Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 334

Search results for: distances

334 Effects of Plant Densities on Seed Yield and Some Agricultural Characteristics of Jofs Pea Variety

Authors: Ayhan Aydoğdu, Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Nursel Çöl

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine effects of plant densities on seed yield and some agricultural characteristics of pea variety- Jofs in Konya ecological conditions during 2012 vegetation period. The trial was set up according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with three replications. The material “Jofs” pea variety was subjected to 3-row spaces (30, 40 and 50 cm) and 3-row distances (5, 10 and 15 cm). According to the results, difference was shown statistically for the effects of row spaces and row distances on seed yield. The highest seed yield was 2582.1 kg ha-1 on 30 cm of row spaces while 2562.2 kg ha-1 on 15 cm of distances. Consequently, the optimum planting density was determined as 30 x 15 cm for Jofs pea variety growing in Konya.

Keywords: pea, row space, row distance, seed yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
333 Study for a Non-Invasive Method of Respiratory Resistance Measurement among Patients with Airways Obstructions

Authors: Aicha Laouani, Pascale Calabrese, Sonia Rouatbi, Saad Saguem

Abstract:

Distances between signals (S d) and between asters (A d) calculated from respiratory inductive plethysmography signals has been used in order to evaluation airways resistances (Raw) during reversibility test among 28 subject with airways obstructions. Correlations studies between these distances and Raw measured by body plethysmography (BP) showed that these RIP variables could be potentially used in airway resistance assessment in patients with airway obstruction. Significant correlation was found between ΔAd and airway resistance changes (ΔRaw) (r= 0.407, p=0.03) and not between ΔSd and ΔRaw. This assumption was supported by the high correlations found when relating the average of ΔS and of ΔA calculated on successive intervals of ΔRaw, with the ΔRaw averages calculated for each interval (r= 0.892, p= 0.006 and r= 0.857, p=0.006 respectively).

Keywords: airways obstruction, distances, respiratory inductive plethysmography, reversibility test

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
332 Enhance Power Quality by HVDC System, Comparison Technique between HVDC and HVAC Transmission Systems

Authors: Smko Zangana, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

The alternating current is the main power in all industries and other aspects especially for the short and mid distances, but as far as long a distance which exceeds 500 KMs, using the alternating current technically will face many difficulties and more costs because it's difficult to control the current and also other restrictions. Therefore, recently those reasons led to building transmission lines HVDC to transmit power for long distances. This document presents technical comparison and assessments for power transmission system among distances either ways and studying the stability of the system regarding the proportion of losses in the actual power sent and received between both sides in different systems and also categorizing filters used in the HVDC system and its impact and effect on reducing Harmonic in the power transmission. MATLAB /Simulink simulation software is used to simulate both HVAC & HVDC power transmission system topologies.

Keywords: HVAC power system, HVDC power system, power system simulation (MATLAB), the alternating current, voltage stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
331 Influence of the Seat Arrangement in Public Reading Spaces on Individual Subjective Perceptions

Authors: Jo-Han Chang, Chung-Jung Wu

Abstract:

This study involves a design proposal. The objective of is to create a seat arrangement model for public reading spaces that enable free arrangement without disturbing the users. Through a subjective perception scale, this study explored whether distance between seats and direction of seats influence individual subjective perceptions in a public reading space. This study also involves analysis of user subjective perceptions when reading in the settings on 3 seats at different directions and with 5 distances between seats. The results may be applied to public chair design. This study investigated that (a) whether different directions of seats and distances between seats influence individual subjective perceptions and (b) the acceptable personal space between 2 strangers in a public reading space. The results are shown as follows: (a) the directions of seats and distances between seats influenced individual subjective perceptions. (b) subjective evaluation scores were higher for back-to-back seat directions with Distances A (10 cm) and B (62 cm) compared with face-to-face and side-by-side seat directions; however, when the seat distance exceeded 114 cm (Distance C), no difference existed among the directions of seats. (c) regarding reading in public spaces, when the distance between seats is 10 cm only, we recommend arranging the seats in a back-to-back fashion to increase user comfort and arrangement of face-to-face and side- by-side seat directions should be avoided. When the seat arrangement is limited to face-to-face design, the distance between seats should be increased to at least 62 cm. Moreover, the distance between seats should be increased to at least 114 cm for side- by-side seats to elevate user comfort.

