Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: compressor

108 A Compressor Map Optimizing Tool for Prediction of Compressor Off-Design Performance

Authors: Zhongzhi Hu, Jie Shen, Jiqiang Wang


A high precision aeroengine model is needed when developing the engine control system. Compared with other main components, the axial compressor is the most challenging component to simulate. In this paper, a compressor map optimizing tool based on the introduction of a modifiable β function is developed for FWorks (FADEC Works). Three parameters (d density, f fitting coefficient, k₀ slope of the line β=0) are introduced to the β function to make it modifiable. The comparison of the traditional β function and the modifiable β function is carried out for a certain type of compressor. The interpolation errors show that both methods meet the modeling requirements, while the modifiable β function can predict compressor performance more accurately for some areas of the compressor map where the users are interested in.

Keywords: beta function, compressor map, interpolation error, map optimization tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
107 Online Compressor Washing for Gas Turbine Power Output

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Isaiah Thank-God Ebi, Dodeye Ina Igbong


The privatization of utilities has brought about very strong competition in industries such as petrochemical and gas distribution among others, considering the continuous increase in cost of fuel. This has brought about the intense reason for gas turbine owners and operators to reduce and control performance degradation of the engine in other to minimize cost. The most common and very crucial problem of the gas turbine is the fouling of compressor, which is mostly caused by a reduction in flow capacity, compressor efficiency, and pressure ratio, this, in turn, lead to the engine compressor re-matching and output power and thermal efficiency reduction. The content of this paper encompasses a detailed presentation of the major causes, effects and control mechanism of fouling. The major emphasis is on compressor water washing to enable power augmentation. A modelled gas turbine similar to that of GE LM6000 is modelled for the current study, based on TURBOMATCH which is a Cranfield University software specifically made for gas turbine performance simulation and fouling detection. The compounded and intricate challenges of compressor online water washing of large output gas turbine are carried out. The treatment is applied to axial compressor used in the petrochemical and hydrocarbon industry.

Keywords: gas turbine, fouling, degradation, compressor washing

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
106 One-Dimensional Performance Improvement of a Single-Stage Transonic Compressor

Authors: A. Shahsavari, M. Nili-Ahmadabadi


This paper presents an innovative one-dimensional optimization of a transonic compressor based on the radial equilibrium theory by means of increasing blade loading. Firstly, the rotor blade of the transonic compressor is redesigned based on the constant span-wise deHaller number and diffusion. The code is applied to extract compressor meridional plane and blade to blade geometry containing rotor and stator in order to design blade three-dimensional view. A structured grid is generated for the numerical domain of fluid. Finer grids are used for regions near walls to capture boundary layer effects and behavior. RANS equations are solved by finite volume method for rotating zones (rotor) and stationary zones (stator). The experimental data, available for the performance map of NASA Rotor67, is used to validate the results of simulations. Then, the capability of the design method is validated by CFD that is capable of predicting the performance map. The numerical results of new geometry show about 19% increase in pressure ratio and 11% improvement in overall efficiency of the transonic stage; however, the design point mass flow rate of the new compressor is 5.7% less than that of the original compressor.

Keywords: deHaller number, one dimensional design, radial equilibrium, transonic compressor

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
105 Design Optimization of a Micro Compressor for Micro Gas Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Kamran Siddique, Hiroyuki Asada, Yoshifumi Ogami


The use of Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) as the engine in Unmanned Aerobic Vehicles (UAVs) and power source in Robotics is widespread these days. Research has been conducted in the past decade or so to improve the performance of different components of MGT. This type of engine has interrelated components which have non-linear characteristics. Therefore, the overall engine performance depends on the individual engine element’s performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the simulation method tools used to analyze or even optimize MGT system performance. In this study, the compressor of the MGT is designed, and performance optimization is being done using CFD. Performance of the micro compressor is improved in order to increase the overall performance of MGT. A high value of pressure ratio is to be achieved by studying the effect of change of different operating parameters like mass flow rate and revolutions per minute (RPM) and aerodynamical and geometrical parameters on the pressure ratio of the compressor. Two types of compressor designs are considered in this study; 3D centrifugal and ‘planar’ designs. For a 10 mm impeller, the planar model is the simplest compressor model with the ease in manufacturability. On the other hand, 3D centrifugal model, although more efficient, is very difficult to manufacture using current microfabrication resources. Therefore, the planar model is the best-suited model for a micro compressor. So. a planar micro compressor has been designed that has a good pressure ratio, and it is easy to manufacture using current microfabrication technologies. Future work is to fabricate the compressor to get experimental results and validate the theoretical model.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, microfabrication, MEMS, unmanned aerobic vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
104 A Comparison of Design and Off-Design Performances of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Zeynep Aytaç, Nuri Yücel


