Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: zero inflated

35 Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution

Authors: Rafid Saeed Abdulrazak Alshkaki

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In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.

Keywords: zero one inflated models, negative binomial distribution, moments estimator, non negative integer sampling

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34 Regression for Doubly Inflated Multivariate Poisson Distributions

Authors: Ishapathik Das, Sumen Sen, N. Rao Chaganty, Pooja Sengupta

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Dependent multivariate count data occur in several research studies. These data can be modeled by a multivariate Poisson or Negative binomial distribution constructed using copulas. However, when some of the counts are inflated, that is, the number of observations in some cells are much larger than other cells, then the copula based multivariate Poisson (or Negative binomial) distribution may not fit well and it is not an appropriate statistical model for the data. There is a need to modify or adjust the multivariate distribution to account for the inflated frequencies. In this article, we consider the situation where the frequencies of two cells are higher compared to the other cells, and develop a doubly inflated multivariate Poisson distribution function using multivariate Gaussian copula. We also discuss procedures for regression on covariates for the doubly inflated multivariate count data. For illustrating the proposed methodologies, we present a real data containing bivariate count observations with inflations in two cells. Several models and linear predictors with log link functions are considered, and we discuss maximum likelihood estimation to estimate unknown parameters of the models.

Keywords: copula, Gaussian copula, multivariate distributions, inflated distributios

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33 Statistical Analysis for Overdispersed Medical Count Data

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

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Many researchers have suggested the use of zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data with extra variations caused by extra zeros and unobserved heterogeneity. The studies indicate that ZIP and ZINB always provide better fit than using the normal Poisson and negative binomial models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. In this study, we proposed the use of Zero Inflated Inverse Trinomial (ZIIT), Zero Inflated Poisson Inverse Gaussian (ZIPIG) and zero inflated strict arcsine models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. These proposed models are not widely used by many researchers especially in the medical field. The results show that these three suggested models can serve as alternative models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. This is supported by the application of these suggested models to a real life medical data set. Inverse trinomial, Poisson inverse Gaussian, and strict arcsine are discrete distributions with cubic variance function of mean. Therefore, ZIIT, ZIPIG and ZISA are able to accommodate data with excess zeros and very heavy tailed. They are recommended to be used in modeling over-dispersed medical count data when ZIP and ZINB are inadequate.

Keywords: zero inflated, inverse trinomial distribution, Poisson inverse Gaussian distribution, strict arcsine distribution, Pearson’s goodness of fit

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32 Determination Power and Sample Size Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Dependent Death Rate of Age Model (ZINBD): Regression Analysis Mortality Acquired Immune Deficiency De ciency Syndrome (AIDS)

Authors: Mohd Asrul Affendi Bin Abdullah

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Sample size calculation is especially important for zero inflated models because a large sample size is required to detect a significant effect with this model. This paper verify how to present percentage of power approximation for categorical and then extended to zero inflated models. Wald test was chosen to determine power sample size of AIDS death rate because it is frequently used due to its approachability and its natural for several major recent contribution in sample size calculation for this test. Power calculation can be conducted when covariates are used in the modeling ‘excessing zero’ data and assist categorical covariate. Analysis of AIDS death rate study is used for this paper. Aims of this study to determine the power of sample size (N = 945) categorical death rate based on parameter estimate in the simulation of the study.

Keywords: power sample size, Wald test, standardize rate, ZINBDR

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31 Mixture statistical modeling for predecting mortality human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis(TB) infection patients

Authors: Mohd Asrul Affendi Bi Abdullah, Nyi Nyi Naing

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The purpose of this study was to identify comparable manner between negative binomial death rate (NBDR) and zero inflated negative binomial death rate (ZINBDR) with died patients with (HIV + T B+) and (HIV + T B−). HIV and TB is a serious world wide problem in the developing country. Data were analyzed with applying NBDR and ZINBDR to make comparison which a favorable model is better to used. The ZINBDR model is able to account for the disproportionately large number of zero within the data and is shown to be a consistently better fit than the NBDR model. Hence, as a results ZINBDR model is a superior fit to the data than the NBDR model and provides additional information regarding the died mechanisms HIV+TB. The ZINBDR model is shown to be a use tool for analysis death rate according age categorical.

Keywords: zero inflated negative binomial death rate, HIV and TB, AIC and BIC, death rate

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30 Detecting Overdispersion for Mortality AIDS in Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Death Rate (ZINBDR) Co-infection Patients in Kelantan

Authors: Mohd Asrul Affedi, Nyi Nyi Naing

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Overdispersion is present in count data, and basically when a phenomenon happened, a Negative Binomial (NB) is commonly used to replace a standard Poisson model. Analysis of count data event, such as mortality cases basically Poisson regression model is appropriate. Hence, the model is not appropriate when existing a zero values. The zero-inflated negative binomial model is appropriate. In this article, we modelled the mortality cases as a dependent variable by age categorical. The objective of this study to determine existing overdispersion in mortality data of AIDS co-infection patients in Kelantan.

