences were shown in lipid profile with any change. It is worth highlighting that both Z. morio and H. illucens could be selected as the best candidates for biodiesel production due to their high content of saturated FA. On the other hand, T. molitor larvae showed a higher content of monounsaturated FA than control larvae, whereas the n-6 polyunsaturated FA content decreased in larvae fed with fruits. This result indicates that the improvement of the FA profile of Tenebrio can depend on both the type of feeding and the intended use. The lipid profile of H. illucens larvae fed with papaya and tomato showed a slight increase in the content of α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n3). This FA is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3), which plays an important role as a component of structural lipids in cell membranes as well as in the synthesis of eicosanoids, protecting and resolving. Also, it was evaluated the TAG profile of Z. morio larvae due to their highest oil content. The results showed a high oleic acid (OA, 18:1n9) content, which displays modulatory effects in a wide range of physiological functions, having anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. In conclusion, this study clearly shows that Z. morio and H. illucens larvae constitute an alternative source of OA- and ALA-rich oils, respectively, which can be devoted for food use, as well as for using in the food and pharmaceutical industries, with agronomic implications. Finally, although the profile of Z. morio was not improved with fruit feeding, this kind of feeding could be used due to its low environmental impact.

Keywords: fatty acids, fruit byproducts, Hermetia illucens, Zophoba morio, Tenebrio molitor, insect rearing

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48 Health Risk Assessment of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Lenka Jesonkova, Frantisek Bozek


Trihalogenmethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts with non-carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. The contamination of 6 sites close to the water treatment plant has been monitored in second largest city of the Czech Republic. Health risk assessment including both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risk for long term exposition was realized using the critical concentrations. Concentrations of trihalogenmethanes met national standards in all samples. Risk assessment proved that health risks from trihalogenmethanes are acceptable on each site.

Keywords: drinking water, health risk assessment, trihalogenmethanes, water pollution

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47 Study of the Kinetics of Formation of Carboxylic Acids Using Ion Chromatography during Oxidation Induced by Rancimat of the Oleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, and Biodiesel

Authors: Patrícia T. Souza, Marina Ansolin, Eduardo A. C. Batista, Antonio J. A. Meirelles, Matthieu Tubino


Lipid oxidation is a major cause of the deterioration of the quality of the biodiesel, because the waste generated damages the engines. Among the main undesirable effects are the increase of viscosity and acidity, leading to the formation of insoluble gums and sediments which cause the blockage of fuel filters. The auto-oxidation is defined as the spontaneous reaction of atmospheric oxygen with lipids. Unsaturated fatty acids are usually the components affected by such reactions. They are present as free fatty acids, fatty esters and glycerides. To determine the oxidative stability of biodiesels, through the induction period, IP, the Rancimat method is used, which allows continuous monitoring of the induced oxidation process of the samples. During the oxidation of the lipids, volatile organic acids are produced as byproducts, in addition, other byproducts, including alcohols and carbonyl compounds, may be further oxidized to carboxylic acids. By the methodology developed in this work using ion chromatography, IC, analyzing the water contained in the conductimetric vessel, were quantified organic anions of carboxylic acids in samples subjected to oxidation induced by Rancimat. The optimized chromatographic conditions were: eluent water:acetone (80:20 v/v) with 0.5 mM sulfuric acid; flow rate 0.4 mL min-1; injection volume 20 µL; eluent suppressor 20 mM LiCl; analytical curve from 1 to 400 ppm. The samples studied were methyl biodiesel from soybean oil and unsaturated fatty acids standards: oleic, linoleic and linolenic. The induced oxidation kinetics curves were constructed by analyzing the water contained in the conductimetric vessels which were removed, each one, from the Rancimat apparatus at prefixed intervals of time. About 3 g of sample were used under the conditions of 110 °C and air flow rate of 10 L h-1. The water of each conductimetric Rancimat measuring vessel, where the volatile compounds were collected, was filtered through a 0.45 µm filter and analyzed by IC. Through the kinetic data of the formation of the organic anions of carboxylic acids, the formation rates of the same were calculated. The observed order of the rates of formation of the anions was: formate >>> acetate > hexanoate > valerate for the oleic acid; formate > hexanoate > acetate > valerate for the linoleic acid; formate >>> valerate > acetate > propionate > butyrate for the linolenic acid. It is possible to suppose that propionate and butyrate are obtained mainly from linolenic acid and that hexanoate is originated from oleic and linoleic acid. For the methyl biodiesel the order of formation of anions was: formate >>> acetate > valerate > hexanoate > propionate. According to the total rate of formation these anions produced during the induced degradation of the fatty acids can be assigned the order of reactivity: linolenic acid > linoleic acid >>> oleic acid.

