Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1074

Search results for: titanium dioxide (TiO2)

1074 Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles

Authors: Emi Govorčin Bajsića, Vesna Ocelić Bulatović, Miroslav Slouf, Ana Šitum

Abstract:

Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, titanium dioxide, thermal properties, morphology

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1073 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic, titanium dioxide

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1072 Free and Encapsulated (TiO2)2 Dimers into Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: S. Dargouthi, S. Boughdiri, B. Tangour

Abstract:

This work invoked two complementary parts. In the first, we performed a theoretical study of various dimers of molecular of titanium dioxide. Five structures were examined. Three among them, the (T), (C) and (T/P) isomers, may be considered as stable compounds because they represent absolute minima on their potential energy surfaces. (T) and (C) may coexist because they are separted by only 6.5 kcal mol-1 but (T/P) dimer is in a metastable state from an energetic point of view. Non bonded dimer (P) transforms into its homologue (O) which has been considered as transitory specie with low lifetime which evolves to (T) structure. In the second part, we highlight the possible stabilization of (T), (C) and (P) dimers by encapsulation in carbon nanotubes. This indicates the probable role that plays this transitory specie the polymerization process of molecular TiO2. Confinement is suitable to control the fast evolution process and could towards the synthesis of new titanium dioxide nanostructured materials. An alternative description of TiO2 polymorphs (Rutie, anatase et Brookite) is proposed from (T), (C) and (T/P) dimmers motifs.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, carbon nanotube, confinement. encapsulation, transitory specie

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1071 The Study of Visible Light Active Bismuth Modified Nitrogen Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatlysts

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi -N- TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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1070 Effect of Thermal Annealing Used in the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide on Its Electrochemical Properties As Li-Ion Electrode

Authors: Gabouze Nourredine, Saloua Merazga

Abstract:

Due to their exceptional durability, low-cost, high-power density, and reliability, cathodes based on titanium dioxide, and more specifically spinel LTO (Li4Ti5O12), present an attractive alternative to conventional lithium cathode materials for multiple applications. The aim of this work is to synthesize and characterize the nanopowders of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) and lithium titanate (Li₄Ti5O₁₂) by the hydrothermal method and to use them as a cathode in a lithium-ion battery. The structural and morphological characterizations of the synthesized powders were performed by XRD, SEM, EDS, and FTIR-ATR. Nevertheless, the study of the electrochemical performances of the elaborated electrode materials was carried out by: cyclic voltametry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge (CDG). The prepared electrode by the powder annealed at 800 °C has a good specific capacity of about 173 mAh/g and a good cyclic stability

Keywords: lithuim-ion, battery, LTO, tio2, capacity

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1069 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were water, SBF and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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1068 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were: water, SBF, and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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1067 Elaboration and Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Wided Zerguine, Farid Habelhames

Abstract:

The performance of photovoltaic devices with a light absorber consisting of a single-type conjugated polymer is poor, due to a low photo-generation yield of charge carriers, strong radiative recombination’s and low mobility of charge carriers. Recently, it has been shown that ultra-fast photoinduced charge transfer can also occur between a conjugated polymer and a metal oxide semiconductor such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5, etc. This has led to the fabrication of photovoltaic devices based on composites of oxide semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a conjugated polymer matrix. In this work, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved, mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM), and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/ PCBM film. The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

Keywords: photocurrent density, organic nanostructures, hybrid coating, conducting polymer, titanium dioxide

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1066 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić

Abstract:

The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: composite, photocatalysis, polypyrrole, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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1065 Photocatalytic Glucose Electrooxidation Applications of Titanium Dioxide Supported CD and CdTe Catalysts

Authors: Hilal Kivrak, Aykut ÇağLar, Nahit Aktaş, Ali Osman Solak

Abstract:

At present, Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. These catalysts are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ are employed as catalysts for the photocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to investigate their glucose electrooxidation activities of catalysts at long and under UV illumination (ʎ=354 nm). CdTe/TiO₂ catalyst is showed the best photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation activity compared to Cd/TiO₂ catalyst.

Keywords: cadmium, NaBH4 reduction method, photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation, Tellerium, TiO2

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1064 Is [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles Superior to Ag Surface Doped TiO2 Nanostructures?