Keywords: negative binomial death rate, overdispersion, zero-inflation negative binomial death rate, AIDS

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29 The Investigation on the Role of Colonial Judges in Protecting the Rights of Muslim Women to Dower and Divorce in British India: From the Period between 1800-1939

Authors: Sunil Tirkey

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The colonial court records between 1800 to 1939 in India show the existence of excessive dower, which were usually paid at the dissolution of marriage to discourage divorce. Supporting this view of excessive dower as a useful device, Mitra Sharafi (legal historian of modern South Asia) argues that inflated dower and divorce law protected Muslim women against instant divorce, making it too expensive for husbands to use it. Further, according to her, British judges enhanced women’s rights to dower and divorce by pronouncing rulings in favour of a high amount of dower to protect the women against the one-sided authority of men to divorce. Contrary to the view of Sharafi, this paper will argue that inflated dower did not protect the rights of women against instant divorce and undesirable marriage, and British judges did not really work to better the lives of Muslim women. To prove so, we shall firstly argue from the court cases that it was challenging for women to prove divorce on the husbands’ denial of divorce in order to avoid the payment of dower. Secondly, it was almost impossible for women to get rid of their undesirable marriage, as divorce was impartially dependent on their husbands. Thirdly, Muslim women were often deprived of their unpaid prompt dower due to the rigorous application of colonial law of limitation by British judges. Furthermore, the abolition of the office of Muslim legal experts from the colonial courts in 1864 deprived Muslim women not only to avail the interpretation of Islamic law but to benefit from the diversity and flexibility of Islamic law in obtaining their right to dower and divorce.

Keywords: courts, divorce, inflated dower, Islamic law, women’s rights

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28 Bayesian Borrowing Methods for Count Data: Analysis of Incontinence Episodes in Patients with Overactive Bladder

Authors: Akalu Banbeta, Emmanuel Lesaffre, Reynaldo Martina, Joost Van Rosmalen

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Including data from previous studies (historical data) in the analysis of the current study may reduce the sample size requirement and/or increase the power of analysis. The most common example is incorporating historical control data in the analysis of a current clinical trial. However, this only applies when the historical control dataare similar enough to the current control data. Recently, several Bayesian approaches for incorporating historical data have been proposed, such as the meta-analytic-predictive (MAP) prior and the modified power prior (MPP) both for single control as well as for multiple historical control arms. Here, we examine the performance of the MAP and the MPP approaches for the analysis of (over-dispersed) count data. To this end, we propose a computational method for the MPP approach for the Poisson and the negative binomial models. We conducted an extensive simulation study to assess the performance of Bayesian approaches. Additionally, we illustrate our approaches on an overactive bladder data set. For similar data across the control arms, the MPP approach outperformed the MAP approach with respect to thestatistical power. When the means across the control arms are different, the MPP yielded a slightly inflated type I error (TIE) rate, whereas the MAP did not. In contrast, when the dispersion parameters are different, the MAP gave an inflated TIE rate, whereas the MPP did not.We conclude that the MPP approach is more promising than the MAP approach for incorporating historical count data.

Keywords: count data, meta-analytic prior, negative binomial, poisson

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27 Count Data Regression Modeling: An Application to Spontaneous Abortion in India

Authors: Prashant Verma, Prafulla K. Swain, K. K. Singh, Mukti Khetan

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Objective: In India, around 20,000 women die every year due to abortion-related complications. In the modelling of count variables, there is sometimes a preponderance of zero counts. This article concerns the estimation of various count regression models to predict the average number of spontaneous abortion among women in the Punjab state of India. It also assesses the factors associated with the number of spontaneous abortions. Materials and methods: The study included 27,173 married women of Punjab obtained from the DLHS-4 survey (2012-13). Poisson regression (PR), Negative binomial (NB) regression, zero hurdle negative binomial (ZHNB), and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models were employed to predict the average number of spontaneous abortions and to identify the determinants affecting the number of spontaneous abortions. Results: Statistical comparisons among four estimation methods revealed that the ZINB model provides the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions. Antenatal care (ANC) place, place of residence, total children born to a woman, woman's education and economic status were found to be the most significant factors affecting the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Conclusions: The study offers a practical demonstration of techniques designed to handle count variables. Statistical comparisons among four estimation models revealed that the ZINB model provided the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions and is recommended to be used to predict the number of spontaneous abortions. The study suggests that women receive institutional Antenatal care to attain limited parity. It also advocates promoting higher education among women in Punjab, India.

