Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 575

Search results for: Pearson’s goodness of fit

575 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim

Abstract:

The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

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574 Evaluation of Best-Fit Probability Distribution for Prediction of Extreme Hydrologic Phenomena

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi

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The probability distributions are the best method for forecasting of extreme hydrologic phenomena such as rainfall and flood flows. In this research, in order to determine suitable probability distribution for estimating of annual extreme rainfall and flood flows (discharge) series with different return periods, precipitation with 40 and discharge with 58 years time period had been collected from Karkheh River at Iran. After homogeneity and adequacy tests, data have been analyzed by Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and residual sum of squares (R.S.S). The best probability distribution was Log Pearson Type III with R.S.S value (145.91) and value (13.67) for peak discharge and Log Pearson Type III with R.S.S values (141.08) and (8.95) for maximum discharge in Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal stations, respectively. The best distribution for maximum precipitation in Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal stations was Log Pearson Type III distribution with R.S.S values (1.74&1.90) and then Pearson Type III distribution with R.S.S values (1.53&1.69). Overall, the Log Pearson Type III distributions are acceptable distribution types for representing statistics of extreme hydrologic phenomena in Karkheh River at Iran with the Pearson Type III distribution as a potential alternative.

Keywords: Karkheh River, Log Pearson Type III, probability distribution, residual sum of squares

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
573 Determination of the Best Fit Probability Distribution for Annual Rainfall in Karkheh River at Iran

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi

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This study was designed to find the best-fit probability distribution of annual rainfall based on 50 years sample (1966-2015) in the Karkheh river basin at Iran using six probability distributions: Normal, 2-Parameter Log Normal, 3-Parameter Log Normal, Pearson Type 3, Log Pearson Type 3 and Gumbel distribution. The best fit probability distribution was selected using Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and based on the Residual Sum of Squares (R.S.S) between observed and estimated values Based on the R.S.S values of fit tests, the Log Pearson Type 3 and then Pearson Type 3 distributions were found to be the best-fit probability distribution at the Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal rainfall gauging station. The annual values of expected rainfall were calculated using the best fit probability distributions and can be used by hydrologists and design engineers in future research at studied region and other region in the world.

Keywords: Log Pearson Type 3, SMADA, rainfall, Karkheh River

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
572 Examining the Relationship between Chi-Square Test Statistics and Skewness of Weibull Distribution: Simulation Study

Authors: Rafida M. Elobaid

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Most of the literature on goodness-of-fit test try to provide a theoretical basis for studying empirical distribution functions. Such goodness-of-fit tests are Kolmogorove-Simirnov and Crumer-Von Mises Type tests. However, it is likely that most of literature has not focused in details on the relationship of the values of the test statistics and skewness or kurtosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of the values of the χ2 test statistic with the variation of the skewness of right skewed distribution. A simulation study is conducted to generate random numbers from Weibull distribution. For a fixed sample sizes, different levels of skewness are considered, and the corresponding values of the χ2 test statistic are calculated. Using different sample sizes, the results show an inverse relationship between the value of χ2 test and the level of skewness for Wiebull distribution, i.e the value of χ2 test statistic decreases as the value of skewness increases. The research results also show that with large values of skewness we are more confident that the data follows the assumed distribution. Nonparametric Kendall τ test is used to confirm these results.

Keywords: goodness-of-fit test, chi-square test, simulation, continuous right skewed distributions

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571 A Case Study on the Estimation of Design Discharge for Flood Management in Lower Damodar Region, India