Keywords: anions of carboxylic acids, biodiesel, ion chromatography, oxidation

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46 Sorption Properties of Hemp Cellulosic Byproducts for Petroleum Spills and Water

Authors: M. Soleimani, D. Cree, C. Chafe, L. Bates


The accidental release of petroleum products into the environment could have harmful consequences to our ecosystem. Different techniques such as mechanical separation, membrane filtration, incineration, treatment processes using enzymes and dispersants, bioremediation, and sorption process using sorbents have been applied for oil spill remediation. Most of the techniques investigated are too costly or do not have high enough efficiency. This study was conducted to determine the sorption performance of hemp byproducts (cellulosic materials) in terms of sorption capacity and kinetics for hydrophobic and hydrophilic fluids. In this study, heavy oil, light oil, diesel fuel, and water/water vapor were used as sorbate fluids. Hemp stalk in different forms, including loose material (hammer milled (HM) and shredded (Sh) with low bulk densities) and densified forms (pellet form (P) and crumbled pellets (CP)) with high bulk densities, were used as sorbents. The sorption/retention tests were conducted according to ASTM 726 standard. For a quick-purpose application of the sorbents, the sorption tests were conducted for 15 min, and for an ideal sorption capacity of the materials, the tests were carried out for 24 h. During the test, the sorbent material was exposed to the fluid by immersion, followed by filtration through a stainless-steel wire screen. Water vapor adsorption was carried out in a controlled environment chamber with the capability of controlling relative humidity (RH) and temperature. To determine the kinetics of sorption for each fluid and sorbent, the retention capacity also was determined intervalley for up to 24 h. To analyze the kinetics of sorption, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models were employed with the objective of minimal deviation of the experimental results from the models. The results indicated that HM and Sh materials had the highest sorption capacity for the hydrophobic fluids with approximately 6 times compared to P and CP materials. For example, average retention values of heavy oil on HM and Sh was 560% and 470% of the mass of the sorbents, respectively. Whereas, the retention of heavy oil on P and CP was up to 85% of the mass of the sorbents. This lower sorption capacity for P and CP can be due to the less exposed surface area of these materials and compacted voids or capillary tubes in the structures. For water uptake application, HM and Sh resulted in at least 40% higher sorption capacity compared to those obtained for P and CP. On average, the performance of sorbate uptake from high to low was as follows: water, heavy oil, light oil, diesel fuel. The kinetic analysis indicated that the second-pseudo order model can describe the sorption process of the oil and diesel better than other models. However, the kinetics of water absorption was better described by the pseudo-first-order model. Acetylation of HM materials could improve its oil and diesel sorption to some extent. Water vapor adsorption of hemp fiber was a function of temperature and RH, and among the models studied, the modified Oswin model was the best model in describing this phenomenon.

Keywords: environment, fiber, petroleum, sorption

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45 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna


There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.

Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulation

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44 In vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Palm Oil Byproducts Which is Supplemented with Growth Factor Rumen Microbes

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Jurnida Rahman, Khasrad, Erpomen


The aim of this experiment was to study the use of palm oil by products (oil palm fronds (OPF), palm oil sludge (POS) and palm kernel cake (PKC)), that supplemented with growth factor rumen microbes (Sapindus rarak and Sacharomyces cerevisiae) on digestibility and fermentation in vitro. Oil Palm Fronds was previously treated with 3% urea. The treatments consist of 50% OPF+ 30% POS+ 20% PKC as a control diet (A), B = A + 4% Sapindus rarak, C = A + 0.5 % Sacharomyces cerevisiae and D = A + 4% Sapindus rarak + 0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Digestibility of DM, OM, ADF, NDF, cellulose and rumen parameters (NH3 and VFA) of all treatments were significantly different (P < 0.05). Fermentation and digestibility treatment A were significantly lower than treatments B, C, and D. The result indicated that supplementation Sapindus rarak and S. cerevisiae were able to improve fermentability and digestibility of palm oil by product.

