Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4106

Search results for: partition function zeros

4106 Special Properties of the Zeros of the Analytic Representations of Finite Quantum Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni


The paper contains an investigation on the special properties of the zeros of the analytic representations of finite quantum systems. These zeros and their paths completely define the finite quantum system. The present paper studies the construction of the analytic representation from its zeros. The analytic functions of finite quantum systems are introduced. The zeros of the analytic theta functions and their paths have been studied. The analytic function f(z) have exactly d zeros. The analytic function has been constructed from its zeros.

Keywords: construction, analytic, representation, zeros

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
4105 The Behavior of The Zeros of Bargmann Analytic Functions for Multiple-Mode Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni


The paper contains an investigation of the behavior of the Zeros of Bargmann functions for one and two-mode systems. A brief introduction to Harmonic oscillator formalism for one and two-mode is given. The Bargmann analytic representation for one and two-mode has been studied. The zeros of Bargmann analytic function for one-mode are considered. The Q Husimi functions are introduced. The Bargmann functions and the Husimi functions have the same zeros. The Bargmann functions f(z) have exactly q zeros. The evolution time of the zeros are discussed. The zeros of Bargmann analytic functions for two-mode are introduced. Various examples have been given.

Keywords: Bargmann functions, two-mode, zeros, harmonic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
4104 Yang-Lee Edge Singularity of the Infinite-Range Ising Model

Authors: Seung-Yeon Kim


The Ising model, consisting magnetic spins, is the simplest system showing phase transitions and critical phenomena at finite temperatures. The Ising model has played a central role in our understanding of phase transitions and critical phenomena. Also, the Ising model explains the gas-liquid phase transitions accurately. However, the Ising model in a nonzero magnetic field has been one of the most intriguing and outstanding unsolved problems. We study analytically the partition function zeros in the complex magnetic-field plane and the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model in an external magnetic field. In addition, we compare the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model with that of the square-lattice Ising model in an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Ising ferromagnet, magnetic field, partition function zeros, Yang-Lee edge singularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 591
4103 High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares


The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.

Keywords: analytic approximations, asymptotic approximations, Bessel functions, quasirational approximations

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4102 Correlations in the Ising Kagome Lattice

Authors: Antonio Aguilar Aguilar, Eliezer Braun Guitler


Using a previously developed procedure and with the aid of algebraic software, a two-dimensional generalized Ising model with a 4×2 unitary cell (UC), we obtain a Kagome Lattice with twelve different spin-spin values of interaction, in order to determine the partition function per spin L(T). From the partition function we can study the magnetic behavior of the system. Because of the competition phenomenon between spins, a very complex behavior among them in a variety of magnetic states can be observed.

Keywords: correlations, Ising, Kagome, exact functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
4101 Evaluation of Spatial Distribution Prediction for Site-Scale Soil Contaminants Based on Partition Interpolation

Authors: Pengwei Qiao, Sucai Yang, Wenxia Wei


Soil pollution has become an important issue in China. Accurate spatial distribution prediction of pollutants with interpolation methods is the basis for soil remediation in the site. However, a relatively strong variability of pollutants would decrease the prediction accuracy. Theoretically, partition interpolation can result in accurate prediction results. In order to verify the applicability of partition interpolation for a site, benzo (b) fluoranthene (BbF) in four soil layers was adopted as the research object in this paper. IDW (inverse distance weighting)-, RBF (radial basis function)-and OK (ordinary kriging)-based partition interpolation accuracies were evaluated, and their influential factors were analyzed; then, the uncertainty and applicability of partition interpolation were determined. Three conclusions were drawn. (1) The prediction error of partitioned interpolation decreased by 70% compared to unpartitioned interpolation. (2) Partition interpolation reduced the impact of high CV (coefficient of variation) and high concentration value on the prediction accuracy. (3) The prediction accuracy of IDW-based partition interpolation was higher than that of RBF- and OK-based partition interpolation, and it was suitable for the identification of highly polluted areas at a contaminated site. These results provide a useful method to obtain relatively accurate spatial distribution information of pollutants and to identify highly polluted areas, which is important for soil pollution remediation in the site.