Authors: Xiaohong Yang, Haitao Fu, Xizhong An, Aibing Yu

Abstract:

[email protected] dioxide ([email protected]) core-shell nanostructures and Ag surface doped TiO2 particles ([email protected]) have been designed and synthesized by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods under mild conditions. These two types of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized in terms of their properties by various techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Specifically, the photocatalystic performance and antibacterial behavior of such nanocomposites have been investigated and compared. It was found that The [email protected] core-shell nanostructures exhibit superior photocatalytic property to the Ag surface doped TiO2 particles under the reported conditions. While with UV pre-irradiation, the [email protected] core-shell composites exhibit better bactericidal performance. This is probably because the Ag cores tend to facilitate charge separation for TiO2, producing greater hydroxyl radicals on the surface of the TiO2 particles. These findings would be useful for the design and synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with desirable photocatalystic and antimicrobial activity for environmental applications.

Keywords: [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles, Ag surface doped TiO2 nanoparticles, photocatalysis, antibacterial

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1063 The Role of Graphene Oxide on Titanium Dioxide Performance for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Abdelmajid Timoumi, Salah Alamri, Hatem Alamri

Abstract:

TiO₂ Graphene Oxide (TiO₂-GO) nanocomposite was prepared using the spin coating technique of suspension of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets and Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TIP). The prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to examine their structures and morphologies. UV-vis transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies. From the TiO₂-GO samples, a 0.25 μm thin layer on a piece of glass 2x2 cm was created. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-deposited layers are amorphous in nature. The surface morphology images demonstrate that the layers grew in distributed with some spherical/rod-like and partially agglomerated TiGO on the surface of the composite. The Atomic Force Microscopy indicated that the films are smooth with slightly larger surface roughness. The analysis of optical absorption data of the layers showed that the values of band gap energy decreased from 3.46 eV to 1.40 eV, depending on the grams of GO doping. This reduction might be attributed to electron and/or hole trapping at the donor and acceptor levels in the TiO₂ band structure. Observed results have shown that the inclusion of GO in the TiO₂ matrix have exhibited significant and excellent properties, which would be promising for application in the photovoltaic application.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, graphene oxide, thin films, solar cells

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1062 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxide

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1061 The Effect of the Combination of Methotrexate Nanoparticles and TiO2 on Breast Cancer

Authors: Nusaiba Al-Nemrawi, Belal Al-Husein

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is a stoichiometric inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, which is essential for DNA synthesis. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used for treating many types of cancer cells. However, cells’ resistant to MTX is very common and its pharmacokinetic behavior is highly problematic. of MTX within tumor cells, we propose encapsulation of antitumor drugs in nanoparticulated systems. Chitosan (CS) is a naturally occurring polymer that is biocompatibe, biodegradable, non-toxic, cationic and bioadhesive. CS nanoparticles (CS-NPs) have been used as drug carrier for targeted delivery. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a natural mineral oxide, which is used in biomaterials due to its high stability and antimicrobial and anticorrosive properties. TiO2 showed a potential as a tumor suppressor. In this study a new formulation of MTX loaded in CS NPs (CS-MTX NPs) and coated with Titanium oxide (TiO2) was prepared. The mean particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index were measured. The interaction between CS NPs and TiO2 NPs was confirmed using FTIR and XRD. CS-MTX NPs was studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 (human breast cancer). The results showed that CS-MTX has a size around 169 nm and as they were coated with TiO2, the size ranged between and depending on the ratio of CS-MTX to TiO2 ratio used in the preparation. All NPs (uncoated and coated carried positive charges and were monodispersed. The entrapment efficacy was around 65%. Both FTIR and XRD proved that TiO2 interacted with CS-MTX NPs. The drug invitro release was controlled and sustained over days. Finally, the studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 suggested that combining nanomaterials with anticancer drugs CS-MTX NPs may be more effective than free MTX for cancer treatment. In conclusion, the combination of CS-MTX NPs and TiO2 NPs showed excellent time-dependent in vitro antitumor behavior, therefore, can be employed as a promising anticancer agent to attain efficient results towards MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: Methotrexate, Titanium dioxide, Chitosan nanoparticles, cancer

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1060 Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Doped in Degradation of Acid Dye

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by XRD, BET and UV- vis DRS. The photocatalytic efficiency of the Zn -Fe TiO2 treated at 500°C was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Zn-Fe-TiO2 (500°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the Rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV-visible diffuse reflection material showed that the Fe-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Zn -Fe- TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Fe-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, doping

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1059 Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Concrete Production Using Nano-Size Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh, Halla Elea, Lawrence Benzmiller