Keywords: palm oil by product, Sapindus rarak, Sacharomyces rerevisiae, fermentability, OPF ammoniated

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43 Measuring Environmental Efficiency of Energy in OPEC Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Seyedhossein Sajadifar, Naser Khiabani


Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently gained popularity in energy efficiency analysis. A common feature of the previously proposed DEA models for measuring energy efficiency performance is that they treat energy consumption as an input within a production framework without considering undesirable outputs. However, energy use results in the generation of undesirable outputs as byproducts of producing desirable outputs. Within a joint production framework of both desirable and undesirable outputs, this paper presents several DEA-type linear programming models for measuring energy efficiency performance. In addition to considering undesirable outputs, our models treat different energy sources as different inputs so that changes in energy mix could be accounted for in evaluating energy efficiency. The proposed models are applied to measure the energy efficiency performances of 12 OPEC countries and the results obtained are presented.

Keywords: energy efficiency, undesirable outputs, data envelopment analysis

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42 Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Degradation Products and Its in vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation in NIH3T3 Cells

Authors: Lesly Y Carmona-Sarabia, Luisa Barraza-Vergara, Vilmalí López-Mejías, Wandaliz Torres-García, Maribella Domenech-Garcia, Madeline Torres-Lugo


Biosensors are used in many applications providing real-time monitoring to treat long-term conditions. Thus, understanding the physicochemical properties and biological side effects on the skin of polymers (e. g., poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA) employed in the fabrication of wearable biosensors is crucial for the selection of manufacturing materials within this field. The PMMA (hydrophobic and thermoplastic polymer) is commonly employed as a coating material or substrate in the fabrication of wearable devices. The cytotoxicityof PMMA (including residual monomers or degradation products) on the skin, in terms of cells and tissue, is required to prevent possible adverse effects (cell death, skin reactions, sensitization) on human health. Within this work, accelerated aging of PMMA (Mw ~ 15000) through thermal and photochemical degradation was under-taken. The accelerated aging of PMMA was carried out by thermal (200°C, 1h) and photochemical degradation (UV-Vis, 8-15d) adapted employing ISO protocols (ISO-10993-12, ISO-4892-1:2016, ISO-877-1:2009, ISO-188: 2011). In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of PMMA degradation products was performed using NIH3T3 fibroblast cells to assess the response of skin tissues (in terms of cell viability) exposed with polymers utilized to manufacture wearable biosensors, such as PMMA. The PMMA (Mw ~ 15000) before and after accelerated aging experiments was characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), powder X-ray diffractogram (PXRD), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to determine and verify the successful degradation of this polymer under the specific conditions previously mention. The degradation products were characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify possible byproducts generated after the accelerated aging. Results demonstrated a percentage (%) weight loss between 1.5-2.2% (TGA thermographs) for PMMA after accelerated aging. The EDS elemental analysis reveals a 1.32 wt.% loss of carbon for PMMA after thermal degradation. These results might be associated with the amount (%) of PMMA degrade after the accelerated aging experiments. Furthermore, from the thermal degradation products was detected the presence of the monomer and methyl formate (low concentrations) and a low molecular weight radical (·COOCH3) in higher concentrations by NMR. In the photodegradation products, methyl formate was detected in higher concentrations. These results agree with the proposed thermal or photochemical degradation mechanisms found in the literature.1,2 Finally, significant cytotoxicity on the NIH3T3 cells was obtained for the thermal and photochemical degradation products. A decrease in cell viability by > 90% (stock solutions) was observed. It is proposed that the presence of byproducts (e.g. methyl formate or radicals such as ·COOCH₃) from the PMMA degradation might be responsible for the cytotoxicity observed in the NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Additionally, experiments using skin models will be employed to compare with the NIH3T3 fibroblast cells model.

Keywords: biosensors, polymer, skin irritation, degradation products, cell viability

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41 The Influence of Physical-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hemp Filling Materials by the Addition of Energy Byproducts

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Jiri Bydzovsky


This article describes to what extent the addition of energy by-products into the structures of the technical hemp filling materials influence their properties. The article focuses on the changes in physical-mechanical and thermal technical properties of materials after the addition of ash or FBC ash or slag in the binding component of material. Technical hemp filling materials are made of technical hemp shives bonded by the mixture of cement and dry hydrate lime. They are applicable as fillers of vertical or horizontal structures or roofs. The research used eight types of energy by-products of power or heating plants in the Czech Republic. Secondary energy products were dispensed in three different percentage ratios as a replacement of cement in the binding component. Density, compressive strength and determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity after 28, 60 and 90 days of curing in a laboratory environment were determined and subsequently evaluated on the specimens produced.