Authors: Susmita Ghosh

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Catchment area of Damodar River, India experiences seasonal rains due to the south-west monsoon every year and depending upon the intensity of the storms, floods occur. During the monsoon season, the rainfall in the area is mainly due to active monsoon conditions. The upstream reach of Damodar river system has five dams store the water for utilization for various purposes viz, irrigation, hydro-power generation, municipal supplies and last but not the least flood moderation. But, in the downstream reach of Damodar River, known as Lower Damodar region, is severely and frequently suffering from flood due to heavy monsoon rainfall and also release from upstream reservoirs. Therefore, an effective flood management study is required to know in depth the nature and extent of flood, water logging, and erosion related problems, affected area, and damages in the Lower Damodar region, by conducting mathematical model study. The design flood or discharge is needed to decide to assign the respective model for getting several scenarios from the simulation runs. The ultimate aim is to achieve a sustainable flood management scheme from the several alternatives. there are various methods for estimating flood discharges to be carried through the rivers and their tributaries for quick drainage from inundated areas due to drainage congestion and excess rainfall. In the present study, the flood frequency analysis is performed to decide the design flood discharge of the study area. This, on the other hand, has limitations in respect of availability of long peak flood data record for determining long type of probability density function correctly. If sufficient past records are available, the maximum flood on a river with a given frequency can safely be determined. The floods of different frequency for the Damodar has been calculated by five candidate distributions i.e., generalized extreme value, extreme value-I, Pearson type III, Log Pearson and normal. Annual peak discharge series are available at Durgapur barrage for the period of 1979 to 2013 (35 years). The available series are subjected to frequency analysis. The primary objective of the flood frequency analysis is to relate the magnitude of extreme events to their frequencies of occurrence through the use of probability distributions. The design flood for return periods of 10, 15 and 25 years return period at Durgapur barrage are estimated by flood frequency method. It is necessary to develop flood hydrographs for the above floods to facilitate the mathematical model studies to find the depth and extent of inundation etc. Null hypothesis that the distributions fit the data at 95% confidence is checked with goodness of fit test, i.e., Chi Square Test. It is revealed from the goodness of fit test that the all five distributions do show a good fit on the sample population and is therefore accepted. However, it is seen that there is considerable variation in the estimation of frequency flood. It is therefore considered prudent to average out the results of these five distributions for required frequencies. The inundated area from past data is well matched using this flood.

Keywords: design discharge, flood frequency, goodness of fit, sustainable flood management

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570 Logistic Regression Model versus Additive Model for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

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Recurrent infant diarrhea is studied using daily data collected in Salvador, Brazil over one year and three months. A logistic regression model is fitted instead of Aalen's additive model using the same covariates that were used in the analysis with the additive model. The model gives reasonably similar results to that using additive regression model. In addition, the problem with the estimated conditional probabilities not being constrained between zero and one in additive model is solved here. Also martingale residuals that have been used to judge the goodness of fit for the additive model are shown to be useful for judging the goodness of fit of the logistic model.

Keywords: additive model, cumulative probabilities, infant diarrhoea, recurrent event

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569 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam

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A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
568 An Information Matrix Goodness-of-Fit Test of the Conditional Logistic Model for Matched Case-Control Studies

Authors: Li-Ching Chen

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The case-control design has been widely applied in clinical and epidemiological studies to investigate the association between risk factors and a given disease. The retrospective design can be easily implemented and is more economical over prospective studies. To adjust effects for confounding factors, methods such as stratification at the design stage and may be adopted. When some major confounding factors are difficult to be quantified, a matching design provides an opportunity for researchers to control the confounding effects. The matching effects can be parameterized by the intercepts of logistic models and the conditional logistic regression analysis is then adopted. This study demonstrates an information-matrix-based goodness-of-fit statistic to test the validity of the logistic regression model for matched case-control data. The asymptotic null distribution of this proposed test statistic is inferred. It needs neither to employ a simulation to evaluate its critical values nor to partition covariate space. The asymptotic power of this test statistic is also derived. The performance of the proposed method is assessed through simulation studies. An example of the real data set is applied to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method as well.

Keywords: conditional logistic model, goodness-of-fit, information matrix, matched case-control studies

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567 Determining Best Fitting Distributions for Minimum Flows of Streams in Gediz Basin

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan

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Today, the need for water sources is swiftly increasing due to population growth. At the same time, it is known that some regions will face with shortage of water and drought because of the global warming and climate change. In this context, evaluation and analysis of hydrological data such as the observed trends, drought and flood prediction of short term flow has great deal of importance. The most accurate selection probability distribution is important to describe the low flow statistics for the studies related to drought analysis. As in many basins In Turkey, Gediz River basin will be affected enough by the drought and will decrease the amount of used water. The aim of this study is to derive appropriate probability distributions for frequency analysis of annual minimum flows at 6 gauging stations of the Gediz Basin. After applying 10 different probability distributions, six different parameter estimation methods and 3 fitness test, the Pearson 3 distribution and general extreme values distributions were found to give optimal results.