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to evaluate the possibility of using nano-sized materials, mainly titanium dioxide (TiO2), in producing economic self-cleaning concrete using photo-catalysis process. In photo-catalysis, the nano-particles react and dissolve smog, dust, and dirt particles in the presence of sunlight, resulting in a cleaned concrete surface. To-date, the Italian cement company (Italcementi) produces a proprietary self-cleaning cementitious material that is currently used in government buildings and major highways in Europe. The high initial cost of the proprietary product represents a major obstacle to the wide spread of the self-cleaning concrete in industrial and commercial projects. In this research project, titanium dioxide nano-sized particles are infused to the top layer of a concrete pour before the concrete surface is finished. Once hardened, a blue dye is applied to the concrete surface to simulate smog and dirt effect. The concrete surface is subjected to direct light to investigate the effectiveness of the nano-sized titanium dioxide in cleaning the concrete surface. The outcome of this research project proved that the titanium dioxide can be successfully used in reducing smog and dirt particles attached to the concrete when infused to the surface concrete layer. The majority of cleansing effect due to photocatalysis happens within 24 hours of photocatalysis process. The non-proprietary mix can be used in highway, industrial, and commercial projects due to its economy and ease of production.

Keywords: self-cleaning concrete, photocatalysis, Smog-eating concrete, titanium dioxide

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1058 Synthesis of TiO₂/Graphene Nanocomposites with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity Based on Chemical Exfoliation Method

Authors: Nhan N. T. Ton, Anh T. N. Dao, Kouichirou Katou, Toshiaki Taniike

Abstract:

Facile electron-hole recombination and the broad band gap are two major drawbacks of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) when applied in visible-light photocatalysis. Hybridization of TiO₂ with graphene is a promising strategy to lessen these pitfalls. Recently, there have been many reports on the synthesis of TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites, in most of which graphene oxide (GO) was used as a starting material. However, the reduction of GO introduced a large number of defects on the graphene framework. In addition, the sensitivity of titanium alkoxide to water (GO usually contains) significantly obstructs the uniform and controlled growth of TiO₂ on graphene. Here, we demonstrate a novel technique to synthesize TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites without the use of GO. Graphene dispersion was obtained through the chemical exfoliation of graphite in titanium tetra-n-butoxide with the aid of ultrasonication. The dispersion was directly used for the sol-gel reaction in the presence of different catalysts. A TiO₂/reduced graphene oxide (TiO₂/rGO) nanocomposite, which was prepared by a solvothermal method from GO, and the commercial TiO₂-P25 were used as references. It was found that titanium alkoxide afforded the graphene dispersion of a high quality in terms of a trace amount of defects and a few layers of dispersed graphene. Moreover, the sol-gel reaction from this dispersion led to TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites featured with promising characteristics for visible-light photocatalysts including: (I) the formation of a TiO₂ nano layer (thickness ranging from 1 nm to 5 nm) that uniformly and thinly covered graphene sheets, (II) a trace amount of defects on the graphene framework (low ID/IG ratio: 0.21), (III) a significant extension of the absorption edge into the visible light region (a remarkable extension of the absorption edge to 578 nm beside the usual edge at 360 nm), and (IV) a dramatic suppression of electron-hole recombination (the lowest photoluminescence intensity compared to reference samples). These advantages were successfully demonstrated in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites exhibited 15 and 5 times higher activity than TiO₂-P25 and the TiO₂/rGO nanocomposite, respectively.

Keywords: chemical exfoliation, photocatalyst, TiO₂/graphene, sol-gel reaction

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1057 One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Porous Microspheres by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Welding

Authors: Huiwu Yu, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng

Abstract:

Porous spheres have been widely used in many fields due to their attractive features. In this work, an approach for fabricating porous spheres of nanoparticles was presented, in which the nanoparticles were welded together to form micro spheres by simply irradiating the nanoparticles in liquid medium by a picosecond laser. As an example, anatase titanium dioxide was chosen as a typical material on account of its metastability. The structure and morphologies of the products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that, anatase titanium dioxide micro spheres (2-10 μm) with macroporous (10-100 nm) were prepared from nano-anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10-100 nm). The formation process of polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide microspheres was investigated with different liquid mediums and the input laser fluences. Thus, this facile laser irradiation approach might provide a way for the fabrication of porous microspheres without phase-transition.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, porous microspheres, picosecond laser, nano-welding

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1056 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Formaldehyde Using the TiO2 Coated SF Filter

Authors: Janjira Triped, Wipada Sanongraj, Wipawee Khamwichit

Abstract:

The research work covered in this study includes the morphological structure and optical properties of TiO2-coated silk fibroin (SF) filters at 2.5% wt. TiO2/vol. PVA solution. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous morphology of the TiO2-coated SF filters. An average diameter of the SF fiber was estimated to be approximately 10µm. Also, it was confirmed that TiO2 can be adhered more on SF filter surface at higher TiO2 dosages. The activity of semiconductor materials was studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer method. The spectral data recorded shows the strong cut off at 390 nm. The calculated band-gap energy was about 3.19 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the filter was tested for gaseous formaldehyde removal in a modeling room with the total volume of 2.66 m3. The highest removal efficiency (54.72 ± 1.75%) was obtained at the initial formaldehyde concentration of about 5.00 ± 0.50ppm.