Keywords: individual subjective perceptions, personal space, seat arrangement, direction, distances

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
330 Calculation of Instrumental Results of the Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0) on March 11, 2011 and Other Destructive Earthquakes during Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: J. K. Karapetyan

Abstract:

In this paper seismological-statistical analysis of actual instrumental data on the main tremor of the Great Japan earthquake 11.03.2011 is implemented for finding out the dependence between maximal values of peak ground accelerations (PGA) and epicentric distances. A number of peculiarities of manifestation of accelerations' maximum values at the interval of long epicentric distances are revealed which do not correspond with current scales of seismic intensity.

Keywords: earthquakes, instrumental records, seismic hazard, Japan

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
329 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir

Abstract:

A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of the various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
328 A Geometrical Perspective on the Insulin Evolution

Authors: Yuhei Kunihiro, Sorin V. Sabau, Kazuhiro Shibuya

Abstract:

We study the molecular evolution of insulin from the metric geometry point of view. In mathematics, and particularly in geometry, distances and metrics between objects are of fundamental importance. Using a weaker notion than the classical distance, namely the weighted quasi-metrics, one can study the geometry of biological sequences (DNA, mRNA, or proteins) space. We analyze from the geometrical point of view a family of 60 insulin homologous sequences ranging on a large variety of living organisms from human to the nematode C. elegans. We show that the distances between sequences provide important information about the evolution and function of insulin.

Keywords: metric geometry, evolution, insulin, C. elegans

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
327 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang

Abstract:

The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
326 New Coordinate System for Countries with Big Territories

Authors: Mohammed Sabri Ali Akresh

Abstract:

The modern technologies and developments in computer and Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) and total station TS. This paper presents a new proposal for coordinates system by a harmonic equations “United projections”, which have five projections (Mercator, Lambert, Russell, Lagrange, and compound of projection) in one zone coordinate system width 14 degrees, also it has one degree for overlap between zones, as well as two standards parallels for zone from 10 S to 45 S. Also this paper presents two cases; first case is to compare distances between a new coordinate system and UTM, second case creating local coordinate system for the city of Sydney to measure the distances directly from rectangular coordinates using projection of Mercator, Lambert and UTM.

Keywords: harmonic equations, coordinate system, projections, algorithms, parallels

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325 A Case Study of Control of Blast-Induced Ground Vibration on Adjacent Structures

Authors: H. Mahdavinezhad, M. Labbaf, H. R. Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent decades, the study and control of the destructive effects of explosive vibration in construction projects has received more attention, and several experimental equations in the field of vibration prediction as well as allowable vibration limit for various structures are presented. Researchers have developed a number of experimental equations to estimate the peak particle velocity (PPV), in which the experimental constants must be obtained at the site of the explosion by fitting the data from experimental explosions. In this study, the most important of these equations was evaluated for strong massive conglomerates around Dez Dam by collecting data on explosions, including 30 particle velocities, 27 displacements, 27 vibration frequencies and 27 acceleration of earth vibration at different distances; they were recorded in the form of two types of detonation systems, NUNEL and electric. Analysis showed that the data from the explosion had the best correlation with the cube root of the explosive, R2=0.8636, but overall the correlation coefficients are not much different. To estimate the vibration in this project, data regression was performed in the other formats, which resulted in the presentation of new equation with R2=0.904 correlation coefficient. Finally according to the importance of the studied structures in order to ensure maximum non damage to adjacent structures for each diagram, a range of application was defined so that for distances 0 to 70 meters from blast site, exponent n=0.33 and for distances more than 70 m, n =0.66 was suggested.

Keywords: blasting, blast-induced vibration, empirical equations, PPV, tunnel

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324 Comparative Assessment of ABS and Disk Brake Systems

Authors: Saleh Mobasseri, Mohammad Mobasseri

Abstract:

The article refers to the history of the rise of brake system and described it’s importance in passenger’s lives. The disc brake system performance and ABS are also compared with each other by the kinetic and kinematic analysis of the braking system,and evaluate the impact of each parameters is checked on the vehicle stopping distance. Anti−lock braking system (ABS) is one of the most important features that affect on vehicle safety and for this reason much efforts have been made to improve this system. The objectives of the anti−lock system (ABS) are as follows: Preventing the wheels from locking, achieving maximum technical momentum in terms of braking,stability,reducing stopping distances. In this paper,we study the comparative of ABS brake and disc brake.