Today, as the need for high efficiency and fuel-efficient engines have increased, centrifugal compressor designs are expected to be high-efficient and have high-pressure ratios than ever. The present study represents a design methodology of centrifugal compressor placed in a mini jet engine for the design and off-design points with the utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and compares the performance characteristics at the mentioned two points. Although the compressor is expected to provide the required specifications at the design point, it is known that it is important for the design to deliver the required parameters at the off-design point also as it will not operate at the design point always. It was observed that the obtained mass flow rate, pressure ratio, and efficiency values are within the limits of the design specifications for the design and off-design points. Despite having different design inputs for the mentioned two points, they reveal similar flow characteristics in the general frame.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, computational fluid dynamics, design point, off-design point

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
103 Performance Improvement in a Micro Compressor for Micro Gas Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Kamran Siddique, Hiroyuki Asada, Yoshifumi Ogami


Micro gas turbine (MGT) nowadays has a wide variety of applications from drones to hybrid electric vehicles. As microfabrication technology getting better, the size of MGT is getting smaller. Overall performance of MGT is dependent on the individual components. Each component’s performance is dependent and interrelated with another component. Therefore, careful consideration needs to be given to each and every individual component of MGT. In this study, the focus is on improving the performance of the compressor in order to improve the overall performance of MGT. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being performed using the software FLUENT to analyze the design of a micro compressor. Operating parameters like mass flow rate and RPM, and design parameters like inner blade angle (IBA), outer blade angle (OBA), blade thickness and number of blades are varied to study its effect on the performance of the compressor. Pressure ratio is used as a tool to measure the performance of the compressor. Higher the pressure ratio, better the design is. In the study, target mass flow rate is 0.2 g/s and RPM to be less than or equal to 900,000. So far, a pressure ratio of above 3 has been achieved at 0.2 g/s mass flow rate with 5 rotor blades, 0.36 mm blade thickness, 94.25 degrees OBA and 10.46 degrees IBA. The design in this study differs from a regular centrifugal compressor used in conventional gas turbines such that compressor is designed keeping in mind ease of manufacturability. So, this study proposes a compressor design which has a good pressure ratio, and at the same time, it is easy to manufacture using current microfabrication technologies.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, FLUENT microfabrication, RPM

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
102 Solution for Rider Ring Wear Problem in Boil off Gas Reciprocating Compressor: A Case Study

Authors: Hessam Mortezaei, Saeid Joudakian


In this paper, the wear problem on rider rings of boil off gas compressor has been studied. This kind of oil free double acting compressor has free floating piston (FFP) technology and as a result of that it should have the lowest possible wear on its rider rings. But a design problem had caused a complete wear of rider rings after one month of continuous operation. In this case study, the source of this problem was recognized and solved.

Keywords: piston rider, rings, gas distribution, pressure wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
101 Stress Corrosion Crack Identification with Direct Assessment Method in Pipeline Downstream from a Compressor Station

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour


Stress Corrosion Crack (SCC) in pipeline is a type of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), since its discovery in 1965 as a possible cause of failure in pipeline, SCC has caused, on average, one of two failures per year in the U.S, According to the NACE SCC DA a pipe line segment is considered susceptible to SCC if all of the following factors are met: The operating stress exceeds 60% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the operating temperature exceeds 38°C, the segment is less than 32 km downstream from a compressor station, the age of the pipeline is greater than 10 years and the coating type is other than Fusion Bonded Epoxy(FBE). In this paper as a practical experience in NISOC, Direct Assessment (DA) Method is used for identification SCC defect in unpiggable pipeline located downstream of compressor station.