Keywords: Gediz Basin, goodness-of-fit tests, minimum flows, probability distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
566 Determinants of Happiness and Its Relation towards Life Satisfaction among Adult Community of Kampung Jaya Bakti

Authors: Khairul Abid Awang

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Happiness and life satisfaction are the vital components in assessing the well-being of the societies and their social progress. These components varies and changes within communities and across time. Thus, due to low level of happiness and life satisfaction, it might affect mental health status psychologically and generally disrupt the health pattern of the individual. Hence, this present study aims to identify the happiness determinants, assessing the happiness and life satisfaction level, as well as examine the relation between happiness among Kampung Jaya Bakti adult community. Quantitative and cross-sectional study with total of 100 observations of 18 years old and above was participated in this study. The study was done in a semi-rural village which is geocentric towards river that branched from South East Asia Sea. Several happiness and life satisfaction instruments was used, inclusive of Individual Determinants of Happiness Scale (IDoHS) that had been developed in this study, in order to identify the determinants of happiness in the area based on the listed determinants. The listed determinants in IDoHS are: i) Daily activities. ii) Adaptation. iii) Goals. iv) Life Events. v) Living condition. vi) Self-confidence. vii) Personality traits. viii) Religion. The results revealed that 98% of the respondents agreed that the listed determinants in IDoHS are statistically significant in determining the happiness. The happiness level revealed that 71 percent (%) of the respondents are ‘very happy’, followed by 26% (‘moderately happy’) and 3% (‘neutral’), while life satisfaction level revealed that 70% of the respondents are ‘very highly satisfied’, followed by 29% (‘highly satisfied’) and 1% (‘moderately satisfied’). Pearson Correlation (Pearson’s r) shows that; happiness determinants listed in IDoHS are affecting happiness level (Pearson’s r: .514, p < 0.01) and life satisfaction level (Pearson’s r: .504, p < 0.01) respectively, as well as happiness that are statistically significant in affecting life satisfaction (Pearson’s r: .653, p < 0.01; Pearson’s r; .546, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the listed determinants in IDoHS are the determinants that affecting happiness and it is also noted that happiness are affecting life satisfaction and vice versa.

Keywords: adult community, determinants, happiness, life satisfaction, subjective well-being

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565 A Kolmogorov-Smirnov Type Goodness-Of-Fit Test of Multinomial Logistic Regression Model in Case-Control Studies

Authors: Chen Li-Ching

Abstract:

The multinomial logistic regression model is used popularly for inferring the relationship of risk factors and disease with multiple categories. This study based on the discrepancy between the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the cumulative distribution function to propose a Kolmogorov-Smirnov type test statistic to assess adequacy of the multinomial logistic regression model for case-control data. A bootstrap procedure is presented to calculate the critical value of the proposed test statistic. Empirical type I error rates and powers of the test are performed by simulation studies. Some examples will be illustrated the implementation of the test.

Keywords: case-control studies, goodness-of-fit test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, multinomial logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
564 Using Cyclic Structure to Improve Inference on Network Community Structure

Authors: Behnaz Moradijamei, Michael Higgins

Abstract:

Identifying community structure is a critical task in analyzing social media data sets often modeled by networks. Statistical models such as the stochastic block model have proven to explain the structure of communities in real-world network data. In this work, we develop a goodness-of-fit test to examine community structure's existence by using a distinguishing property in networks: cyclic structures are more prevalent within communities than across them. To better understand how communities are shaped by the cyclic structure of the network rather than just the number of edges, we introduce a novel method for deciding on the existence of communities. We utilize these structures by using renewal non-backtracking random walk (RNBRW) to the existing goodness-of-fit test. RNBRW is an important variant of random walk in which the walk is prohibited from returning back to a node in exactly two steps and terminates and restarts once it completes a cycle. We investigate the use of RNBRW to improve the performance of existing goodness-of-fit tests for community detection algorithms based on the spectral properties of the adjacency matrix. Our proposed test on community structure is based on the probability distribution of eigenvalues of the normalized retracing probability matrix derived by RNBRW. We attempt to make the best use of asymptotic results on such a distribution when there is no community structure, i.e., asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. Moreover, we provide a theoretical foundation for our statistic by obtaining the true mean and a tight lower bound for RNBRW edge weights variance.