Keywords: anti−lock braking System (ABS), stopping distances, booster, car stability, force exerted on the brake pedal

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
323 Determination of Forced Convection Heat Transfer Performance in Lattice Geometric Heat Sinks

Authors: Bayram Sahin, Baris Gezdirici, Murat Ceylan, Ibrahim Ates

Abstract:

In this experimental study, the effects of heat transfer and flow characteristics on lattice geometric heat sinks, where high rates of heat removal are required, were investigated. The design parameters were Reynolds number, the height of heat sink (H), horizontal (Sy) and vertical (Sx) distances between heat sinks. In the experiments, the Reynolds number ranged from 4000 to 20000; heat sink heights were (H) 20 mm and 40 mm; the distances (Sy) between the heat sinks in the flow direction were45 mm, 32 mm, 23.3 mm; the distances (Sx) between the heat sinks perpendicular to the flow direction were selected to be 23.3 mm, 12.5 mm and 6 mm. A total of 90 experiments were conducted and the maximum Nusselt number and minimum friction coefficient were targeted. Experimental results have shown that heat sinks in lattice geometry have a significant effect on heat transfer enhancement. Under the different experimental conditions, the highest increase in Nusselt number was 283% while the lowest increase was calculated as 66% as compared with the straight channel results. The lowest increase in the friction factor was also obtained as 173% according to the straight channel results. It is seen that the increase in heat sink height and flow velocity increased the level of turbulence in the channel, leading to higher Nusselt number and friction factor values.

Keywords: forced convection, heat transfer enhancement, lattice geometric heat sinks, pressure drop

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322 LEDs Based Indoor Positioning by Distances Derivation from Lambertian Illumination Model

Authors: Yan-Ren Chen, Jenn-Kaie Lain

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on visible light communications, implemented by light-emitting diode fixtures. In the proposed positioning algorithm, distances between light-emitting diode fixtures and mobile terminal are derived from the assumption of ideal Lambertian optic radiation model, and Trilateration positioning method is proceeded immediately to get the coordinates of mobile terminal. The proposed positioning algorithm directly obtains distance information from the optical signal modeling, and therefore, statistical distribution of received signal strength at different positions in interior space has no need to be pre-established. Numerically, simulation results have shown that the proposed indoor positioning algorithm can provide accurate location coordinates estimation.

Keywords: indoor positioning, received signal strength, trilateration, visible light communications

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321 Slope Stability Considering the Top Building Load

Authors: Micke Didit, Xiwen Zhang, Weidong Zhu

Abstract:

Slope stability is one of the most important subjects of geotechnics. The slope top-loading plays a key role in the stability of slopes in hill slope areas. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the relationship between the load and the stability of the slope. This study aims to analyze the influence of the building load applied on the top of the slope and deduces its effect on the slope stability. For this purpose, a three-dimensional slope model under different building loads with different distances to the slope shoulder was established using the finite-difference analysis software Flac3D. The results show that the loads applied at different distances on the top of the slope have different effects on the slope stability. The slope factor of safety (fos) increases with the increase of the distance between the top-loading and the slope shoulder, resulting in the decrease of the coincidence area between the load-deformation and the potential sliding surface. The slope is no longer affected by the potential risk of sliding at approximately 20 m away from the slope shoulder.

Keywords: building load, finite-difference analysis, FLAC3D software, slope factor of safety, slope stability

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320 The Comparison between Public's Social Distances against Syrian Refugees and Perceptions of Access to Healthcare Services: Istanbul Sample

Authors: Pinar Dogan, Merve Tarhan, Ahu Kurklu

Abstract:

Syrian refugees who sheltering due to war has protected by the Government of Turkey since 2011. Since Syria was a medium-low income country prior to the war, it is known that chronic health problems weren’t common among citizens. However, it is also known that they frequently use health services in our country because of the spread of infectious and acute diseases due to insufficient sanitation and crowding after the war. This study was planned to compare the social distances of the community against the Syrian refugees and the perceptions of accessing health care services. The descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 1262 individuals living in Istanbul. A questionnaire form consisted of Personal Information Form, The Bogardus Social Distance Scale (BSDS) and The Survey of Access to Healthcare Services (AHS) was used as data collection tool. Descriptive tests and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. It was found that the majorities of participants was satisfied with the health services and were waiting for more than 40 minutes to be examined. It was determined that participants have high scores from BSDS. At the same time, the majority of participants stated that their level of access to health care is diminishing due to refugees. Participants who experienced disruption in access to health services due to refugees were found to have higher scores from BSDS. The data collection process in the study will continue until 2400 individuals are reached. With these conclusions, it is considered necessary that the effect of the presence of the refugees in reaching the health services and nursing care of the society should be revealed through extensive researches to be conducted in Turkey.