Keywords: photocatalytic oxidation process, formaldehyde (HCHO), silk fibroin (SF), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

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1055 Tensile strength and Elastic Modulus of Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi, Sajad Daneshpayeh

Abstract:

In this study, tensile strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ linear low density polyethylene/ nano titanium dioxide (PP/LLDPE/TiO2) were studied. The samples were produced using a co-rotating twin screw extruder including 0, 2, 4 Wt .% of nano particles, and 20, 40, 60 Wt.% of LLDPE. The styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) was used as comptabiliser. Tensile strength and elastic modulus were evaluated. The results showed that modulus was increased by 7% with addition of nano particles in comparison to PP/LLDPE. In addition, tensile strength was decreased.

Keywords: PP/LLDPE/TiO2, nanocomposites, elastic modulus, tensile strength

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1054 Thermodynamics of Chlorination of Acid-Soluble Titanium Slag in Molten Salt for Preparation of TiCl4

Authors: Li Liang

Abstract:

Chinese titanium iron ore reserves with high calcium and magnesium accounted for more than 90% of the total reserves, and acid-soluble titanium slag which is produced by titanium iron ore always used to produce titanium dioxide through sulphate process. To broad the application range of acid-soluble titanium slag, the feasibility and thermodynamics of chlorinated reaction for preparation TiCl4 by titanium slag chlorination in molten slat were conducted in this paper. The analysis results show that TiCl4 can be obtained by chlorinate the acid-dissolved titanium slag with carbon. Component’s thermodynamics reaction trend is: CaO>MnO>FeO(FeCl2)>MgO>V2O5>Fe2O3>FeO(FeCl3)>TiO2>Al2O3>SiO2 in the standard state. Industrial experimental results are consistent with the thermodynamics analysis, the content of TiCl4 is more than 98% in the production. Fe, Si, V, Al, and other impurity content can satisfy the requirements of production.

Keywords: thermodynamics, acid-soluble titanium slag, preparation of TiCl4, chlorination

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1053 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-Doped with Sulfur and Nitrogen

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the S, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material S-N-TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the S-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of S-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic S-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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1052 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-doped with Bismuth and Zinc

Authors: B.Benalioua, I.Benyamina, A.Bentouami, B.Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, Zn co-doped TiO2 treated at 670°C for 2 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi-Zn-TiO2 (670°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-Zn-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 70 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 120 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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1051 Investigation on Polymer Based Nano-Silver as Food Packaging Materials

Authors: A. M. Metak, T. T. Ajaal, Amal Metak, Tawfik Ajaal

Abstract:

Commercial nanocomposite food packaging type nano-silver containers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of nanoparticles consistent with the incorporation of 1% nano-silver (Ag) and 0.1% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle into polymeric materials formed into food containers was confirmed. Both nanomaterials used in this type of packaging appear to be embedded in a layered configuration within the bulk polymer. The dimensions of the incorporated nanoparticles were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and determined by calculation using the Scherrer Formula; these were consistent with Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in the size range 20-70nm both were spherical shape nanoparticles. Antimicrobial assessment of the nanocomposite container has also been performed and the results confirm the antimicrobial activity of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in food packaging containers. Migration assessments were performed in a wide range of food matrices to determine the migration of nanoparticles from the packages. The analysis was based on the relevant European safety directives and involved the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify the range of migration risk. The data pertain to insignificance levels of migration of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles into the selected food matrices.

Keywords: nano-silver, antimicrobial food packaging, migration, titanium dioxide

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1050 Effect of Addition of Surfactant to the Surface Hydrophilicity and Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Nano TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Eden G. Mariquit, Winarto Kurniawan, Masahiro Miyauchi, Hirofumi Hinode

Abstract:

This research studied the effect of adding surfactant to the titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol-gel solution that was used to immobilize TiO2 on glass substrates by dip coating technique using TiO2 sol-gel solution mixed with different types of surfactants. After dipping into the TiO2 sol, the films were calcined and produced pure anatase crystal phase. The thickness of the thin film was varied by repeating the dip and calcine cycle. The prepared films were characterized using FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and XRD, and its photocatalytic performances were tested on degradation of an organic dye, methylene blue. Aside from its phocatalytic performance, the photo-induced hydrophilicity of thin TiO2 films surface was also studied. Characterization results showed that the addition of surfactant gave rise to characteristic patterns on the surface of the TiO2 thin film which also affects the photocatalytic activity. The addition of CTAB to the TiO2 dipping solution had a negative effect because the calcination temperature was not high enough to burn all the surfactants off. As for the surface wettability, the addition of surfactant also affected the induced surface hydrophilicity of the TiO2 films when irradiated under UV light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, surface hydrophilicity, TiO2 thin films, surfactant