Keywords: hypothesis testing, RNBRW, network inference, community structure

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563 Comparison of Methods of Estimation for Use in Goodness of Fit Tests for Binary Multilevel Models

Authors: I. V. Pinto, M. R. Sooriyarachchi

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It can be frequently observed that the data arising in our environment have a hierarchical or a nested structure attached with the data. Multilevel modelling is a modern approach to handle this kind of data. When multilevel modelling is combined with a binary response, the estimation methods get complex in nature and the usual techniques are derived from quasi-likelihood method. The estimation methods which are compared in this study are, marginal quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (MQL1, MQL2) and penalized quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (PQL1, PQL2). A statistical model is of no use if it does not reflect the given dataset. Therefore, checking the adequacy of the fitted model through a goodness-of-fit (GOF) test is an essential stage in any modelling procedure. However, prior to usage, it is also equally important to confirm that the GOF test performs well and is suitable for the given model. This study assesses the suitability of the GOF test developed for binary response multilevel models with respect to the method used in model estimation. An extensive set of simulations was conducted using MLwiN (v 2.19) with varying number of clusters, cluster sizes and intra cluster correlations. The test maintained the desirable Type-I error for models estimated using PQL2 and it failed for almost all the combinations of MQL. Power of the test was adequate for most of the combinations in all estimation methods except MQL1. Moreover, models were fitted using the four methods to a real-life dataset and performance of the test was compared for each model.

Keywords: goodness-of-fit test, marginal quasi-likelihood, multilevel modelling, penalized quasi-likelihood, power, quasi-likelihood, type-I error

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562 Statistical Analysis for Overdispersed Medical Count Data

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

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Many researchers have suggested the use of zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data with extra variations caused by extra zeros and unobserved heterogeneity. The studies indicate that ZIP and ZINB always provide better fit than using the normal Poisson and negative binomial models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. In this study, we proposed the use of Zero Inflated Inverse Trinomial (ZIIT), Zero Inflated Poisson Inverse Gaussian (ZIPIG) and zero inflated strict arcsine models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. These proposed models are not widely used by many researchers especially in the medical field. The results show that these three suggested models can serve as alternative models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. This is supported by the application of these suggested models to a real life medical data set. Inverse trinomial, Poisson inverse Gaussian, and strict arcsine are discrete distributions with cubic variance function of mean. Therefore, ZIIT, ZIPIG and ZISA are able to accommodate data with excess zeros and very heavy tailed. They are recommended to be used in modeling over-dispersed medical count data when ZIP and ZINB are inadequate.

Keywords: zero inflated, inverse trinomial distribution, Poisson inverse Gaussian distribution, strict arcsine distribution, Pearson’s goodness of fit

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561 Changes of pH and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Growth in Liquid Media

Authors: Sayaka Ono, Ryutaro Imai, Tomoko Ehara, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Hajime Matsumura

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Background: Wound pH affects a number of important factors in wound healing. We previously measured the pH value of the exudates collected from second-degree burns and found that the increase in pH was observed in the burn wounds in which colonized by Staphylococcus spp., and the increase in pH was evident prior to the clinical findings of local infection. To investigate the relationship between the changes of pH value and bacterial growth, we performed in vitro study using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and liquid medium as a locally infected wound equivalent model. Methods: Pseudomonas aeruginosa standard strain (ATCCR 10145TM) was cultured at 37 °C environment in Luria Broth Miller medium. The absorbance rate which means the amount of bacteria was measured by a microplate reader 2300EnSpireTM). The pH was measured using pH-indicator strips (MColorpHastTM). The statistical analysis was performed using the product-moment correlation coefficient of Pearson's. Results: The absorbance rate and pH value were increased along with culture period. There was a positive correlation between pH value and absorbance rate (n = 27, Pearson's r = 0.985). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between pH value and the culture period (n = 18, Pearson's r = 0.901). The bacteria was well growth in the media from pH 6.6 to pH 8.0 and the pH of culture media converged at 8 -9 along with the bacterial growth. Conclusion: From these results, we conclude that pH value of the wound is correlated with the number of viable bacteria and bacterial growth periods.

Keywords: colonization, potential of hydrogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wound

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560 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani

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Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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559 Psychometric Properties of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire among Adolescents at Five Secondary Schools

Authors: Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff

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This study aimed to evaluate the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire (3SQ) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency among adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 secondary school students in five secondary schools. Stratified random sampling was used to select schools and participants. The confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS to examine construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. The reliability analysis was performed by SPSS to determine internal consistency. The results showed that the original six-factor model with 44 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, suggesting poor model fit. The new five-factor model of 3SQ with 22 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit indices to signify a model fit. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value for the new version 3SQ was 0.93, while the five constructs ranged from 0.68 to 0.94. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.68 and 0.93, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. Our study did not support the construct validity of the original version of 3SQ. We found the new version 3SQ showed more convincing evidence of validity and reliability to measure stressors of adolescents. Continued research is needed to verify and maximize the psychometric credentials of 3SQ across countries.