Keywords: health care services, nursing care, social distances, Syrian refugees

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319 Government Intervention Strategies in Providing Water to Rural Communities in the O R Tambo District Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Cecilia Kunseh Betek

Abstract:

Managing rural water supply systems effectively and efficiently is a challenge in the O R Tambo District Municipality due to the long distances between consumers and municipal centres. This is a couple with the low income of most residents and the government's policy of free basic water which is making rural water provision very difficult. With regard to cartage, the results reveal that the majority (84.4%) of the population covers distances of about 1kilometre to fetch water, and 15.6% travel up kilometer to access water facilities. This means that the water sources are located very far from households, outside the officially legislated array of 200metres. These are many reasons to account for this situation. Firstly, this implies that there are inadequate stand pipes to cater for all the homesteads scattered across the rugged terrain of OR Tambo District municipality. Secondly, and following from the first explanation, it would be seen that funding that is made available is not adequate, or is not efficiently spent on the targeted projects. The situation in the rural areas of South Africa is fraught with cumbersome complexity when it comes to service delivery.

Keywords: water, management, government, rural

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
318 Electrical Interactions and Patterning of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions

Authors: N. V. Klassen, A. A. Vasin, A. M. Likhter, K. A. Voronin, A. V. Mariasevskaya, I. M. Shmit’ko

Abstract:

Regular patterning in mixtures of bio-polymers (chitosan and collagen) and nanoparticles in water suspensions has been found by means of optical microscopy. The patterning was created either by external electrical field of moderate amplitude (200–1000 v/cm) or spontaneously. Simultaneously with the patterning pushing out of water drops mixed with nanoparticles to the external regions was observed. These phenomena are explained by interactions of charged bio-polymers and nanoparticles with external and internal electrical fields as well as with the regions of decreased dielectrical permittivity surrounding nano-objects in water which possesses anomalously high dielectrical permittivity. Electrical charges of opposite signs of the nano-objects induce their mutual attraction whereas dipole moments created around these nano-objects by the electrical fields are pushing these particles to the regions with lower fields. Due to this reason, non-homogeneities of dielectrical permittivity around nano-objects immersed into water suspension induces mutual repulsion of the objects. This spatial decrease of this repulsion with the inter-particle distances is more sharp than that of the Coulomb attraction. So, at longer distances, the attractions are stronger whereas at shorter distances the repulsion prevails. At a certain distance these two forces compensate each other creating the equilibrium state of the mixture of nano-objects with opposite charges. When the groups of positive and negative nano-objects consist from identical particles, quasi-periodical pattern of the suspension is observed like mesoscopic two-dimensional super-crystal. These results can clarify the mechanisms of healing of internal organs with direct or alternative electrical fields.

Keywords: bio-polymers, chitosan, collagen, nanoparticles, Coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances

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317 Geometric Contrast of a 3D Model Obtained by Means of Digital Photogrametry with a Quasimetric Camera on UAV Classical Methods

Authors: Julio Manuel de Luis Ruiz, Javier Sedano Cibrián, Rubén Pérez Álvarez, Raúl Pereda García, Cristina Diego Soroa

Abstract:

Nowadays, the use of drones has been extended to practically any human activity. One of the main applications is focused on the surveying field. In this regard, software programs that process the images captured by the sensor from the drone in an almost automatic way have been developed and commercialized, but they only allow contrasting the results through control points. This work proposes the contrast of a 3D model obtained from a flight developed by a drone and a non-metric camera (due to its low cost), with a second model that is obtained by means of the historically-endorsed classical methods. In addition to this, the contrast is developed over a certain territory with a significant unevenness, so as to test the model generated with photogrammetry, and considering that photogrammetry with drones finds more difficulties in terms of accuracy in this kind of situations. Distances, heights, surfaces and volumes are measured on the basis of the 3D models generated, and the results are contrasted. The differences are about 0.2% for the measurement of distances and heights, 0.3% for surfaces and 0.6% when measuring volumes. Although they are not important, they do not meet the order of magnitude that is presented by salespeople.