Keywords: ash, binder, cement, energy by-product, FBC ash (fluidized bed combustion ash), filling materials, shives, slag, technical hemp

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40 Determinants of Smallholder Farmers' Intention to Adopt Jatropha as Raw Material for Biodiesel Production: A Proposed Model for Nigeria

Authors: Abdulsalam Mas’ud


Though Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentive was introduced in 2007, however, little if any is known about the impact of such policy for biodiesel development in Nigeria. It can be argued that lack of raw materials is one of the important factors that hinder the proper implementation of the policy. In line with this argument, this study aims to explore the determinants of smallholder farmers’ intention to adopt Jatropha as raw materials for biodiesel development in northern Nigeria, with Jigawa State as area of study. The determinants proposed for investigation covers personal factors, physical factors, institutional factors, economic factors, risk and uncertainty factors as well as social factors. The validation of the proposed model will have the implication of guiding policymakers towards enhancement of farmers’ participation in the Jatropha project for biodiesel raw materials production. The eventual byproducts of the proposed model validation and implementation will be employment generation, poverty reduction, combating dessert encroachment, economic diversification to renewable energy sources and electricity generation.

Keywords: adoption, biodiesel, factors, jatropha

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39 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua


This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90 °C for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was reported due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90 °C.

Keywords: honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, tualang honey

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38 Valorization of Gypsum as Industrial Waste

Authors: Hasna Soli


The main objective of this work is the extraction of sulfur from gypsum here is industrial waste. Indeed the sulfuric acid production, passing through the following process; melting sulfur, filtration of the liquid sulfur, sulfur combustion to produce SO₂, conversion of SO₂ to SO₃ and SO₃ absorption in water to produce H₂SO₄ product as waste CaSO₄ the anhydrous calcium sulfate. The main objectives of this work are improving the industrial practices and to find other ways to manage these solid wastes. It should also assess the consequences of treatment in terms of training and become byproducts. Firstly there will be a characterization of this type of waste by an X-ray diffraction; to obtain phase solid compositions and chemical analysis; gravimetrically and atomic absorption spectrometry or by ICP. The samples are mineralized in suitable acidic or basic solutions. The elements analyzed are CaO, Sulfide (SO₃), Al₂O₃, Fe₂O₃, MgO, SiO₂. Then an analysis by EDS energy dispersive spectrometry using an Oxford EDX probe and differential thermal and gravimetric analyzes. Gypsum’s valuation will be performed. Indeed, the CaSO₄ will be reused to produce sulfuric acid, which will be reintroduced into the production line. The second approach explored in this work is the thermal utilization of solid waste to remove sulfur as a dilute sulfuric acid solution.

Keywords: environment, gypsum, sulfur, waste

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37 Selective Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen over Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite Prepared with an Electro Deposition Method

Authors: Marzieh Joda, Narges Fallah, Neda Afsham


Graphite-supported two different of morphology α and β -Ni (OH)₂ electrodes were prepared by electrochemical deposition at appropriate potentials with regard to Ni (II)/Ni (III) redox couple under alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively, for selective oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen in the direct electro-oxidation process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the electrolyte containing NH₃ indicated mediation of electron transfer by Ni (OH)₂ and the electrode surface was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectrometer (RS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results of surface characterization indicated the presence of α polymorphs which is the stable phase of Ni (OH)₂ /Graphite. Cyclic voltammograms gave information on the nature of electron transfer between nitrogen species and working electrode and revealed that the potential has depended on both nature ammonia oxidation and that of concentration. The mechanism of selective ammonia conversion to nitrogen and byproducts, namely NO₂- and NO₃- was established by Cyclic voltammograms and current efficiency. The removal efficiency and selective conversion of ammonia (0.1 M KNO₃ + 0.01 M Ni(NO₃)₂, pH 11, 250°C) on Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite was determined based on potential controlled experiments.

Keywords: Electro deposition, Nickel oxide-hydroxide, Nitrogen selectivity, Ammonia oxidation

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36 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour


The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: sediment, calcination, cement, reuse

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35 Micropillar-Assisted Electric Field Enhancement for High-Efficiency Inactivation of Bacteria

Authors: Sanam Pudasaini, A. T. K. Perera, Ahmed Syed Shaheer Uddin, Sum Huan Ng, Chun Yang