Keywords: stressors, adolescents, secondary school students, 3SQ, psychometric properties

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558 The Role of Psychological Factors in Prediction Academic Performance of Students

Authors: Hadi Molaei, Yasavoli Davoud, Keshavarz, Mozhde Poordana

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The present study aimed was to prediction the academic performance based on academic motivation, self-efficacy and Resiliency in the students. The present study was descriptive and correlational. Population of the study consisted of all students in Arak schools in year 1393-94. For this purpose, the number of 304 schools students in Arak was selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. They all questionnaires, self-efficacy, Resiliency and academic motivation Questionnaire completed. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Pearson correlation showed academic motivation, self-efficacy, and Resiliency with academic performance had a positive and significant relationship. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that the academic motivation, self-efficacy and Resiliency were predicted academic performance. Based on the findings could be conclude that in order to increase the academic performance and further progress of students must provide the ground to strengthen academic motivation, self-efficacy and Resiliency act on them.

Keywords: academic motivation, self-efficacy, resiliency, academic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
557 Development of Probability Distribution Models for Degree of Bending (DoB) in Chord Member of Tubular X-Joints under Bending Loads

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Amirreza Ghaffari

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Fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore structures is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress, but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The DoB exhibits considerable scatter calling for greater emphasis in accurate determination of its governing probability distribution which is a key input for the fatigue reliability analysis of a tubular joint. Although the tubular X-joints are commonly found in offshore jacket structures, as far as the authors are aware, no comprehensive research has been carried out on the probability distribution of the DoB in tubular X-joints. What has been used so far as the probability distribution of the DoB in reliability analyses is mainly based on assumptions and limited observations, especially in terms of distribution parameters. In the present paper, results of parametric equations available for the calculation of the DoB have been used to develop probability distribution models for the DoB in the chord member of tubular X-joints subjected to four types of bending loads. Based on a parametric study, a set of samples was prepared and density histograms were generated for these samples using Freedman-Diaconis method. Twelve different probability density functions (PDFs) were fitted to these histograms. The maximum likelihood method was utilized to determine the parameters of fitted distributions. In each case, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. Finally, after substituting the values of estimated parameters for each distribution, a set of fully defined PDFs have been proposed for the DoB in tubular X-joints subjected to bending loads.

Keywords: tubular X-joint, degree of bending (DoB), probability density function (PDF), Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test

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556 Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University

Authors: Dale Daniel G. Bodo

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This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.

Keywords: status, BSHRT Program, laboratory tools and equipment, descriptive-correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
555 Joint Probability Distribution of Extreme Water Level with Rainfall and Temperature: Trend Analysis of Potential Impacts of Climate Change

Authors: Ali Razmi, Saeed Golian

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Climate change is known to have the potential to impact adversely hydrologic patterns for variables such as rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and sea level rise. Long-term average of these climate variables could possibly change over time due to climate change impacts. In this study, trend analysis was performed on rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and water level data of a coastal area in Manhattan, New York City, Central Park and Battery Park stations to investigate if there is a significant change in the data mean. Partial Man-Kendall test was used for trend analysis. Frequency analysis was then performed on data using common probability distribution functions such as Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), normal, log-normal and log-Pearson. Goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used to determine the most appropriate distributions. In flood frequency analysis, rainfall and water level data are often separately investigated. However, in determining flood zones, simultaneous consideration of rainfall and water level in frequency analysis could have considerable effect on floodplain delineation (flood extent and depth). The present study aims to perform flood frequency analysis considering joint probability distribution for rainfall and storm surge. First, correlation between the considered variables was investigated. Joint probability distribution of extreme water level and temperature was also investigated to examine how global warming could affect sea level flooding impacts. Copula functions were fitted to data and joint probability of water level with rainfall and temperature for different recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 600 and 1000 was determined and compared with the severity of individual events. Results for trend analysis showed increase in long-term average of data that could be attributed to climate change impacts. GEV distribution was found as the most appropriate function to be fitted to the extreme climate variables. The results for joint probability distribution analysis confirmed the necessity for incorporation of both rainfall and water level data in flood frequency analysis.