Keywords: accuracy, classical topographic, model tridimensional, photogrammetry, Uav.

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316 Molecular Dynamics Study of Ferrocene in Low and Room Temperatures

Authors: Feng Wang, Vladislav Vasilyev

Abstract:

Ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2, i.e., di-cyclopentadienyle iron (FeCp2) or Fc) is a unique example of ‘wrong but seminal’ in chemistry history. It has significant applications in a number of areas such as homogeneous catalysis, polymer chemistry, molecular sensing, and nonlinear optical materials. However, the ‘molecular carousel’ has been a ‘notoriously difficult example’ and subject to long debate for its conformation and properties. Ferrocene is a dynamic molecule. As a result, understanding of the dynamical properties of ferrocene is very important to understand the conformational properties of Fc. In the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed. In the simulation, we use 5 geometrical parameters to define the overall conformation of Fc and all the rest is a thermal noise. The five parameters are defined as: three parameters d---the distance between two Cp planes, α and δ to define the relative positions of the Cp planes, in which α is the angle of the Cp tilt and δ the angle the two Cp plane rotation like a carousel. Two parameters to position the Fe atom between two Cps, i.e., d1 for Fe-Cp1 and d2 for Fe-Cp2 distances. Our preliminary MD simulation discovered the five parameters behave differently. Distances of Fe to the Cp planes show that they are independent, practically identical without correlation. The relative position of two Cp rings, α, indicates that the two Cp planes are most likely not in a parallel position, rather, they tilt in a small angle α≠ 0°. The mean plane dihedral angle δ ≠ 0°. Moreover, δ is neither 0° nor 36°, indicating under those conditions, Fc is neither in a perfect eclipsed structure nor a perfect staggered structure. The simulations show that when the temperature is above 80K, the conformers are virtually in free rotations, A very interesting result from the MD simulation is the five C-Fe bond distances from the same Cp ring. They are surprisingly not identical but in three groups of 2, 2 and 1. We describe the pentagon formed by five carbon atoms as ‘turtle swimming’ for the motion of the Cp rings of Fc as shown in their dynamical animation video. The Fe- C(1) and Fe-C(2) which are identical as ‘the turtle back legs’, Fe-C(3) and Fe-C(4) which are also identical as turtle front paws’, and Fe-C(5) ---’the turtle head’. Such as ‘turtle swimming’ analog may be able to explain the single substituted derivatives of Fc. Again, the mean Fe-C distance obtained from MD simulation is larger than the quantum mechanically calculated Fe-C distances for eclipsed and staggered Fc, with larger deviation with respect to the eclipsed Fc than the staggered Fc. The same trend is obtained for the five Fe-C-H angles from same Cp ring of Fc. The simulated mean IR spectrum at 7K shows split spectral peaks at approximately 470 cm-1 and 488 cm-1, in excellent agreement with quantum mechanically calculated gas phase IR spectrum for eclipsed Fc. As the temperature increases over 80K, the clearly splitting IR spectrum become a very board single peak. Preliminary MD results will be presented.

Keywords: ferrocene conformation, molecular dynamics simulation, conformer orientation, eclipsed and staggered ferrocene

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
315 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Welds Fabricated at a Close Proximity on Offshore Structures

Authors: T. Nakkeran, Ramasamy Deverajan, How Peng Yeow, Jerry Sorton, C. Dhamodharan, Win Myint Soe

Abstract:

This manuscript presents the results from an experimental investigation performed to study the material and mechanical properties of two weld joints fabricated within close proximity. The experiment has been designed using welded S355 D Z35 with distances between two parallel adjacent weld toes at 8 mm. These distances were less than the distance that has normally been recommended in standards, codes, and specifications. The main idea of the analysis is to determine any significant effects when welding the joints with the close proximity of 8mm using SAW Welding Process of the one joint with high heat put and one joint welded with FCAW welding process evaluating the destructing and nondestructive testing between the welded joints. Further, we have evaluated the joints with mechanical testing for evaluating by performing tensile test, bend testing, macrostructure, microstructure, hardness test, impact testing. After evaluating the final outcome of the result, no significant changes were observed for welding the close proximity of weld of 8mm distance between the joints as compared to the specification minimum distance between the weldments of any design should be 50mm.