Development of high-efficiency and environment friendly bacterial inactivation methods is of great importance for preventing waterborne diseases which are one of the leading causes of death in the world. Traditional bacterial inactivation methods (e.g., ultraviolet radiation and chlorination) have several limitations such as longer treatment time, formation of toxic byproducts, bacterial regrowth, etc. Recently, an electroporation-based inactivation method was introduced as a substitute. Here, an electroporation-based continuous flow microfluidic device equipped with an array of micropillars is developed, and the device achieved high bacterial inactivation performance ( > 99.9%) within a short exposure time ( < 1 s). More than 99.9% reduction of Escherichia coli bacteria was obtained for the flow rate of 1 mL/hr, and no regrowth of bacteria was observed. Images from scanning electron microscope confirmed the formation of electroporation-induced nano-pore within the cell membrane. Through numerical simulation, it has been shown that sufficiently large electric field strength (3 kV/cm), required for bacterial electroporation, were generated using PDMS micropillars for an applied voltage of 300 V. Further, in this method of inactivation, there is no involvement of chemicals and the formation of harmful by-products is also minimum.

Keywords: electroporation, high-efficiency, inactivation, microfluidics, micropillar

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34 The Political Economy of Human Trafficking and Human Insecurity in Asia: The Case of Japan, Thailand and India

Authors: Mohammed Bashir Uddin


Human trafficking remains as a persistent problem in many parts of the world. It is considered by many countries as an issue of a threat to national security. Border enforcement to prevent trafficking has been the main incentive, which eventually causes human insecurity for vulnerable people, especially for women. This research argues that focus needs to be placed on the political economy of trafficking, hence on the supply and demand sides of trafficking from a broader socio-economic perspective. Trafficking is a global phenomenon with its contemporary origins in the international capitalist market system. This research investigates particularly the supply-demand nexus on the backdrop of globalization and its impact on human security. It argues that the nexus varies across the countries, particularly the demand side. While prostitution has been the sole focus of the demand side in all countries in Asia, the paper argues that organ trade, bonded labor, cheap and exploitable labor through false recruitment (male trafficking) and adoption are some of the rising demands that explore new trends of trafficking, which could be better explained through international political economy (IPE). Following a qualitative research method, the paper argues that although demands vary in destination countries, they are the byproducts of IPE which have different socio-economic impacts both on trafficked individuals and the states.

Keywords: globalization, human security, human trafficking, political economy

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33 Viability of Rice Husk Ash Concrete Brick/Block from Green Electricity in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad A. N. M. Shafiqul Karim


As a developing country, Bangladesh has to face numerous challenges. Self Independence in electricity, contributing to climate change by reducing carbon emission and bringing the backward population of society to the mainstream is more challenging for them. Therefore, it is essential to ensure recycled use of local products to the maximum level in every sector. Some private organizations have already worked alongside government to bring the backward population to the mainstream by developing their financial capacities. As rice husk is the largest single category of the total energy supply in Bangladesh. As part of this strategy, rice husk can play a great as a promising renewable energy source, which is readily available, has considerable environmental benefits and can produce electricity and ensure multiple uses of byproducts in construction technology. For the first time in Bangladesh, an experimental multidimensional project depending on Rice Husk Electricity and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) concrete brick/block under Green Eco-Tech Limited has already been started. Project analysis, opportunity, sustainability, the high monitoring component, limitations and finally evaluated data reflecting the viability of establishing more projects using rice husk are discussed in this paper. The by-product of rice husk from the production of green electricity, RHA, can be used for making, in particular, RHA concrete brick/block in Bangladeshi aspects is also discussed here.

Keywords: project analysis, rice husk, rice husk ash concrete brick/block, compressive strength of rice husk ash concrete brick/block

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32 Efficient Ni(II)-Containing Layered Triple Hydroxide-Based Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterisation and Their Role in the Heck Reaction

Authors: Gabor Varga, Krisztina Karadi, Zoltan Konya, Akos Kukovecz, Pal Sipos, Istvan Palinko


Nickel can efficiently replace palladium in the Heck, Suzuki and Negishi reactions. This study focuses on the synthesis and catalytic application of Ni(II)-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and layered triple hydroxides (LTHs). Our goals were to incorporate Ni(II) ions among the layers of LDHs or LTHs, or binding it to their surface or building it into their layers in such a way that their catalytic activities are maintained or even increased. The LDHs and LTHs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using ethylene glycol as co-solvent. In several cases, post-synthetic modifications (e.g., thermal treatment) were performed. After optimizing the synthesis conditions, the composites displayed good crystallinity and were free of byproducts. The success of the syntheses and the post-synthetic modifications was confirmed by relevant characterization methods (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDX and combined IR techniques). Catalytic activities of the produced and well-characterized solids were investigated through the Heck reaction. The composites behaved as efficient, recyclable catalysts in the Heck reaction between 4-bromoanisole and styrene. Through varying the reaction parameters, we were able to obtain acceptable conversions under mild conditions. Our study highlights the possibility of the application of Ni(II)-containing composites as efficient catalysts in coupling reactions.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, layered triple hydroxide, heterogeneous catalysis, heck reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
31 Nano-Zinc Oxide: A Powerful and Recyclable Catalyst for Chemospecific Synthesis of Dicoumarols Based on Aryl Glyoxals