Keywords: count data, spontaneous abortion, Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero hurdle negative binomial, zero-inflated negative binomial, regression

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26 Entry, Descent and Landing System Design and Analysis of a Small Platform in Mars Environment

Authors: Daniele Calvi, Loris Franchi, Sabrina Corpino

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Thanks to the latest Mars mission, the planetary exploration has made enormous strides over the past ten years increasing the interest of the scientific community and beyond. These missions aim to fulfill many complex operations which are of paramount importance to mission success. Among these, a special mention goes to the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) functions which require a dedicated system to overcome all the obstacles of these critical phases. The general objective of the system is to safely bring the spacecraft from orbital conditions to rest on the planet surface, following the designed mission profile. For this reason, this work aims to develop a simulation tool integrating the re-entry trajectory algorithm in order to support the EDL design during the preliminary phase of the mission. This tool was used on a reference unmanned mission, whose objective is finding bio-evidence and bio-hazards on Martian (sub)surface in order to support the future manned mission. Regarding the concept of operations (CONOPS) of the mission, it concerns the use of Space Penetrator Systems (SPS) that will descend on Mars surface following a ballistic fall and will penetrate the ground after the impact with the surface (around 50 and 300 cm of depth). Each SPS shall contain all the instrumentation required to sample and make the required analyses. Respecting the low-cost and low-mass requirements, as result of the tool, an Entry Descent and Impact (EDI) system based on inflatable structure has been designed. Hence, a solution could be the one chosen by Finnish Meteorological Institute in the Mars Met-Net mission, using an inflatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) called Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) and an additional inflatable decelerator. Consequently, there are three configurations during the EDI: at altitude of 125 km the IBU is inflated at speed 5.5 km/s; at altitude of 16 km the IBU is jettisoned and an Additional Inflatable Braking Unit (AIBU) is inflated; Lastly at about 13 km, the SPS is ejected from AIBU and it impacts on the Martian surface. Since all parameters are evaluated, it is possible to confirm that the chosen EDI system and strategy verify the requirements of the mission.

Keywords: EDL, Mars, mission, SPS, TPS

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25 Predictive Simulations to Estimate Tire Pressure Loss and Air Mass Leakage Rate

Authors: Mahmoud C. Assaad

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Inflated tires experience a loss of pressure with time. This phenomenon is due to the movement of gas through the boundary surrounding the cavity, namely the inner liner. Tire gauges and materials permeability are two essential parameters needed to provide an engineering estimate of the tire pressure loss with time. This predictive methodology was developed jointly with Sandia National Laboratories (National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia), it provides the analysts with a numerical tool to predict the air net mass leakage rate \dot{m}.

Keywords: tire, pressure loss, porous media, fea

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24 Assessing Narcissism in Students of Psychology: An Administered Study

Authors: Sahiti Ganduri, Kavya Sreenivasan, Venya Lankala

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The narcissistic personality is a condition that causes individuals to have an inflated perception of self, giving themselves higher self-importance. It is necessary and interesting to study narcissistic traits in students of different majors. This can be a crucial environmental or psychosocial marker/indicator of narcissism which can also be of substantial importance in the field of education. This study focuses on identifying narcissism in students of psychology background. The narcissistic personality inventory was administered to 114 psychology students of different universities (public and private) in India. The results of our study provided evidence of the fact that narcissistic traits are higher in male psychology students as compared to female psychology students. Further, this paper has provided evidence that narcissistic traits are higher in leaders as compared to non-leaders.

Keywords: college students, disorder, gender, leadership, narcissistic personality, personality, students, traits

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23 Experimental Measurement of Equatorial Ring Current Generated by Magnetoplasma Sail in Three-Dimensional Spatial Coordinate