Keywords: S355 carbon steel, weld proximity, bending test, hardness test, impact test, macro, and microscopic examinations

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314 Structural Performance of Prefabricated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls under Blast Loads

Authors: S. Kamil Akin, Turgut Acikara

Abstract:

In recent years the world and our country has experienced several explosion events occurred due to terrorist attacks and accidents. In these explosion events many people have lost their lives and many buildings have been damaged. If structures were designed taking the blast loads into account, these results may not have happened or the casualties would have been less. In this thesis analysis of the protection walls have been conducted to prevent the building damage from blast loads. These analyzes was carried out for two different types of wall, concrete and reinforced concrete. Analyses were carried out on four different thicknesses of each wall element. In each wall element the stresses and displacements of the exposed surface due to the detonation charge has been calculated. The limit shear stress and displacement of the wall element according to their material properties has been taken into account. As the result of the analyses the standoff distances and TNT equivalent amount has been determined. According to equivalent TNT amounts and standoff distances the structural response of the protective wall elements has been observed. These structural responses have been observed by ABAQUS finite element package. Explosion loads were brought into effect to the protective wall element models by using the ABAQUS / CONWEP.

Keywords: blast loading, blast wave, TNT equivalent method, CONWEP, finite element analysis, detonation

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
313 Revisiting the Swadesh Wordlist: How Long Should It Be

Authors: Feda Negesse

Abstract:

One of the most important indicators of research quality is a good data - collection instrument that can yield reliable and valid data. The Swadesh wordlist has been used for more than half a century for collecting data in comparative and historical linguistics though arbitrariness is observed in its application and size. This research compare s the classification results of the 100 Swadesh wordlist with those of its subsets to determine if reducing the size of the wordlist impact s its effectiveness. In the comparison, the 100, 50 and 40 wordlists were used to compute lexical distances of 29 Cushitic and Semitic languages spoken in Ethiopia and neighbouring countries. Gabmap, a based application, was employed to compute the lexical distances and to divide the languages into related clusters. The study shows that the subsets are not as effective as the 100 wordlist in clustering languages into smaller subgroups but they are equally effective in di viding languages into bigger groups such as subfamilies. It is noted that the subsets may lead to an erroneous classification whereby unrelated languages by chance form a cluster which is not attested by a comparative study. The chance to get a wrong result is higher when the subsets are used to classify languages which are not closely related. Though a further study is still needed to settle the issues around the size of the Swadesh wordlist, this study indicates that the 50 and 40 wordlists cannot be recommended as reliable substitute s for the 100 wordlist under all circumstances. The choice seems to be determined by the objective of a researcher and the degree of affiliation among the languages to be classified.

Keywords: classification, Cushitic, Swadesh, wordlist

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312 A Review on the Problems of Constructing a Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Amber Jamal, Imran Siddiqui, Syed Tanveer Iqbal

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This review is aimed to shed some light on problems constructing a theory of spacetime and geometry in terms of all quantum degrees of freedom called ‘Quantum Gravity’. Such a theory, which is effective at all scales of distances and energies, describes the enigma of the beginning of the Universe, its possible end, and reducing to general relativity at large distances but in a semi-classical approximation. Furthermore, the theory of quantum gravity also describes the Universe as a whole and provides a description of most fundamental questions that have puzzled scientists for decades, such as: what is space, what is time, and what is the fundamental structure of the Universe, is the spacetime discrete, if it is, where does the continuum of spacetime come from at low energies and macroscopic scales and where does it emerge from its fundamentally discrete building blocks? Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is a framework which describes the microscopic properties and dynamics of the basic building blocks of any condensed matter system. In QFT, atoms are quanta of continuous fields. At smaller scales or higher energies, the continuum description of spacetime fails. Therefore, a new description is required in terms of microscopic constituents (atoms or molecules). The objective of this scientific endeavor is to discuss the above-mentioned problems rigorously and to discuss possible way-out of the problems.

Keywords: QFT, quantum degrees of freedom, quantum gravity, semi-classical approximation

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311 Transformations of Spatial Distributions of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions Induced by Resonance-Like Low Frequency Electrical Fields

Authors: A. A. Vasin, N. V. Klassen, A. M. Likhter

Abstract:

Water suspensions of in-organic (metals and oxides) and organic nano-objects (chitozan and collagen) were subjected to the treatment of direct and alternative electrical fields. In addition to quasi-periodical spatial patterning resonance-like performance of spatial distributions of these suspensions has been found at low frequencies of alternating electrical field. These resonances are explained as the result of creation of equilibrium states of groups of charged nano-objects with opposite signs of charges at the interparticle distances where the forces of Coulomb attraction are compensated by the repulsion forces induced by relatively negative polarization of hydrated regions surrounding the nanoparticles with respect to pure water. The low frequencies of these resonances are explained by comparatively big distances between the particles and their big masses with t\respect to masses of atoms constituting molecules with high resonance frequencies. These new resonances open a new approach to detailed modeling and understanding of mechanisms of the influence of electrical fields on the functioning of internal organs of living organisms at the level of cells and neurons.