Authors: F. Jafari, S. GharehzadehShirazi, S. Khodabakhshi


An efficient, simple, and environmentally benign procedure for the one-pot synthesis of dicoumarols was reported. The reaction entails the condensation of aryl glyoxals and 4-hydroxyxoumarin in the presence of catalytic amount of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as recyclable catalyst in aqueous media. High product yields and use of clean conditions are important factors of green chemistry.Part of our continued interest to achieve high atom economic reactions by the use safe catalysts. The reaction mixture was refluxed with catalytic amount (3 mol%) of zinc oxide nanoparticles.Reducing the amount of toxic waste and byproducts arising from chemical reactions is an important issue in the context of green chemistry. In comparison with commonly organic solvents, the aqueous media is cheaper and more environmentally friendly. Avoiding the use of organic solvents is an important way to prevent waste in chemical processes. In the context of green and sustainable chemistry, one ofthe most promising approaches is the use of water as the reaction media. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition that water is an attractive media for manyorganic reactions. Using water continues to attract wide attention among synthetic chemists in the design of new synthetic methods.

Keywords: zinc oxide, dicoumarol, aryl glyoxal, green chemistry, catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
30 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, combustion chamber, arc furnace, energy recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
29 Allelopathic Effect of Foliar Extracts of Leucaena leucocephala on Germination and Growth Behavior of Zea mays L.

Authors: Guru Prasad Satsangi, Shiv Shankar Gautam


Allelopathy is a potential area of research for sustainable agriculture. It is environmentally safe, can conserve the available resources, and also may mitigate the problems raised by synthetic chemicals. The allelo-chemicals are secondary metabolites produced by plants, which are the byproducts of the primary metabolic process. These allelo-chemicals may be stimulatory, inhibitory, or may have no effect on the growth of the other plants. It has been observed in the present study that foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala showed an inhibitory effect on the germination of the test crop maize. The results revealed that at different concentrations of Leucaena leucocephala foliar extract, caused a significant inhibition in germination and growth behavior of Zea mays L. seedlings. Minimum germination and growth occurred in 100 % concentration, and an increase in extract concentrations result in a decrease in the germination. Bioassay also depicted that this inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract as the higher concentration having a lesser stimulatory effect or vice versa. The phytochemical analysis of the secondary metabolites from foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala L. showed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, and flavanoids. Among various extracts, the presence of methanol extract was found in a significant amount of phytochemicals, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Leaves showed a significantly higher amount of the allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathic effect, germination /growth behavior , foliar extracts, Leucaena leucceophala , Zea mays L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
28 Sulfamethoxazole Degradation by Conventional Fenton and Microwave-Assisted Fenton Reaction

Authors: Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, Amrane Abdeltif


Pharmaceutical products, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are rejected in the environment at trace level by human and animals (ng/L to mg/L), in their original form or as byproducts. Antibiotics are toxic contaminants for the aquatic environment, owing to their adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. Even at low concentrations, they can negatively impact biological water treatment leading to the proliferation of antibiotics-resistant pathogens. It is therefore of major importance to develop efficient methods to limit their presence in the aquatic environment. In this aim, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) appear relevant compared to other methods, since they are based on the production of highly reactive free radicals, and especially ●OH. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degradation of SMX by microwave-assisted Fenton reaction (MW/Fe/H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions concentrations, as well as the microwave power were optimized. The results showed that the SMX degradation by MW/Fe/H2O2 followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The treatment of 20 mg/L initial SMX by the Fenton reaction in the presence of microwave showed the positive impact of this latter owing to the higher degradation yields observed in a reduced reaction time if compared to the conventional Fenton reaction, less than 5 min for a total degradation. In addition, increasing microwave power increased the degradation kinetics. Irrespective of the application of microwave, the optimal pH for the Fenton reaction remained 3. Examination of the impact of the ionic strength showed that carbonate and sulfate anions increased the rate of SMX degradation.

Keywords: antibiotic, degradation, elimination, fenton, microwave, polluant

Procedia PDF Downloads 283