Keywords: accuracy, applicability, partition interpolation, site, soil pollution, uncertainty

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4100 Geometric Properties of Some q-Bessel Functions

Authors: İbrahim Aktaş, Árpád Baricz


In this paper, the radii of star likeness of the Jackson and Hahn-Exton q-Bessel functions are considered, and for each of them three different normalizations is applied. By applying Euler-Rayleigh inequalities for the first positive zeros of these functions tight lower, and upper bounds for the radii of starlikeness of these functions are obtained. The Laguerre-Pólya class of real entire functions plays an important role in this study. In particular, we obtain some new bounds for the first positive zero of the derivative of the classical Bessel function of the first kind.

Keywords: bessel function, lommel function, radius of starlikeness and convexity, Struve function

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
4099 The Role of Accounting in the Run-Added Tax in Iran

Authors: Zahra Karimi


Money is not the only medium of economic exchanges, but also affects the national identity of citizens and national sovereignty of the government. Hence, money can be used as a tool to strengthen the national and political identity of nations. In other words, the value of the national currency can be affecting citizen’s view to the economic situation of their country and national identity. Government with the maintenance of the value of the national currency must increase the confidence of its citizens into national currency and prevents that "currency substitution phenomenon" occurred and people turn to foreign currencies. Hence, this article intends to explain the zeros elimination from the national currency and study of experience of other countries and discussion history analyzed benefits and harms of zeroes elimination from the national currency, And then to evaluate the effect or lack of effect of removing of zeros from the national currency on inflation answer the question whether it is appropriate and on time to delete three zeros from the Riyal of Iran is or not?

Keywords: zeros elimination from the national currency, value of the national currency, Riyal, inflation, Iran, money, government

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
4098 On the Inversion of Nonminimum Phase Electro-Acoustic Systems

Authors: Avelino Marques, Diamantino Freitas


Some important electro-acoustic systems exhibit a nonminimum phase behaviour, that poses considerable effort when applying advanced signal processing techniques, such as linear and nonlinear digital equalization. In this paper, the position and the number of zeros of the inverse filter, FIR type, or IIR type, designed using time-domain techniques, are studied, compared, and related to the nonminimum phase zeros of the system to be equalized. Conclusions about the impact of the position of the system non-minimum phase zeros on the length/order and on the delay of the inverse filter are outlined as a guide to previously deciding which type of filter will be adequate.

Keywords: inverse filters, nonminimum phase, modeling delay, nonlinear least squares

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4097 Empirical Study of Partitions Similarity Measures

Authors: Abdelkrim Alfalah, Lahcen Ouarbya, John Howroyd


This paper investigates and compares the performance of four existing distances and similarity measures between partitions. The partition measures considered are Rand Index (RI), Adjusted Rand Index (ARI), Variation of Information (VI), and Normalised Variation of Information (NVI). This work investigates the ability of these partition measures to capture three predefined intuitions: the variation within randomly generated partitions, the sensitivity to small perturbations, and finally the independence from the dataset scale. It has been shown that the Adjusted Rand Index performed well overall, with regards to these three intuitions.

Keywords: clustering, comparing partitions, similarity measure, partition distance, partition metric, similarity between partitions, clustering comparison.

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
4096 Between Fiction and Reality: Reading the Silences in Partition History

Authors: Shazia Salam


This paper focuses on studying the literary reactions of selected Muslim women writers to the event of Partition of India in the north western region. It aims to explore how Muslim women experienced the Partition and how that experience was articulated through their writing. There is a serious dearth of research on the experience of Muslim women who had to witness the momentous event of the subcontinent. Since scholars have often questioned the silence around the historiography related to the experiences of Muslim women, this paper aims to explore if literature could provide insights that may be less readily available in other modes of narration. Using literature as an archival source, it aims to delve into the arenas of history that have been cloistered and closed. Muslim women have been silent about their experiences of Partition which at the cost of essentializing could be attributed to patriarchal constraints, and taboos, on speaking of intimate matters. These silences have consigned the question of their experience to a realm of anonymity. The lack of ethnographic research has in a way been compensated in the realm of literature, mainly poetry and fiction. Besides reportage, literature remains an important source of social history about Partition and how Muslim women lived through it. Where traditional history fails to record moments of rupture and dislocation, literature serves the crucial purpose. The central premise in this paper is that there is a need to revise the history of partition owing to the gaps in historiography. It looks into if literature can serve as a ground for developing new approaches to history since the question of the representation always confronts us--between what a text represents and how it represents it since imagination of the writer plays a great role in the construction of any text. With this approach as an entry point, this paper aims to unpack the questions of representation, the coalescing of history /literature and the gendered nature of partition history. It concludes that the gaps in the narratives of Partition and the memory of Partition can be addressed by way of suing literary as a source to fill in the cracks and fissures.