Keywords: climate change, climate variables, copula, joint probability

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554 Differences in the Perception of Behavior Problems in Pre-school Children among the Teachers and Parents

Authors: Jana Kožárová

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Even the behavior problems in pre-school children might be considered as a transitional problem which may disappear by their transition into elementary school; it is an issue that needs a lot of attention because of the fact that the behavioral patterns are adopted in the children especially in this age. Common issue in the process of elimination of the behavior problems in the group of pre-school children is a difference in the perception of the importance and gravity of the symptoms. The underestimation of the children's problems by parents often result into conflicts with kindergarten teachers. Thus, the child does not get the support that his/her problems require and this might result into a school failure and can negatively influence his/her future school performance and success. The research sample consisted of 4 children with behavior problems, their teachers and parents. To determine the most problematic area in the child's behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) filled by parents and Caregiver/Teacher Form (CTF-R) filled by teachers were used. Scores from the CBCL and the CTR-F were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient in order to find the differences in the perception of behavior problems in pre-school children.

Keywords: behavior problems, Child Behavior Checklist, Caregiver/Teacher Form, Pearson correlation coefficient, pre-school age

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553 Radiation Safety Factor of Education and Research Institution in Republic of Korea

Authors: Yeo Ryeong Jeon, Pyong Kon Cho, Eun Ok Han, Hyon Chul Jang, Yong Min Kim

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This study surveyed on recognition related to radiation safety for radiation safety managers and workers those who have been worked in Republic of Korea education and research institution. At present, South Korea has no guideline and manual of radiation safety for education and research institution. Therefore, we tried to find an educational basis for development of radiation safety guideline and manual. To check the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about radiation safety, we used the questionnaire that consisted of 29 questions against knowledge, attitude and behavior, 4 questions against self-efficacy and expectation based on four factors (radiation source, human, organizational and physical environment) of the Haddon's matrix. Responses were collected between May 4 and June 30, 2015. We analyzed questionnaire by means of IBM SPSS/WIN 15 which well known as statistical package for social science. The data were compared with mean, standard deviation, Pearson's correlation, ANOVA (analysis of variance) and regression analysis. 180 copies of the questionnaire were returned from 60 workplaces. The overall mean results for behavior level was relatively lower than knowledge and attitude level. In particular, organizational environment factor on the radiation safety management indicated the lowest behavior level. Most of the factors were correlated in Pearson’s correlation analysis, especially between knowledge of human factors and behavior of human factors (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.809, P<.01). When analysis performed in line with the main radiation source type, institutions where have been used only opened RI (radioisotope) behavior level was the lowest among all subjects. Finally, knowledge of radiation source factor (β=0.556, P<.001) and human factor(β=0.376, P<.001) had the greatest impact in terms of behavior practice. Radiation safety managers and workers think positively about radiation safety management, but are poorly informed organizational environment of their institution. Thus, each institution need to efforts to settlement of radiation safety culture. Also, pedagogical interventions for improving knowledge on radiation safety needs in terms of safety accident prevention.

Keywords: radiation safety management, factor analysis, SPSS, republic of Korea

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552 An Extension of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Abdous Saboor

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A q-analogue of the generalized extreme value distribution which includes the Gumbel distribution is introduced. The additional parameter q allows for increased modeling flexibility. The resulting distribution can have a finite, semi-infinite or infinite support. It can also produce several types of hazard rate functions. The model parameters are determined by making use of the method of maximum likelihood. It will be shown that it compares favourably to three related distributions in connection with the modeling of a certain hydrological data set.

Keywords: extreme value theory, generalized extreme value distribution, goodness-of-fit statistics, Gumbel distribution

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551 Relationship of Religious Coping with Occupational Stress and the Quality of Working Life of Midwives in Maternity Hospitals in Zahedan

Authors: Fatemeh Roostaee, Zahra Nikmanesh

Abstract:

This study was done to investigate the role of religious coping components on occupational stress and the quality of working life of midwives. The method of study was descriptive-correlation. The sample was comprised of all midwives in maternity hospitals in Zahedan during 1393. Participants were selected through applying census method. The instruments of data collection were three questionnaires: the quality of working life, occupational stress, and religious opposition. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and step by step regression analysis methods were used. The results showed that there is a significant negative relationship between the component of religious activities (r=-0/454) and occupational stress, and regression analysis was also shown that the variable of religious activities has been explained 45% of occupational stress variable changes. The Pearson correlation test showed that there isn't any significant relationship between religious opposition components and the quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to present essential trainings on (the field of) strengthening compatibility strategies and religious activities to reduce occupational stress.