Authors: Masato Koizumi, Yuya Oshio, Ikkoh Funaki

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Magnetoplasma Sail (MPS) is a future spacecraft propulsion that generates high levels of thrust by inducing an artificial magnetosphere to capture and deflect solar wind charged particles in order to transfer momentum to the spacecraft. By injecting plasma in the spacecraft’s magnetic field region, the ring current azimuthally drifts on the equatorial plane about the dipole magnetic field generated by the current flowing through the solenoid attached on board the spacecraft. This ring current results in magnetosphere inflation which improves the thrust performance of MPS spacecraft. In this present study, the ring current was experimentally measured using three Rogowski Current Probes positioned in a circular array about the laboratory model of MPS spacecraft. This investigation aims to determine the detailed structure of ring current through physical experimentation performed under two different magnetic field strengths engendered by varying the applied voltage on the solenoid with 300 V and 600 V. The expected outcome was that the three current probes would detect the same current since all three probes were positioned at equal radial distance of 63 mm from the center of the solenoid. Although experimental results were numerically implausible due to probable procedural error, the trends of the results revealed three pieces of perceptive evidence of the ring current behavior. The first aspect is that the drift direction of the ring current depended on the strength of the applied magnetic field. The second aspect is that the diamagnetic current developed at a radial distance not occupied by the three current probes under the presence of solar wind. The third aspect is that the ring current distribution varied along the circumferential path about the spacecraft’s magnetic field. Although this study yielded experimental evidence that differed from the original hypothesis, the three key findings of this study have informed two critical MPS design solutions that will potentially improve thrust performance. The first design solution is the positioning of the plasma injection point. Based on the implication of the first of the three aspects of ring current behavior, the plasma injection point must be located at a distance instead of at close proximity from the MPS Solenoid for the ring current to drift in the direction that will result in magnetosphere inflation. The second design solution, predicated by the third aspect of ring current behavior, is the symmetrical configuration of plasma injection points. In this study, an asymmetrical configuration of plasma injection points using one plasma source resulted in a non-uniform distribution of ring current along the azimuthal path. This distorts the geometry of the inflated magnetosphere which minimizes the deflection area for the solar wind. Therefore, to realize a ring current that best provides the maximum possible inflated magnetosphere, multiple plasma sources must be spaced evenly apart for the plasma to be injected evenly along its azimuthal path.

Keywords: Magnetoplasma Sail, magnetosphere inflation, ring current, spacecraft propulsion

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22 Inflation and Deflation of Aircraft's Tire with Intelligent Tire Pressure Regulation System

Authors: Masoud Mirzaee, Ghobad Behzadi Pour

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An aircraft tire is designed to tolerate extremely heavy loads for a short duration. The number of tires increases with the weight of the aircraft, as it is needed to be distributed more evenly. Generally, aircraft tires work at high pressure, up to 200 psi (14 bar; 1,400 kPa) for airliners and higher for business jets. Tire assemblies for most aircraft categories provide a recommendation of compressed nitrogen that supports the aircraft’s weight on the ground, including a mechanism for controlling the aircraft during taxi, takeoff; landing; and traction for braking. Accurate tire pressure is a key factor that enables tire assemblies to perform reliably under high static and dynamic loads. Concerning ambient temperature change, considering the condition in which the temperature between the origin and destination airport was different, tire pressure should be adjusted and inflated to the specified operating pressure at the colder airport. This adjustment superseding the normal tire over an inflation limit of 5 percent at constant ambient temperature is required because the inflation pressure remains constant to support the load of a specified aircraft configuration. On the other hand, without this adjustment, a tire assembly would be significantly under/over-inflated at the destination. Due to an increase of human errors in the aviation industry, exorbitant costs are imposed on the airlines for providing consumable parts such as aircraft tires. The existence of an intelligent system to adjust the aircraft tire pressure based on weight, load, temperature, and weather conditions of origin and destination airports, could have a significant effect on reducing the aircraft maintenance costs, aircraft fuel and further improving the environmental issues related to the air pollution. An intelligent tire pressure regulation system (ITPRS) contains a processing computer, a nitrogen bottle with 1800 psi, and distribution lines. Nitrogen bottle’s inlet and outlet valves are installed in the main wheel landing gear’s area and are connected through nitrogen lines to main wheels and nose wheels assy. Controlling and monitoring of nitrogen will be performed by a computer, which is adjusted according to the calculations of received parameters, including the temperature of origin and destination airport, the weight of cargo loads and passengers, fuel quantity, and wind direction. Correct tire inflation and deflation are essential in assuring that tires can withstand the centrifugal forces and heat of normal operations, with an adequate margin of safety for unusual operating conditions such as rejected takeoff and hard landings. ITPRS will increase the performance of the aircraft in all phases of takeoff, landing, and taxi. Moreover, this system will reduce human errors, consumption materials, and stresses imposed on the aircraft body.