Keywords: gender, history, literature, partition

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4095 Earthquake Classification in Molluca Collision Zone Using Conventional Statistical Methods

Authors: H. J. Wattimanela, U. S. Passaribu, A. N. T. Puspito, S. W. Indratno


Molluca Collision Zone is located at the junction of the Eurasian plate, Australian, Pacific, and the Philippines. Between the Sangihe arc, west of the collision zone, and to the east of Halmahera arc is active collision and convex toward the Molluca Sea. This research will analyze the behavior of earthquake occurrence in Molluca Collision Zone related to the distributions of an earthquake in each partition regions, determining the type of distribution of a occurrence earthquake of partition regions, and the mean occurrence of earthquakes each partition regions, and the correlation between the partitions region. We calculate number of earthquakes using partition method and its behavioral using conventional statistical methods. The data used is the data type of shallow earthquakes with magnitudes ≥ 4 SR for the period 1964-2013 in the Molluca Collision Zone. From the results, we can classify partitioned regions based on the correlation into two classes: strong and very strong. This classification can be used for early warning system in disaster management.

Keywords: molluca collision zone, partition regions, conventional statistical methods, earthquakes, classifications, disaster management

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
4094 Analysis of Experimentally Designed Soundproof Gypsum Partition Wall's Sections in Terms of Structural Engineering

Authors: Abdulkerim Ilgun, Ahmad Javid Zia


In developing countries, the urban populations are increasing rapidly and with this increment the residential areas are experiencing major problems. Construction of high-rise buildings in confined spaces is one of the most practical solutions for this problem. However, by living in high-rise buildings and sharing common residential areas, residents will face many problems. Irritating sound problem which is known as noise is one of the major problems mentioned above. The second most important problem is the weight of the high-rise buildings which makes the structure more vulnerable to earthquakes. To decrease earthquake loads it’s very important to decrease the weight of the buildings. To solve the problem of noise and keep the building weight at minimum level, experimentally designed soundproof gypsum partition wall which has optimum thickness has been used in high-rise story building and the results have been compared with ordinary brick partition walls. In this compression the effect of weights of soundproof gypsum walls and ordinary brick walls in accordance to structural engineering have been investigated.

Keywords: cellubor, gypsum board, gypsum partition walls, light partition walls, noise, sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
4093 The Parallelization of Algorithm Based on Partition Principle for Association Rules Discovery

Authors: Khadidja Belbachir, Hafida Belbachir


subsequently the expansion of the physical supports storage and the needs ceaseless to accumulate several data, the sequential algorithms of associations’ rules research proved to be ineffective. Thus the introduction of the new parallel versions is imperative. We propose in this paper, a parallel version of a sequential algorithm “Partition”. This last is fundamentally different from the other sequential algorithms, because it scans the data base only twice to generate the significant association rules. By consequence, the parallel approach does not require much communication between the sites. The proposed approach was implemented for an experimental study. The obtained results, shows a great reduction in execution time compared to the sequential version and Count Distributed algorithm.

Keywords: association rules, distributed data mining, partition, parallel algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
4092 Statistical Analysis for Overdispersed Medical Count Data

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh


Many researchers have suggested the use of zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data with extra variations caused by extra zeros and unobserved heterogeneity. The studies indicate that ZIP and ZINB always provide better fit than using the normal Poisson and negative binomial models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. In this study, we proposed the use of Zero Inflated Inverse Trinomial (ZIIT), Zero Inflated Poisson Inverse Gaussian (ZIPIG) and zero inflated strict arcsine models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. These proposed models are not widely used by many researchers especially in the medical field. The results show that these three suggested models can serve as alternative models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. This is supported by the application of these suggested models to a real life medical data set. Inverse trinomial, Poisson inverse Gaussian, and strict arcsine are discrete distributions with cubic variance function of mean. Therefore, ZIIT, ZIPIG and ZISA are able to accommodate data with excess zeros and very heavy tailed. They are recommended to be used in modeling over-dispersed medical count data when ZIP and ZINB are inadequate.