Keywords: the quality of working life, occupational stress, religious, midwife

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550 Risk Measurement and Management Strategies in Poultry Farm Enterprises in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Donatus Otuiheoma Ohajianya, Augusta Onyekachi Unamba

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This study analyzed risk among poultry farm enterprises in Imo State of Nigeria. Specifically, it examined sources of risks, the major risks associated with poultry farm enterprise, and the risk-reducing strategies among the poultry farm enterprises in the study area. Primary data collected in 2015 with validated questionnaire from 120 proportionately and randomly selected poultry farm enterprises were used for the study. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and W-Statistic that was validated with Pearson Criterion (X2). The results showed that major risk sources affecting poultry farm enterprises were production, marketing, financial and political in that order. The results found a W-Statistic value of 0.789, which was verified by Pearson Criterion to obtain X2-Calculated value of 4.65 which is lower that X2-Critical value of 11.07 at 5% significant level. The risk-reducing strategies were found to be diversification, savings, co-operative marketing, borrowing, and insurance. It was recommended that government and donor agencies should make policies aimed at encouraging poultry farm enterprises adopt the highlighted risk-reducing strategies in risk management to improve their productivity and farm income.

Keywords: risk, measurement, management, poultry farm, Imo State

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549 The Influences of Nurses’ Satisfaction on the Patient Satisfaction with and Loyalty to Korean University Hospitals

Authors: Sung Hee Ahn, Ju Rang Han

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Background: With increasing importance in healthcare organization on patient satisfaction and nurses’ job satisfaction, many studies have been conducted. But no research has been administered how nurses’ satisfaction with healthcare organization influence patient satisfaction and loyalty. Purpose: This study aims to conceptualize nurses‘ satisfaction, patient satisfaction with and patient loyalty to hospitals using a hypothetical linear structural equation model, and to identify the significance of path coefficients and goodness of fit index of the structural equation model as well. Method: A total of 2,079 nurses and 6,776 patients recruited from 5 university hospitals in South Korea participated in this study. The data on nurses, including ward nurses and outpatient nurses, were collected from June 24th to July 12th, at the 204 departments of the 5 hospitals through an on-line survey. The data on the patients, including both inpatients and outpatients, were collected from September 30th to October 24th, 2013 at the 5 hospitals using a structured questionnaire. The variable of nurses’ satisfaction was measured using a scale evaluating internal client satisfaction, which is used in SSM Health Care System in the US. Patient satisfaction with the hospital and nurses and patient loyalty were measured by assessing the patient’s intention to revisit and to recommending the hospital to others using a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and AMOS version 21.0. Result: The hypothetical model was fairly good in terms of goodness of fit (χ2= 64.897 (df=24, p <. 001), GFI=. 906, AGFI=.823, CFI=.921, NFI=.951, NNFI=.952. RMSEA=.114). The significance of path coefficients includes followings 1)The nurses’ satisfaction has significant influence on the patient satisfaction with nurses. 2)The patient satisfaction with nurses has significant influence on the patient satisfaction with the hospital. 3)The patient satisfaction with the hospital has significant influence on the patients’ revisit intention. 4)The patient satisfaction with the hospital has significant influence on the patients’ intention to the recommendations of the hospital. Conclusion: These results provide several practical implications to hospital administrators, who should incorporate ways of improving nurses' and patients' satisfaction with the hospital into their health care marketing strategies.