Keywords: avionic system, improve efficiency, ITPRS, human error, reduced cost, tire pressure

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21 Responsibility Attitude and Interpretation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. Inflated responsibility attitude and interpretation are central beliefs in a cognitive model of OCD. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS-J) and Responsibility Interpretation Questionnaire (RIQ-J). 98 participants (OCD group = 37; anxiety control group = 24; healthy control group = 37) completed the RAS-J, RIQ-J and other measures to assess the validity of the RAS-J and RIQ-J. As a result of analysis, both scales had adequate concurrent validity, demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression. Group comparison data using ANOVA with Bonferroni method indicated that RAS-J and RIQ-J scores for the OCD group not only differed from the nonclinical group, but also from the clinically anxious comparison group. In conclusion, this study indicated that the developed RAS-J and RIQ-J effectively measure responsibility attitude and responsibility interpretation in the Japanese population.

Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, responsibility, cognitive theory, anxiety disorder

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20 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz

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A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

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19 Developing a Grading System for Restaurants

Authors: Joseph Roberson, Carina Kleynhans, Willie Coetzee

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The low entry barriers of the restaurant industry lead to an extremely competitive business environment. In this volatile business sector it is of the utmost importance to implement a strategy of quality differentiation. Vital aspects of a quality differentiation strategy are total quality management, benchmarking and service quality management. Ultimately, restaurant success depends on the continuous support of customers. Customers select restaurants based on their expectations of quality. If the customers' expectations are met, they perceive quality service and will re-patronize the restaurant. The restaurateur can manage perceptions of quality by influencing expectations while ensuring that those expectations are not inflated. The management of expectations can be done by communicating service quality to customers. The aim of this research paper is to describe the development of a grading process for restaurants. An assessment of the extensive body of literature on grading was conducted through content analysis. A standardized method for developing a grading system would assist in successful grading systems that could inform both customers and restaurateurs of restaurant quality.

Keywords: benchmarking, restaurants, grading, service quality, total quality management

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18 Minimizing the Impact of Covariate Detection Limit in Logistic Regression

Authors: Shahadut Hossain, Jacek Wesolowski, Zahirul Hoque

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In many epidemiological and environmental studies covariate measurements are subject to the detection limit. In most applications, covariate measurements are usually truncated from below which is known as left-truncation. Because the measuring device, which we use to measure the covariate, fails to detect values falling below the certain threshold. In regression analyses, it causes inflated bias and inaccurate mean squared error (MSE) to the estimators. This paper suggests a response-based regression calibration method to correct the deleterious impact introduced by the covariate detection limit in the estimators of the parameters of simple logistic regression model. Compared to the maximum likelihood method, the proposed method is computationally simpler, and hence easier to implement. It is robust to the violation of distributional assumption about the covariate of interest. In producing correct inference, the performance of the proposed method compared to the other competing methods has been investigated through extensive simulations. A real-life application of the method is also shown using data from a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Keywords: environmental exposure, detection limit, left truncation, bias, ad-hoc substitution

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17 Moderators of the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Expected Firm Growth

Authors: Laszlo Szerb, Zsofia Voros

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In this article, we seek to answer why many attempts to empirically link entrepreneurial self-efficacy to growth expectations have failed. While doing so, we reconcile the literature on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and overconfidence. By analyzing GEM APS (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey) data, we show that early-stage entrepreneurs’ self-efficacy statements are systematically inflated. Our results also indicate that entrepreneurial overconfidence is fading and its form changes as business owners learn and gather experience. In addition, by using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (2006) as a modeling framework, we illustrate that early stage business owners’ overconfidence results in overly high firm growth expectations. However, the changes in the form of overconfidence and the adjustments of expectations on market conditions as a venture ages alter the relationship between overconfidence and growth expectations across the business life-cycle stages. Overall, our study empirically links young entrepreneurs’ overconfidence to their growth expectations at the firm level. This link is important to establish as expected growth was linked to realized growth both on micro and macro levels. Moreover, we detected several moderators of this relationship providing a potential answer to why many studies failed to link entrepreneurial self-efficacy to growth expectations.

Keywords: self-efficacy, overconfidence, entrepreneurship, expected growth

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16 Bayesian Variable Selection in Quantile Regression with Application to the Health and Retirement Study

Authors: Priya Kedia, Kiranmoy Das

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There is a rich literature on variable selection in regression setting. However, most of these methods assume normality for the response variable under consideration for implementing the methodology and establishing the statistical properties of the estimates. In many real applications, the distribution for the response variable may be non-Gaussian, and one might be interested in finding the best subset of covariates at some predetermined quantile level. We develop dynamic Bayesian approach for variable selection in quantile regression framework. We use a zero-inflated mixture prior for the regression coefficients, and consider the asymmetric Laplace distribution for the response variable for modeling different quantiles of its distribution. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for our computation. Our proposed approach is assessed through extensive simulation studies, and real application of the proposed approach is also illustrated. We consider the data from health and retirement study conducted by the University of Michigan, and select the important predictors when the outcome of interest is out-of-pocket medical cost, which is considered as an important measure for financial risk. Our analysis finds important predictors at different quantiles of the outcome, and thus enhance our understanding on the effects of different predictors on the out-of-pocket medical cost.