Keywords: zero inflated, inverse trinomial distribution, Poisson inverse Gaussian distribution, strict arcsine distribution, Pearson’s goodness of fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
4091 Solution to Riemann Hypothesis Critical Strip Zone Using Non-Linear Complex Variable Functions

Authors: Manojkumar Sabanayagam


The Riemann hypothesis is an unsolved millennium problem and the search for a solution to the Riemann hypothesis is to study the pattern of prime number distribution. The scope of this paper is to identify the solution for the critical strip and the critical line axis, which has the non-trivial zero solutions using complex plane functions. The Riemann graphical plot is constructed using a linear complex variable function (X+iY) and is applicable only when X>1. But the investigation shows that complex variable behavior has two zones. The first zone is the transformation zone, where the definition of the complex plane should be a non-linear variable which is the critical strip zone in the graph (X=0 to 1). The second zone is the transformed zone (X>1) defined using linear variables conventionally. This paper deals with the Non-linear function in the transformation zone derived using cosine and sinusoidal time lag w.r.t imaginary number ‘i’. The alternate complex variable (Cosθ+i Sinθ) is used to understand the variables in the critical strip zone. It is concluded that the non-trivial zeros present in the Real part 0.5 are because the linear function is not the correct approach in the critical strip. This paper provides the solution to Reimann's hypothesis.

Keywords: Reimann hypothesis, critical strip, complex plane, transformation zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
4090 Determining the Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient for Armchair Polyhex BN Nanotubes Using Topological Indices

Authors: Esmat Mohammadinasab


The aim of this paper is to investigate theoretically and establish a predictive model for determination LogP of armchair polyhex BN nanotubes by using simple descriptors. The relationship between the octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP) and quantum chemical descriptors, electric moments, and topological indices of some armchair polyhex BN nanotubes with various lengths and fixed circumference are represented. Based on density functional theory (DFT) electric moments and physico-chemical properties of those nanotubes are calculated. The DFT method performed based on the Becke’s 3-parameter formulation with the Lee-Yang-Parr functional (B3LYP) method and 3-21G standard basis sets. For the first time, the relationship between partition coefficient and different properties of polyhex BN nanotubes is investigated.

Keywords: topological indices, quantum descriptors, DFT method, nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
4089 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4088 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
4087 Assessing Effects of an Intervention on Bottle-Weaning and Reducing Daily Milk Intake from Bottles in Toddlers Using Two-Part Random Effects Models

Authors: Yungtai Lo


Two-part random effects models have been used to fit semi-continuous longitudinal data where the response variable has a point mass at 0 and a continuous right-skewed distribution for positive values. We review methods proposed in the literature for analyzing data with excess zeros. A two-part logit-log-normal random effects model, a two-part logit-truncated normal random effects model, a two-part logit-gamma random effects model, and a two-part logit-skew normal random effects model were used to examine effects of a bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use and daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months in a randomized controlled trial. We show in all four two-part models that the intervention promoted bottle-weaning and reduced daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers drinking from a bottle. We also show that there are no differences in model fit using either the logit link function or the probit link function for modeling the probability of bottle-weaning in all four models. Furthermore, prediction accuracy of the logit or probit link function is not sensitive to the distribution assumption on daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, truncated normal, gamma regression, skew normal, Pearson residual, receiver operating characteristic curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
4086 Fast Prediction Unit Partition Decision and Accelerating the Algorithm Using Cudafor Intra and Inter Prediction of HEVC

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Chun Yuan


Since the PU (Prediction Unit) decision process is the most time consuming part of the emerging HEVC (High Efficient Video Coding) standardin intra and inter frame coding, this paper proposes the fast PU decision algorithm and speed up the algorithm using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In intra frame coding, the fast PU decision algorithm uses the texture features to skip intra-frame prediction or terminal the intra-frame prediction for smaller PU size. In inter frame coding of HEVC, the fast PU decision algorithm takes use of the similarity of its own two Nx2N size PU's motion vectors and the hierarchical structure of CU (Coding Unit) partition to skip some modes of PU partition, so as to reduce the motion estimation times. The accelerate algorithm using CUDA is based on the fast PU decision algorithm which uses the GPU to make the motion search and the gradient computation could be parallel computed. The proposed algorithm achieves up to 57% time saving compared to the HM 10.0 with little rate-distortion losses (0.043dB drop and 1.82% bitrate increase on average).