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1049 Amelioration of Over-Expression of bax, Nrf2 and NFК–β in Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide-Intoxicated Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry

Abstract:

The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products has aroused global concern regarding their fate in biological systems resulting in demand for parallel risk assessment. The objective of this study is investigating either the effect of individual or combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on amelioration of some biochemical indices of nano sized titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) induced metabolic disorders in mice liver. TiO2-NPS was administered in an oral dose of 150 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days followed by oral daily doses of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum level of ALT and AST, hepatic inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover, mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation-2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down-regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion, idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with a variable degree with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: idebenone, carnosine, vitamin E, TiO2 NPS, caspase-3, NrF2, NF-KB

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1048 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini

Abstract:

Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

Keywords: drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles

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1047 Effect of Dyeing on the Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabric Treated by Tetra Carboxylic Acid (BTCA) and Nano TiO2

Authors: Aryan Azad, Sun Jae Kim

Abstract:

Cotton fabric is particularly prone to wrinkling. BTCA has been confirmed as the most effective reagent with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst for decreasing the wrinkle issue. Using nano TiO2 as aco-catalyst could improve the catalytic reaction of the BTCA as well. In this study, the effect of dying process using reactive/disperse on the cotton/polyester blended fabric (65/35%) which is previously treated by nano TiO2 and BTCA, were investigated. Results were compared by samples which were not treated by nano TiO2 and BTCA by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Results showed, samples which were treated by mixing nano TiO2 and BTCA have not absorbed dye as much as untreated samples.

Keywords: cotton/polyester, dyeing process, nano titanium dioxide (TiO2), sodium hypophosphite (SHP), Tetra carboxylic acid (BTCA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
1046 Ultrasonic Degradation of Acephate in Aqueous Solution: Effects of Operating Parameters

Authors: Naina S. Deshmukh, Manik P. Deosarkar

Abstract:

With the wide production, consumption, and disposal of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their human and environmental health impacts are rapidly growing. Among developing treatment technologies, ultrasonication, as an emerging and promising technology for the removal of pesticides in the aqueous environment, has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. The degradation of acephate in aqueous solutions was investigated under the influence of ultrasound irradiation (20 kHz) in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Zinc oxide (ZnO). The influence of various factors such as amount of catalyst (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 g/l), initial acephate concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 mg/l), and pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 11) were studied. The optimum catalyst dose was found to be 1 g/l of TiO2 and 1.25 g/l of ZnO for acephate at 100 mg/l, respectively. The maximum percentage degradation of acephate was observed at pH 11 for catalyst TiO2 and ZnO, respectively.

Keywords: ultrasonic degradation, acephate, TiO2, ZnO, heterogeneous catalyst

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1045 Genotoxicity Induced by Nanoparticles on Human Lymphoblast Cells (TK6)

Authors: Piyaporn Buaklang, Narisa Kengtrong Bordeerat

Abstract:

The use of nanoparticles is increasing worldwide and there are many nanotech-based daily products available in the market. The toxicity of nanoparticles results from their extremely small size which can be transported easily into the blood stream and other organs. We aimed to study the genotoxicity of two nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) and Zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), in TK6 cells by micronucleus assay. The cells were tested at 8, 24, and 48 hours after exposed to 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL of TiO2-NPs particles size < 25 nm and < 100 nm and to ZnO-NPs at 1, 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, particles size < 50 nm and < 100 nm. At 24 hours of incubation transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the nanoparticles TiO2-NPs at 1.00 µg/mL and ZnO-NPs at 10 µg/mL were able to be taken into the cells and induced the production of increasing amount of micronucleus in dose-dependent manner. The effect of the two nanoparticles on chromosome aberration indicated that TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs are genotoxic. In addition, the toxicity of TiO2-NPs was found to be 10 times more toxic than ZnO-NPs after 24 hours exposure. Analysis showed that the TiO2-NPs induced formation of micronucleus was both time and dose dependent, whereas the genotoxicity of ZnO-NPs was only dose dependent. In conclusion, TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs were able to transport through the cells membrane and directly genotoxic to TK6 cells in dose-dependent manner.

Keywords: nanoparticles, genotoxicity, human lymphoblast cells (TK6), micronucleus

Procedia PDF Downloads 234