Keywords: variable selection, quantile regression, Gibbs sampler, asymmetric Laplace distribution

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15 Nanoenergetic Materials as Effective Heat Energy Sources for Enhanced Gas Generators

Authors: Sang Beom Kim, Kyung Ju Kim, Myung Hoon Cho, Ji Hoon Kim, Soo Hyung Kim

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In this study, we systematically investigated the effect of nanoscale energetic materials in formulations of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs; heat source)/copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs; oxidizer) on the combustion and gas-generating properties of sodium azide microparticles (NaN3 MPs; gas-generating agent) for potential applications in gas generators. The burn rate of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ~0.3 m/s. However, the addition of Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP matrix caused the rates to reach ~5.3 m/s, respectively. In addition, the N2 gas volume flow rate generated by the ignition of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ~0.6 L/s, which was significantly increased to ~3.9 L/s by adding Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder. This suggested that the highly reactive NPs, with the assistance of CuO NPs, were effective heat-generating sources enabling the complete thermal decomposition of NaN3 MPs upon ignition. Al NPs were highly effective in the gas generators because of the increased reactivity induced by the reduced particle size. Finally, we successfully demonstrated that a homemade airbag with a specific volume of ~140 mL could be rapidly and fully inflated by the thermal activation of nanoscale energetic material-added gas-generating agents (i.e., NaN3 MP/Al NP/CuO NP composites) within the standard time of ~50 ms for airbag inflation.

Keywords: nanoenergetic materials, aluminum nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, gas generators

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14 Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia

Authors: Mokhtar Kouki Inès Rekik

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This paper focuses on the assessment of the air pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women, the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after the 1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models (Poisson, Negative binomial, Zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle, Negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models). Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability of positive number of restricted activity days.

Keywords: bootstrapping, hurdle negbin model, overdispersion, ozone concentration, respiratory-related restricted activity days

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13 Direct and Indirect Impacts of Predator Conflict in Kanha National Park, India

Authors: Diane H. Dotson, Shari L. Rodriguez

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Habitat for predators is on the decline worldwide, which often brings humans and predators into conflict over remaining shared space and common resources. While the direct impacts of human predator conflict on humans (i.e., attacks on livestock or humans resulting in injury or death) are well documented, the indirect impacts of conflict on humans (i.e., downstream effects such as fear, stress, opportunity costs, PTSD) have not been addressed. We interviewed 437 people living in 54 villages on the periphery of Kanha National Park, India, to assess the amount and severity of direct and indirect impacts of predator conflict. ​While 58% of livestock owners believed that predator attacks on livestock guards occurred frequently and 62% of those who collect forest products believed that predator attacks on those collecting occurred frequently, less than 20% of all participants knew of someone who had experienced an attack. Data related to indirect impacts suggest that such impacts are common; 76% of participants indicated they were afraid a predator will physically injure them. Livestock owners reported that livestock guarding took time away from their primary job (61%) and getting enough sleep (73%), and believed that it increased their vulnerability to illnesses (80%). These results suggest that the perceptions of risk of predator attack are likely inflated, yet the costs of human predator impacts may be substantially higher than previously estimated, particularly related to human well-being, making the implementation of appropriate and effective conservation and conflict mitigation strategies and policies increasingly urgent.

Keywords: direct impacts, indirect impacts, human-predator conflict, India

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12 Marginalized Two-Part Joint Models for Generalized Gamma Family of Distributions

Authors: Mohadeseh Shojaei Shahrokhabadi, Ding-Geng (Din) Chen

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Positive continuous outcomes with a substantial number of zero values and incomplete longitudinal follow-up are quite common in medical cost data. To jointly model semi-continuous longitudinal cost data and survival data and to provide marginalized covariate effect estimates, a marginalized two-part joint model (MTJM) has been developed for outcome variables with lognormal distributions. In this paper, we propose MTJM models for outcome variables from a generalized gamma (GG) family of distributions. The GG distribution constitutes a general family that includes approximately all of the most frequently used distributions like the Gamma, Exponential, Weibull, and Log Normal. In the proposed MTJM-GG model, the conditional mean from a conventional two-part model with a three-parameter GG distribution is parameterized to provide the marginal interpretation for regression coefficients. In addition, MTJM-gamma and MTJM-Weibull are developed as special cases of MTJM-GG. To illustrate the applicability of the MTJM-GG, we applied the model to a set of real electronic health record data recently collected in Iran, and we provided SAS code for application. The simulation results showed that when the outcome distribution is unknown or misspecified, which is usually the case in real data sets, the MTJM-GG consistently outperforms other models. The GG family of distribution facilitates estimating a model with improved fit over the MTJM-gamma, standard Weibull, or Log-Normal distributions.