Keywords: stress corrosion crack, direct assessment, disbondment, transgranular SCC, compressor station

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
100 Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution

Authors: Kewei Xu, Jens Friedrich, Kevin Dwinger, Wei Fan, Xijin Zhang


Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.

Keywords: parallel compressor model (pcm), revised calculation method, inlet distortion, outlet unequal pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
99 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen


The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
98 Effects of Inlet Filtration Pressure Loss on Single and Two-Spool Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Archibong Eso


Gas turbine operators have been faced with the dramatic financial setback resulting from compressor fouling. In a highly deregulated power industry where there is stiffness in the market competition, has made it imperative to improvise means of reducing maintenance cost in other to yield maximum profit. Compressor fouling results from the deposition of contaminants in the presence of oil and moisture on the compressor blade or annulus surfaces, which leads to a loss in flow capacity and compressor efficiency. These combined effects reduce power output, increase heat rate and cause creep life reduction. This paper also contains a model of two gas turbine engines via Cranfield University software known as TURBOMATCH, which is simulation software for detecting engine fouling rate. The model engines are of different configurations and capacities, and are operating in two different modes of constant output power and turbine inlet temperature for a two and three stage filter system. The idea is to investigate the more economically viable filtration systems by gas turbine users based on performance only. It has been demonstrated in the results that the two spool engine is a little more beneficial compared to the single spool. This is as a result of a higher pressure ratio of the two spools as well as the deceleration of the high-pressure compressor and high-pressure turbine speed in a constant TET. Meanwhile, the inlet filtration system was properly designed and balanced with a well-timed and economical compressor washing regime/scheme to control compressor fouling. The different technologies of inlet air filtration and compressor washing are considered and an attempt at optimization with respect to the cost of a combination of both control measures are made.

Keywords: inlet filtration, pressure loss, single spool, two spool

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
97 Computational Analysis of the Scaling Effects on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Junting Xiang, Jörg Uwe Schlüter, Fei Duan


The miniaturization of gas turbines promises many advantages. Miniature gas turbines can be used for local power generation or the propulsion of small aircraft, such as UAV and MAV. However, experience shows that the miniaturization of conventional gas turbines, which are optimized at their current large size, leads to a substantial loss of efficiency and performance at smaller scales. This may be due to a number of factors, such as the Reynolds-number effect, the increased heat transfer, and manufacturing tolerances. In the present work, we focus on computational investigations of the Reynolds number effect and the wall heat transfer on the performance of axial compressor during its size change. The NASA stage 35 compressors are selected as the configuration in this study and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to carry out the miniaturization process and simulations. We perform parameter studies on the effect of Reynolds number and wall thermal conditions. Our results indicate a decrease of efficiency, if the compressor is miniaturized based on its original geometry due to the increase of viscous effects. The increased heat transfer through wall has only a small effect and will actually benefit compressor performance based on our study.

Keywords: axial compressor, CFD, heat transfer, miniature gas turbines, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
96 Effects of Inlet Distorted Flows on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Asad Islam, Khalid Parvez


Compressor fans in modern aircraft engines are of considerate importance, as they provide majority of thrust required by the aircraft. Their challenging environment is frequently subjected to non-uniform inflow conditions. These conditions could be either due to the flight operating requirements such as take-off and landing, wake interference from aircraft fuselage or cross-flow wind conditions. So, in highly maneuverable flights regimes of fighter aircrafts affects the overall performance of an engine. Since the flow in compressor of an aircraft application is highly sensitive because of adverse pressure gradient due to different flow orientations of the aircraft. Therefore, it is prone to unstable operations. This paper presents the study that focuses on axial compressor response to inlet flow orientations for the range of angles as 0 to 15 degrees. For this purpose, NASA Rotor-37 was taken and CFD mesh was developed. The compressor characteristics map was generated for the design conditions of pressure ratio of 2.106 with the rotor operating at rotational velocity of 17188.7 rpm using CFD simulating environment of ANSYS-CFX®. The grid study was done to see the effects of mesh upon computational solution. Then, the mesh giving the best results, (when validated with the available experimental NASA’s results); was used for further distortion analysis. The flow in the inlet nozzle was given angle orientations ranging from 0 to 15 degrees. The CFD results are analyzed and discussed with respect to stall margin and flow separations due to induced distortions.