Keywords: bio-polymers, chitosan, collagen, nanoparticles, coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances, transformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
310 Aerodynamic Interaction between Two Speed Skaters Measured in a Closed Wind Tunnel

Authors: Ola Elfmark, Lars M. Bardal, Luca Oggiano, H˚avard Myklebust

Abstract:

Team pursuit is a relatively new event in international long track speed skating. For a single speed skater the aerodynamic drag will account for up to 80% of the braking force, thus reducing the drag can greatly improve the performance. In a team pursuit the interactions between athletes in near proximity will also be essential, but is not well studied. In this study, systematic measurements of the aerodynamic drag, body posture and relative positioning of speed skaters have been performed in the low speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, in order to investigate the aerodynamic interaction between two speed skaters. Drag measurements of static speed skaters drafting, leading, side-by-side, and dynamic drag measurements in a synchronized and unsynchronized movement at different distances, were performed. The projected frontal area was measured for all postures and movements and a blockage correction was performed, as the blockage ratio ranged from 5-15% in the different setups. The static drag measurements where performed on two test subjects in two different postures, a low posture and a high posture, and two different distances between the test subjects 1.5T and 3T where T being the length of the torso (T=0.63m). A drag reduction was observed for all distances and configurations, from 39% to 11.4%, for the drafting test subject. The drag of the leading test subject was only influenced at -1.5T, with the biggest drag reduction of 5.6%. An increase in drag was seen for all side-by-side measurements, the biggest increase was observed to be 25.7%, at the closest distance between the test subjects, and the lowest at 2.7% with ∼ 0.7 m between the test subjects. A clear aerodynamic interaction between the test subjects and their postures was observed for most measurements during static measurements, with results corresponding well to recent studies. For the dynamic measurements, the leading test subject had a drag reduction of 3% even at -3T. The drafting showed a drag reduction of 15% when being in a synchronized (sync) motion with the leading test subject at 4.5T. The maximal drag reduction for both the leading and the drafting test subject were observed when being as close as possible in sync, with a drag reduction of 8.5% and 25.7% respectively. This study emphasize the importance of keeping a synchronized movement by showing that the maximal gain for the leading and drafting dropped to 3.2% and 3.3% respectively when the skaters are in opposite phase. Individual differences in technique also appear to influence the drag of the other test subject.

Keywords: aerodynamic interaction, drag force, frontal area, speed skating

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309 Effect of Weed Control and Different Plant Densities the Yield and Quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Hasan Dalgic, Fikret Akinerdem

Abstract:

This trial was made to determine effect of different plant density and weed control on yield and quality of winter sowing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Selcuk University, Agricultural Faculty trial fields and the effective substance of Trifluran was used as herbicide. Field trial was made during the vegetation period of 2009-2010 with three replications according to 'Split Plots in Randomized Blocks' design. The weed control techniques were made on main plots and row distances was set up on sub-plots. The trial subjects were consisting from three weed control techniques as fallowing: herbicide application (Trifluran), hoeing and control beside the row distances of 15 cm and 30 cm. The results were ranged between 59.0-76.73 cm in plant height, 40.00-47.07 cm in first branch height, 5.00-7.20 in number of branch per plant, 6.00-14.73 number of head per plant, 19.57-21.87 mm in head diameter, 2125.0-3968.3 kg ha-1 in seed yield, 27.10-28.08 % in crude oil rate and 531.7-1070.3 kg ha-1. According to the results, Remzibey safflower cultivar showed the highest seed yield on 30 cm of row distance and herbicide application by means of the direct effects of plant height, first branch height, number of branch per plant, number of head per plant, table diameter, crude oil rate and crude oil yield.