Keywords: marginalized two-part model, zero-inflated, right-skewed, semi-continuous, generalized gamma

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11 Towards Green(er) Cities: The Role of Spatial Planning in Realising the Green Agenda

Authors: Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers

Abstract:

The green hype is becoming stronger within various disciplines, modern practices and academic thinking, enforced by concepts such as eco-health, eco-tourism, eco-cities, and eco-engineering. There is currently also an expanded scientific understanding regarding the value and benefits relating to green infrastructure, for both communities and their host cities, linked to broader sustainability and resilience thinking. The integration and implementation of green infrastructure as part of spatial planning approaches and municipal planning, are, however, more complex, especially in South Africa, inflated by limitations of budgets and human resources, development pressures, inequities in terms of green space availability and political legacies of the past. The prevailing approach to spatial planning is further contributing to complexity, linked to misguided perceptions of the function and value of green infrastructure. As such, green spaces are often considered a luxury, and green infrastructure a costly alternative, resulting in green networks being susceptible to land-use changes and under-prioritized in local authority decision-making. Spatial planning, in this sense, may well be a valuable tool to realise the green agenda, encapsulating various initiatives of sustainability as provided by a range of disciplines. This paper aims to clarify the importance and value of green infrastructure planning as a component of spatial planning approaches, in order to inform and encourage local authorities to embed sustainability thinking into city planning and decision-making approaches. It reflects on the decisive role of land-use management to guide the green agenda and refers to some recent planning initiatives. Lastly, it calls for trans-disciplinary planning approaches to build a case towards green(er) cities.

Keywords: green infrastructure, spatial planning, transdisciplinary, integrative

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10 Biodegradable Polymeric Composites of Polylactide and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

Authors: Masek A., Diakowska K., Zaborski M.

Abstract:

Polymeric materials have found their use almost in every branch of industry worldwide. Most of them constitute so-called “petropolymers" obtained from crude oil. However literature information sounds a warning that its global sources are running out. Thus, it seems that one should search for polymeric materials from renewable raw materials belonging to the group of green polymers. Therefore on account of environmental protection and the issue of sustainable technologies, nowadays greater and greater achievements have been observed in the field of green technology using engineering sciences to develop composite materials. The main aim of this study was to research what is the influence of biofillers on the properties. We used biofillers like : cellulose with different length of fiber, cellulose UFC100, silica and montmorillonite. In our research, we reported on biodegradable composites exhibitingspecificity properties by melt blending of polylactide (PLA), one of the commercially available biodegradable material, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) containing 50 mol.%epoxy group. Blending hydrophilic natural polymers and aliphatic polyesters is of significant interest, since it could lead to the development of a new range of biodegradable polymeric materials. We research the degradation of composites on the basis epoxidized natural rubber and poly(lactide). The addition of biofillers caused far-reaching degradation processes. The greatest resistance to biodegradation showed a montmorillonite-based mixtures, the smallest inflated cellulose fibers of varying length.The final aim in the present study is to use ENR and poly(lactide) to design composite from renewable resources with controlled degradation.

Keywords: renewable resources, biopolymer, degradation, polylactide

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9 Failure of Agriculture Soil following the Passage of Tractors

Authors: Anis Eloud, Sayed Chehaibi

Abstract:

Compaction of agricultural soils as a result of the passage of heavy machinery on the fields is a problem that affects many agronomists and farmers since it results in a loss of yield of most crops. To remedy this, and raise the overall future of the food security challenge, we must study and understand the process of soil degradation. The present review is devoted to understanding the effect of repeated passages on agricultural land. The experiments were performed on a plot of the area of the ESIER, characterized by a clay texture in order to quantify the soil compaction caused by the wheels of the tractor during repeated passages on agricultural land. The test tractor CASE type puissance 110 hp and 5470 kg total mass of 3500 kg including the two rear axles and 1970 kg on the front axle. The state of soil compaction has been characterized by measuring its resistance to penetration by means of a penetrometer and direct manual reading, the density and permeability of the soil. Soil moisture was taken jointly. The measurements are made in the initial state before passing the tractor and after each pass varies from 1 to 7 on the track wheel inflated to 1.5 bar for the rear wheel and broke water to the level of valve and 4 bar for the front wheels. The passages are spaced to the average of one week. The results show that the passage of wheels on a farm tilled soil leads to compaction and the latter increases with the number of passages, especially for the upper 15 cm depth horizons. The first passage is characterized by the greatest effect. However, the effect of other passages do not follow a definite law for the complex behavior of granular media and the history of labor and the constraints it suffers from its formation.