Keywords: axial compressor, distortions, angle, CFD, ANSYS-CFX®, bladegen®

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
95 Effect of Volute Tongue Shape and Position on Performance of Turbo Machinery Compressor

Authors: Anuj Srivastava, Kuldeep Kumar


This paper proposes a numerical study of volute tongue design, which affects the centrifugal compressor operating range and pressure recovery. Increased efficiency has been the traditional importance of compressor design. However, the increased operating range has become important in an age of ever-increasing productivity and energy costs in the turbomachinery industry. Efficiency and overall operating range are the two most important parameters studied to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressor. Volute is one of the components that have significant effect on these two parameters. Choice of volute tongue geometry has major role in compressor performance, also affects performance map. The author evaluates the trade-off on using pull-back tongue geometry on centrifugal compressor performance. In present paper, three different tongue positions and shapes are discussed. These designs are compared in terms of pressure recovery coefficient, pressure loss coefficient, and stable operating range. The detailed flow structures for various volute geometries and pull back angle near tongue are studied extensively to explore the fluid behavior. The viscous Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate the flow inside the volute. The numerical calculations are compared with thermodynamic 1-D calculations. Author concludes that the increment in compression ratio accompanies with more uniform pressure distribution in the modified tongue shape and location, a uniform static pressure around the circumferential which build a more uniform flow in the impeller and diffuser. Also, the blockage at the tongue of the volute was causing circumferentially nonuniformed pressure along the volute. This nonuniformity may lead impeller and diffuser to operate unstably. However, it is not the volute that directly controls the stall.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor volute, tongue geometry, pull-back, compressor performance, flow instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
94 Coefficient of Performance (COP) Optimization of an R134a Cross Vane Expander Compressor Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi


Cross Vane Expander Compressor (CVEC) is a newly invented expander-compressor combined unit, where it is introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve in traditional refrigeration system. The mathematical model of CVEC has been developed to examine its performance, and it was found that the energy consumption of a conventional refrigeration system was reduced by as much as 18%. It is believed that energy consumption can be further reduced by optimizing the device. In this study, the coefficient of performance (COP) of CVEC has been optimized under predetermined operational parameters and constrained main design parameters. Several main design parameters of CVEC were selected to be the variables, and the optimization was done with theoretical model in a simulation program. The theoretical model consists of geometrical model, dynamic model, heat transfer model and valve dynamics model. Complex optimization method, which is a constrained, direct search and multi-variables method was used in the study. As a result, the optimization study suggested that with an appropriate combination of design parameters, a 58% COP improvement in CVEC R134a refrigeration system is possible.

Keywords: COP, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, design, simulation, refrigeration system, air-conditioning, R134a, multi variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
93 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants, Part II: Compressor Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei


The electrical power consumption related to refrigeration systems is evaluated to be in the order of 15% of the total electricity consumption worldwide. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been suggested to reduce the power demand of refrigeration and air conditioning plants. The research work deals with the development of an innovative internal power recovery system for industrial cryogenic cooling plants. Such system is based on a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG). Both the expander and the compressor have been designed starting from automotive turbocharging components, strongly modified to take refrigerant fluid properties and specific system requirements into consideration. A preliminary choice of the machines (radial compressors and expanders) among existing components available on the market was realised according to the rules of the similarity theory. Once the expander was selected, it was strongly modified and performance verified by means of steady-state 3D CFD simulations. This paper focuses the attention on the development of the second CEG main component: the compressor. Once the preliminary selection has been done, the compressor geometry has been modified to take the new boundary conditions into account. In particular, the impeller has been machined to address the required total enthalpy increase. Such evaluation has been carried out by means of a simplified 1D model. Moreover, a vaneless diffuser has been added, modifying the shape of casing rear and front disks. To verify the performance of the modified compressor geometry and suggest improvements, a numerical fluid dynamic model has been set up and the commercial Ansys-CFX software has been used to perform steady-state 3D simulations. In this work, all the numerical results will be shown, highlighting critical aspects and suggesting further developments to increase compressor performance and flexibility.