Keywords: HEVC, PU decision, inter prediction, intra prediction, CUDA, parallel

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4085 Allocation of Mobile Units in an Urban Emergency Service System

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou


In an urban area the allocation placement of an emergency service mobile units, such as ambulances, police patrol must be designed so as to achieve a prompt response to demand locations. In this paper, a partition of a given urban network into distinct sub-networks is performed such that; the vertices in each component are close and simultaneously the difference of the sums of the corresponding population in the sub-networks is almost uniform. The objective here is to position appropriately in each sub-network a mobile emergency unit in order to reduce the response time to the demands. A mathematical model in the framework of graph theory is developed. In order to clarify the corresponding method a relevant numerical example is presented on a small network.

Keywords: graph partition, emergency service, distances, location

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
4084 Immunosupressive Effect of Chloroquine through the Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase

Authors: J. B. Minari, O. B. Oloyede


Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a crucial role in a variety of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Indeed, the involvement of PMNs in host defence against Plasmodium falciparum is well documented both in vitro and in vivo. Many of the antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine used in the treatment of human malaria significantly reduce the immune response of the host in vitro and in vivo. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme found in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil which plays a crucial role in its function. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme. In investigating the effects of the drug on myeloperoxidase, the influence of concentration, pH, partition ratio estimation and kinetics of inhibition were studied. This study showed that chloroquine is concentration-dependent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase with an IC50 of 0.03 mM. Partition ratio estimation showed that 40 enzymatic turnover cycles are required for complete inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine. The influence of pH on the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme showed significant inhibition of myeloperoxidase at physiological pH. The kinetic inhibition studies showed that chloroquine caused a non-competitive inhibition with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.27mM. The results obtained from this study shows that chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase and it is capable of inactivating the enzyme. It is therefore considered that the inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine as revealed in this study may partly explain the impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and consequent immunosuppression of the host defence system against secondary infections.

Keywords: myeloperoxidase, chloroquine, inhibition, neutrophil, immune

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
4083 On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative

Authors: Shatha S. Alhily


The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.

Keywords: derivative, integral means, self conformal maps, univalent function

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
4082 Colloidal Gas Aphron Generated by a Cationic Surfactant as an Alternative Technique to Recovery Natural Colorants from Fermented Broth

Authors: V. C. Santos-Ebinuma, J. F. B. Pereira, M. F. S. Teixeira, A. Pessoa Jr., P. Jauregi


There is worldwide interest in process development for colorants production from natural sources. Microorganisms provide an alternative source of natural colorants which can be produced by cultivation technology and extracted from fermented broth. The aim of the present work was to study the recovery of red colorants from fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 using the technique of Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA); CGA are surfactant-stabilized microbubbles generated by intense stirring of a surfactant solution. CGA were generated by the cationic, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Firstly, experiments were carried out at different surfactant/fermented broth volumetric ratios (VCGA/VFB, VRATIO) varying between 3 and 18 at pH 6.9. Secondly, the experiments were carried out at VRATIO of 6 and 12 in different pH, namely, 6.9, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0. The first results of recovery showed that an increase in the VRATIO from 3 to 6 and 12 promoted an increase as recovery as partition coefficient. However, at VRATIO of 18 the lowest partition coefficient was obtained. The best results were achieved at VRATIO of 6 and 12, namely recovery, Re, around 60% and partition coefficient, K, of 2.5 and 3.0 to 6 and 12 VRATIO, respectively. The second set of experiments showed that the pH 9.0 promoted the best results at VRATIO of 12 as follow: Re=70%, K=5.39, proteins and sugar selectivity (SePROT, 3.75 and SeSUGAR, 7.20, respectively). These results indicate that with CTAB the recovery is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions. In conclusion, the results above show that CGA employing a cationic surfactant is a promissory technique and it can be used as the first step of purification to recovery red colorants from fermented broth.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, colloidal gas aphrons, recovery, natural colorants

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
4081 Analysis of Exponential Nonuniform Transmission Line Parameters

Authors: Mounir Belattar


In this paper the Analysis of voltage waves that propagate along a lossless exponential nonuniform line is presented. For this analysis the parameters of this line are assumed to be varying function of the distance x along the line from the source end. The approach is based on the tow-port networks cascading presentation to derive the ABDC parameters of transmission using Picard-Carson Method which is a powerful method in getting a power series solution for distributed network because it is easy to calculate poles and zeros and solves differential equations such as telegrapher equations by an iterative sequence. So the impedance, admittance voltage and current along the line are expanded as a Taylor series in x/l where l is the total length of the line to obtain at the end, the main transmission line parameters such as voltage response and transmission and reflexion coefficients represented by scattering parameters in frequency domain.