Keywords: wheel traffic, tractor, soil compaction, wheel

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8 Location Choice: The Effects of Network Configuration upon the Distribution of Economic Activities in the Chinese City of Nanning

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Zhong Wang, Panagiotis Psimoulis

Abstract:

Contemporary studies investigating the association between the spatial configuration of the urban network and economic activities at the street level were mostly conducted within space syntax conceptual framework. These findings supported the theory of 'movement economy' and demonstrated the impact of street configuration on the distribution of pedestrian movement and land-use shaping, especially retail activities. However, the effects varied between different urban contexts. In this paper, the relationship between economic activity distribution and the urban configurational characters was examined at the segment level. In the study area, three kinds of neighbourhood types, urban, suburban, and rural neighbourhood, were included. And among all neighbourhoods, three kinds of urban network form, 'tree-like', grid, and organic pattern, were recognised. To investigate the nested effects of urban configuration measured by space syntax approach and urban context, multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were constructed. Additionally, considering the spatial autocorrelation, spatial lag was also concluded in the model as an independent variable. The random effect ZINB model shows superiority over the ZINB model or multilevel linear (ML) model in the explanation of economic activities pattern shaping over the urban environment. And after adjusting for the neighbourhood type and network form effects, connectivity and syntax centrality significantly affect economic activities clustering. The comparison between accumulative and new established economic activities illustrated the different preferences for economic activity location choice.

Keywords: space syntax, economic activities, multilevel model, Chinese city

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7 Post Apartheid Language Positionality and Policy: Student Teachers' Narratives from Teaching Practicum

Authors: Thelma Mort

Abstract:

This empirical, qualitative research uses interviews of four intermediate phase English language student teachers at one university in South Africa and is an exploration of student teacher learning on their teaching practicum in their penultimate year of the initial teacher education course. The country’s post-apartheid language in education policy provides a context to this study in that children move from mother tongue language of instruction in foundation phase to English as a language of instruction in Intermediate phase. There is another layer of context informing this study which is the school context; the student teachers’ reflections are from their teaching practicum in resource constrained schools, which make up more than 75% of schools in South Africa. The findings were that in these schools, deep biases existed to local languages, that language was being used as a proxy for social class, and that conditions necessary for language acquisition were absent. The student teachers’ attitudes were in contrast to those found in the schools, namely that they had various pragmatic approaches to overcoming obstacles and that they saw language as enabling interdisciplinary work. This study describes language issues, tensions created by policy in South African schools and also supplies a regional account of learning to teach in resource constrained schools in Cape Town, where such language tensions are more inflated. The central findings in this research illuminate attitudes to language and language education in these teaching practicum schools and the complexity of learning to be a language teacher in these contexts. This study is one of the few local empirical studies regarding language teaching in the classroom and language teacher education; as such it offers some background to the country’s poor performance in both international and national literacy assessments.

Keywords: language teaching, narrative, post apartheid, South Africa, student teacher

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6 Flocculation and Settling Rate Studies of Clean Coal Fines at Different Flocculants Dosage, pH Values, Bulk Density and Particle Size

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg

Abstract:

The results obtained from settling test of coal fines are used as an important tool to select the dewatering equipment such as thickeners, centrifuges and filters. Coal being hydrophobic in nature does not easily settle when mixed with water. Coal slurry that takes longer time to release water is highly undesirable because it poses additional challenge during sedimentation, centrifuge and filtration. If filter cake has higher than permitted moisture content then it not only creates handling problems but inflated freight costs and reduction in input and productivity for coke oven charges. It is to be noted that coal fines drastically increase moisture percentage in filter cake hence are to be minimized. To increase settling rate of coal fines in slurry chemical substances called flocculants or coagulants are added that cause coal particles to flocculate or coalesce into larger particles. These larger particles settle at faster rate and have higher settling velocity. Other important factors affecting settling rate are flocculent dosage, slurry or pulp density and particle size. Hence in this paper we tried to study the settling characteristic of clean coal fines by varying one of the four factors namely 1. Flocculant Dosage (acryl-amide) 2. pH of the water 3. Bulk density 4. Particle size of clean coal fines in settling experiment and drew important conclusions. Result of this paper will be much useful not only for coal beneficiation plant design but also for cost reduction of coke production facilities.

Keywords: bulk density, coal fines, flocculants, flocculation, settling velocity, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 248