Keywords: vapour compression systems, energy saving, refrigeration plant, organic fluids, centrifugal compressor

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
92 Research of Stalled Operational Modes of Axial-Flow Compressor for Diagnostics of Pre-Surge State

Authors: F. Mohammadsadeghi


Relevance of research: Axial compressors are used in both aircraft engine construction and ground-based gas turbine engines. The compressor is considered to be one of the main gas turbine engine units, which define absolute and relative indicators of engine in general. Failure of compressor often leads to drastic consequences. Therefore, safe (stable) operation must be maintained when using axial compressor. Currently, we can observe a tendency of increase of power unit, productivity, circumferential velocity and compression ratio of axial compressors in gas turbine engines of aircraft and ground-based application whereas metal consumption of their structure tends to fall. This causes the increase of dynamic loads as well as danger of damage of high load compressor or engine structure elements in general due to transient processes. In operating practices of aeronautical engineering and ground units with gas turbine drive the operational stability failure of gas turbine engines is one of relatively often failure causes what can lead to emergency situations. Surge occurrence is considered to be an absolute buckling failure. This is one of the most dangerous and often occurring types of instability. However detailed were the researches of this phenomenon the development of measures for surge before-the-fact prevention is still relevant. This is why the research of transient processes for axial compressors is necessary in order to provide efficient, stable and secure operation. The paper addresses the problem of automatic control system improvement by integrating the anti-surge algorithms for axial compressor of aircraft gas turbine engine. Paper considers dynamic exhaustion of gas dynamic stability of compressor stage, results of numerical simulation of airflow flowing through the airfoil at design and stalling modes, experimental researches to form the criteria that identify the compressor state at pre-surge mode detection. Authors formulated basic ways for developing surge preventing systems, i.e. forming the algorithms that allow detecting the surge origination and the systems that implement the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: axial compressor, rotation stall, Surg, unstable operation of gas turbine engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
91 Instrumentation for Engine Start Cycle Characterization at Cold Weather High Altitude Condition

Authors: Amit Kumar Gupta, Rohit Vashistha, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale


A cold soaked gas turbine engine have known starting problems in high altitude and low temperature conditions. The high altitude results in lower ambient temperature, pressure, and density. Soaking at low temperature leads to higher oil viscosity, increasing the engine starter system torque requirement. Also, low temperature soaks results in a cold compressor rotor and casing. Since the thermal mass of rotor is higher than casing, casing expands faster, thereby, increasing the blade-casing tip clearance. The low pressure flow over the compressor blade coupled with the secondary flow through the compressor tip clearance during start result in stall inception. The present study discusses engine instrumentation required for capturing the stall inception event. The engine fan exit and combustion chamber were instrumented with dynamic pressure probes to capture the pressure characteristic and clamp-on current meter on primary igniter cable to capture ignition event during start cycle. The experiment was carried out at 10500 Ft. pressure altitude and -15°C ambient temperature. The high pressure compressor stall events were recorded during the starts.

Keywords: compressor inlet, dynamic pressure probe, engine start cycle, flight test instrumentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
90 Effect of Surface Quality of 3D Printed Impeller on the Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Nader Zirak, Mohammadali Shirinbayan, Abbas Tcharkhtchi


Additive manufacturing is referred to as a method for fabrication of parts with a mechanism of layer by layer. Suitable economic efficiency and the ability to fabrication complex parts have made this method the focus of studies and industry. In recent years many studies focused on the fabrication of impellers, which is referred to as a key component of turbomachinery, through this technique. This study considers the important effect of the final surface quality of the impeller on the performance of the system, investigates the fabricated printed rotors through the fused deposition modeling with different process parameters. In this regard, the surface of each impeller was analyzed through the 3D scanner. The results show the vital role of surface quality on the final performance of the centrifugal compressor.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, impeller, centrifugal compressor, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
89 Authoring of Augmented Reality Manuals for Not Physically Available Products