Keywords: ABCD parameters, characteristic impedance exponential nonuniform transmission line, Picard-Carson's method, S parameters, Taylor's series

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
4080 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
4079 A High Reliable Space-Borne File System with Applications of Device Partition and Intra-Channel Pipeline in Nand Flash

Authors: Xin Li, Ji-Yang Yu, Yue-Hua Niu, Lu-Yuan Wang


As an inevitable chain of the space data acquirement system, space-borne storage system based on Nand Flash has gradually been implemented in spacecraft. In face of massive, parallel and varied data on board, efficient data management become an important issue of storage research. Face to the requirements of high-performance and reliability in Nand Flash storage system, a combination of hardware and file system design can drastically increase system dependability, even for missions with a very long duration. More sophisticated flash storage concepts with advanced operating systems have been researched to improve the reliability of Nand Flash storage system on satellites. In this paper, architecture of file system with multi-channel data acquisition and storage on board is proposed, which obtains large-capacity and high-performance with the combine of intra-channel pipeline and device partition in Nand Flash. Multi-channel data in different rate are stored as independent files with parallel-storage system in device partition, which assures the high-effective and reliable throughput of file treatments. For massive and high-speed data storage, an efficiency assessment model is established to calculate the bandwidth formula of intra-channel pipeline. Information tables designed in Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM) hold the management of bad block in Nand Flash and the arrangement of file system address for the high-reliability of data storage. During the full-load test, the throughput of 3D PLUS Module 160Gb Nand Flash can reach 120Mbps for store and reach 120Mbps for playback, which efficiently satisfies the requirement of multi-channel data acquisition in Satellite. Compared with previous literature, the results of experiments verify the advantages of the proposed system.

Keywords: device partition architecture, intra-channel pipelining, nand flash, parallel storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
4078 A Compressor Map Optimizing Tool for Prediction of Compressor Off-Design Performance

Authors: Zhongzhi Hu, Jie Shen, Jiqiang Wang


A high precision aeroengine model is needed when developing the engine control system. Compared with other main components, the axial compressor is the most challenging component to simulate. In this paper, a compressor map optimizing tool based on the introduction of a modifiable β function is developed for FWorks (FADEC Works). Three parameters (d density, f fitting coefficient, k₀ slope of the line β=0) are introduced to the β function to make it modifiable. The comparison of the traditional β function and the modifiable β function is carried out for a certain type of compressor. The interpolation errors show that both methods meet the modeling requirements, while the modifiable β function can predict compressor performance more accurately for some areas of the compressor map where the users are interested in.

Keywords: beta function, compressor map, interpolation error, map optimization tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
4077 Damage of Laminated Corrugated Sandwich Panels under Inclined Impact Loading

Authors: Muhammad Kamran, Xue Pu, Naveed Ahmed


Sandwich foam structures are efficient in impact energy absorption and making components lightweight; however their efficient use require a detailed understanding of its mechanical response. In this study, the foam core, laminated facings’ sandwich panel with internal triangular rib configuration is impacted by a spherical steel projectile at different angles using ABAQUS finite element package and damage mechanics is studied. Laminated ribs’ structure is sub-divided into three formations; all zeros, all 45 and optimized combination of zeros and 45 degrees. Impact velocity is varied from 250 m/s to 500 m/s with an increment of 50 m/s. The impact damage can significantly demolish the structural integrity and energy absorption due to fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and de-bonding. Macroscopic fracture study of the panel and core along with load-displacement responses and failure modes are the key parameters in the design of smart ballistic resistant structures. Ballistic impact characteristics of panels are studied on different speed, different inclination angles and its dependency on the base, and core materials, ribs formation, and cross-sectional spaces among them are determined. Impact momentum, penetration and kinetic energy absorption data and curves are compiled to predict the first and proximity impact in an effort to enhance the dynamic energy absorption.

Keywords: dynamic energy absorption, proximity impact, sandwich panels, impact momentum

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