Keywords: linear structural equation model, loyalty, nurse, patient satisfaction

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548 Similar Correlation of Meat and Sugar to Global Obesity Prevalence

Authors: Wenpeng You, Maciej Henneberg

Abstract:

Background: Sugar consumption has been overwhelmingly advocated as a major dietary offender to obesity prevalence. Meat intake has been hypothesized as an obesity contributor in previous publications, but a moderate amount of meat to be included in our daily diet still has been suggested in many dietary guidelines. Comparable sugar and meat exposure data were obtained to assess the difference in relationships between the two major food groups and obesity prevalence at population level. Methods: Population level estimates of obesity and overweight rates, per capita per day exposure of major food groups (meat, sugar, starch crops, fibers, fats and fruits) and total calories, per capita per year GDP, urbanization and physical inactivity prevalence rate were extracted and matched for statistical analysis. Correlation coefficient (Pearson and partial) comparisons with Fisher’s r-to-z transformation and β range (β ± 2 SE) and overlapping in multiple linear regression (Enter and Stepwise) were used to examine potential differences in the relationships between obesity prevalence and sugar exposure and meat exposure respectively. Results: Pearson and partial correlations (controlled for total calories, physical inactivity prevalence, GDP and urbanization) analyses revealed that sugar and meat exposures correlated to obesity and overweight prevalence significantly. Fisher's r-to-z transformation did not show statistically significant difference in Pearson correlation coefficients (z=-0.53, p=0.5961) or partial correlation coefficients (z=-0.04, p=0.9681) between obesity prevalence and both sugar exposure and meat exposure. Both Enter and Stepwise models in multiple linear regression analysis showed that sugar and meat exposure were most significant predictors of obesity prevalence. Great β range overlapping in the Enter (0.289-0.573) and Stepwise (0.294-0.582) models indicated statistically sugar and meat exposure correlated to obesity without significant difference. Conclusion: Worldwide sugar and meat exposure correlated to obesity prevalence at the same extent. Like sugar, minimal meat exposure should also be suggested in the dietary guidelines.

Keywords: meat, sugar, obesity, energy surplus, meat protein, fats, insulin resistance

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547 Performance Evaluation of Production Schedules Based on Process Mining

Authors: Kwan Hee Han

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External environment of enterprise is rapidly changing majorly by global competition, cost reduction pressures, and new technology. In these situations, production scheduling function plays a critical role to meet customer requirements and to attain the goal of operational efficiency. It deals with short-term decision making in the production process of the whole supply chain. The major task of production scheduling is to seek a balance between customer orders and limited resources. In manufacturing companies, this task is so difficult because it should efficiently utilize resource capacity under the careful consideration of many interacting constraints. At present, many computerized software solutions have been utilized in many enterprises to generate a realistic production schedule to overcome the complexity of schedule generation. However, most production scheduling systems do not provide sufficient information about the validity of the generated schedule except limited statistics. Process mining only recently emerged as a sub-discipline of both data mining and business process management. Process mining techniques enable the useful analysis of a wide variety of processes such as process discovery, conformance checking, and bottleneck analysis. In this study, the performance of generated production schedule is evaluated by mining event log data of production scheduling software system by using the process mining techniques since every software system generates event logs for the further use such as security investigation, auditing and error bugging. An application of process mining approach is proposed for the validation of the goodness of production schedule generated by scheduling software systems in this study. By using process mining techniques, major evaluation criteria such as utilization of workstation, existence of bottleneck workstations, critical process route patterns, and work load balance of each machine over time are measured, and finally, the goodness of production schedule is evaluated. By using the proposed process mining approach for evaluating the performance of generated production schedule, the quality of production schedule of manufacturing enterprises can be improved.

Keywords: data mining, event log, process mining, production scheduling

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546 Household Size and Poverty Rate: Evidence from Nepal

Authors: Basan Shrestha

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The relationship between the household size and the poverty is not well understood. Malthus followers advocate that the increasing population add pressure to the dwindling resource base due to increasing demand that would lead to poverty. Others claim that bigger households are richer due to availability of household labour for income generation activities. Facts from Nepal were analyzed to examine the relationship between the household size and poverty rate. The analysis of data from 3,968 Village Development Committee (VDC)/ municipality (MP) located in 75 districts of all five development regions revealed that the average household size had moderate positive correlation with the poverty rate (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.44). In a regression analysis, the household size determined 20% of the variation in the poverty rate. Higher positive correlation was observed in eastern Nepal (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.66). The regression analysis showed that the household size determined 43% of the variation in the poverty rate in east. The relation was poor in far-west. It could be because higher incidence of poverty was there irrespective of household size. Overall, the facts revealed that the bigger households were relatively poorer. With the increasing level of awareness and interventions for family planning, it is anticipated that the household size will decrease leading to the decreased poverty rate. In addition, the government needs to devise a mechanism to create employment opportunities for the household labour force to reduce poverty.

Keywords: household size, poverty rate, nepal, regional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 278