Authors: Vito M. Manghisi, Michele Gattullo, Alessandro Evangelista, Enricoandrea Laviola


In this work, we compared two solutions for displaying a demo version of an Augmented Reality (AR) manual when the real product is not available, opting to replace it with its computer-aided design (CAD) model. AR has been proved to be effective in maintenance and assembly operations by many studies in the literature. However, most of them present solutions for existing products, usually converting old, printed manuals into AR manuals. In this case, authoring consists of defining how to convey existing instructions through AR. It is not a simple choice, and demo versions are created to test the design goodness. However, this becomes impossible when the product is not physically available, as for new products. A solution could be creating an entirely virtual environment with the product and the instructions. However, in this way, user interaction is completely different from that in the real application, then it would be hard testing the usability of the AR manual. This work aims to propose and compare two different solutions for the displaying of a demo version of an AR manual to support authoring in case of a product that is not physically available. We used as a case study that of an innovative semi-hermetic compressor that has not yet been produced. The applications were developed for a handheld device, using Unity 3D. The main issue was how to show the compressor and attach instructions on it. In one approach, we used Vuforia natural feature tracking to attach a CAD model of the compressor to a 2D image that is a drawing in scale 1:1 of the top-view of the CAD model. In this way, during the AR manual demonstration, the 3D model of the compressor is displayed on the user's device in place of the real compressor, and all the virtual instructions are attached to it. In the other approach, we first created a support application that shows the CAD model of the compressor on a marker. Then, we registered a video of this application, moving around the marker, obtaining a video that shows the CAD model from every point of view. For the AR manual, we used the Vuforia model target (360° option) to track the CAD model of the compressor, as it was the real compressor. Then, during the demonstration, the video is shown on a fixed large screen, and instructions are displayed attached to it in the AR manual. The first solution presents the main drawback to keeping the printed image with everyone working on the authoring of the AR manual, but allows to show the product in a real scale and interaction during the demonstration is very simple. The second one does not need a printed marker during the demonstration but a screen. Still, the compressor model is resized, and interaction is awkward since the user has to play the video on the screen to rotate the compressor. The two solutions were evaluated together with the company, and the preferred was the first one due to a more natural interaction.

Keywords: augmented reality, human computer interaction, operating instructions, maintenance, assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
88 Aerodynamic Design Optimization Technique for a Tube Capsule That Uses an Axial Flow Air Compressor and an Aerostatic Bearing

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Muhammed A. Hashem


High-speed transportation has become a growing concern. To increase high-speed efficiencies and minimize power consumption of a vehicle, we need to eliminate the friction with the ground and minimize the aerodynamic drag acting on the vehicle. Due to the complexity and high power requirements of electromagnetic levitation, we make use of the air in front of the capsule, that produces the majority of the drag, to compress it in two phases and inject a proportion of it through small nozzles to make a high-pressure air cushion to levitate the capsule. The tube is partially-evacuated so that the air pressure is optimized for maximum compressor effectiveness, optimum tube size, and minimum vacuum pump power consumption. The total relative mass flow rate of the tube air is divided into two fractions. One is by-passed to flow over the capsule body, ensuring that no chocked flow takes place. The other fraction is sucked by the compressor where it is diffused to decrease the Mach number (around 0.8) to be suitable for the compressor inlet. The air is then compressed and intercooled, then split. One fraction is expanded through a tail nozzle to contribute to generating thrust. The other is compressed again. Bleed from the two compressors is used to maintain a constant air pressure in an air tank. The air tank is used to supply air for levitation. Dividing the total mass flow rate increases the achievable speed (Kantrowitz limit), and compressing it decreases the blockage of the capsule. As a result, the aerodynamic drag on the capsule decreases. As the tube pressure decreases, the drag decreases and the capsule power requirements decrease, however, the vacuum pump consumes more power. That’s why Design optimization techniques are to be used to get the optimum values for all the design variables given specific design inputs. Aerodynamic shape optimization, Capsule and tube sizing, compressor design, diffuser and nozzle expander design and the effect of the air bearing on the aerodynamics of the capsule are to be considered. The variations of the variables are to be studied for the change of the capsule velocity and air pressure.