Keywords: safflower, herbicide, row spacing, seed yield, oil ratio, oil yield

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308 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal

Abstract:

Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: missing values, incomplete data, distance, incomplete diabetes data

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307 Multi-Objective Optimization for the Green Vehicle Routing Problem: Approach to Case Study of the Newspaper Distribution Problem

Authors: Julio C. Ferreira, Maria T. A. Steiner

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a solution procedure referred to here as the Multi-objective Optimization for Green Vehicle Routing Problem (MOOGVRP) to provide solutions for a case study. The proposed methodology consists of three stages to resolve Scenario A. Stage 1 consists of the “treatment” of data; Stage 2 consists of applying mathematical models of the p-Median Capacitated Problem (with the objectives of minimization of distances and homogenization of demands between groups) and the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (with the objectives of minimizing distances and minimizing time). The weighted method was used as the multi-objective procedure. In Stage 3, an analysis of the results is conducted, taking into consideration the environmental aspects related to the case study, more specifically with regard to fuel consumption and air pollutant emission. This methodology was applied to a (partial) database that addresses newspaper distribution in the municipality of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The preliminary findings for Scenario A showed that it was possible to improve the distribution of the load, reduce the mileage and the greenhouse gas by 17.32% and the journey time by 22.58% in comparison with the current scenario. The intention for future works is to use other multi-objective techniques and an expanded version of the database and explore the triple bottom line of sustainability.

Keywords: Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem, Green Vehicle Routing Problem, Multi-objective Optimization, p-Median Capacitated Problem

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306 Theoretical Investigation of the Singlet and Triplet Electronic States of ⁹⁰ZrS Molecules

Authors: Makhlouf Sandy, Adem Ziad, Taher Fadia, Magnier Sylvie

Abstract:

The electronic structure of 90ZrS has been investigated using Ab-initio methods based on Complete Active Space Self Consistent Field and Multi-reference Configuration Interaction (CASSCF/MRCI). The number of predicted states has been extended to 14 singlet and 12 triplet lowest-lying states situated below 36000cm-1. The equilibrium energies of these 26 lowest-lying electronic states have been calculated in the 2S+1Λ(±) representation. The potential energy curves have been plotted in function of the inter-nuclear distances in a range of 1.5 to 4.5Å. Spectroscopic constants, permanent electric dipole moments and transition dipole moments between the different electronic states have also been determined. A discrepancy error of utmost 5% for the majority of values shows a good agreement with available experimental data. The ground state is found to be of symmetry X1Σ+ with an equilibrium inter-nuclear distance Re= 2.16Å. However, the (1)3Δ is the closest state to X1Σ+ and is situated at 514 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling has been investigated for all the predicted states of ZrS. 52 electronic components in the Ω(±) representation have been predicted. The energies of these components, the spectroscopic constants ωe, ωeχe, βe and the equilibrium inter-nuclear distances have been also obtained. The percentage composition of the Ω state wave-functions in terms of S-Λ states was calculated to identify their corresponding main parents. These (SOC) calculations have determined the shift between (1)3Δ1 and X1Σ+ states and confirmed the ground state type being 1Σ+.

Keywords: CASSCF/MRCI, electronic structure, spin-orbit effect, zirconium monosulfide

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305 Application of Finite Volume Method for Numerical Simulation of Contaminant Transfer in a Two-Dimensional Reservoir

Authors: Atousa Ataieyan, Salvador A. Gomez-Lopera, Gennaro Sepede

Abstract:

Today, due to the growing urban population and consequently, the increasing water demand in cities, the amount of contaminants entering the water resources is increasing. This can impose harmful effects on the quality of the downstream water. Therefore, predicting the concentration of discharged pollutants at different times and distances of the interested area is of high importance in order to carry out preventative and controlling measures, as well as to avoid consuming the contaminated water. In this paper, the concentration distribution of an injected conservative pollutant in a square reservoir containing four symmetric blocks and three sources using Finite Volume Method (FVM) is simulated. For this purpose, after estimating the flow velocity, classical Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) has been discretized over the studying domain by Backward Time- Backward Space (BTBS) scheme. Then, the discretized equations for each node have been derived according to the initial condition, boundary conditions and point contaminant sources. Finally, taking into account the appropriate time step and space step, a computational code was set up in MATLAB. Contaminant concentration was then obtained at different times and distances. Simulation results show how using BTBS differentiating scheme and FVM as a numerical method for solving the partial differential equation of transport is an appropriate approach in the case of two-dimensional contaminant transfer in an advective-diffusive flow.

Keywords: BTBS differentiating scheme, contaminant concentration, finite volume, mass transfer, water pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 58