Keywords: tube-capsule, hyperloop, aerodynamic design optimization, air compressor, air bearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
87 Modified Montgomery for RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Rupali Verma, Maitreyee Dutta, Renu Vig


Encryption and decryption in RSA are done by modular exponentiation which is achieved by repeated modular multiplication. Hence, efficiency of modular multiplication directly determines the efficiency of RSA cryptosystem. This paper designs a Modified Montgomery Modular multiplication in which addition of operands is computed by 4:2 compressor. The basic logic operations in addition are partitioned over two iterations such that parallel computations are performed. This reduces the critical path delay of proposed Montgomery design. The proposed design and RSA are implemented on Virtex 2 and Virtex 5 FPGAs. The two factors partitioning and parallelism have improved the frequency and throughput of proposed design.

Keywords: RSA, montgomery modular multiplication, 4:2 compressor, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
86 Analysis of a Multiejector Cooling System in a Truck at Different Loads

Authors: Leonardo E. Pacheco, Carlos A. Díaz


An alternative way of addressing the difficult to recover the useless heat is through an ejector refrigeration cycle for vehicles applications. A group of thermo-compressor supply the mechanical compressor function at conventional refrigeration compression system. The thermo-compressor group recovers the thermal energy from waste streams (exhaust gases product in internal combustion motors, gases burned in wellhead among others) to eliminate the power consumption of the mechanical compressor. These types of alternative cooling system (air-conditioners) present a kind of advantages in both the increase in energy efficiency and the improvement of the COP of the system being studied from their its mechanical simplicity (decrease of moving parts). An ejector refrigeration cycle represents a significant step forward in the optimization of the efficient use of energy in the process of air conditioning and an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts. On one side, with the energy recycling decreases the temperature of the gases thrown into the atmosphere, which contributes to the principal beneficiaries of the average temperature of the planet. In parallel, mitigating the environmental impact caused by the production and handling of conventional cooling fluids commonly available in the market, causing the destruction of the ozone layer. This work had studied the operation of the multiejector cooling system for a truck with a 420 HP engine at different rotation speed. The operation condition limits and the COP of multi-ejector cooling systems applied in a truck are analyzed for a variable rpm range from to 800–1800 rpm.

Keywords: ejector system, exhaust gas, multiejector cooling system, recovery energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
85 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

Authors: K. Soldatova, Y. Galerkin


A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Keywords: loading factor performance, centrifugal compressor, impeller, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
84 Performance Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with Alternate Refrigerants

Authors: K. Parthiban, P. Pradeep, I. Pon Surya Prakash, S. Vinoth, A. Murugan


The main aim of this project is to analyze the performance of vapor compression refrigeration system with alternate refrigerants. Currently we are using R134a as refrigerant. It is used in both household and industrial appliances as refrigerant. It has an advantage that the ozone depletion potential is zero i.e. R134a does not affects ozone layer. But its Global warming potential is considerably high. Also the compressor failure occurs frequently. Hence this project deals with how the performance of R134a varies with blended refrigerants such as R416a and R407c. This analysis is based on how much the Co-efficient of Performance (COP) varies with different refrigerants.

Keywords: compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator

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83 Methodology for the Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Pneumatics Systems

Authors: Mario Lupaca, Karol Munoz, Victor De Negri


The present article presents a methodology for the improvement of the energy efficiency in pneumatic systems through the restoring of air. In this way, three techniques of expansion of a cylinder are identified: Expansion using the air of the compressor (conventional), restoring the air (efficient), and combining the air of the compressor and the restored air (hybrid). The methodology starts with the development of the GRAFCET of the system so that it can be decided whether to expand the cylinder in a conventional, efficient, or hybrid way. The methodology can be applied to any case. Finally, graphs of comparison between the three methods of expansion with certain cylinder strokes and workloads are presented, to facilitate the subsequent selection of one system or another.

Keywords: energetic, efficiency, GRAFCET, methodology, pneumatic

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82 Study of the Effect of the Contra-Rotating Component on the Performance of the Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Van Thang Nguyen, Amelie Danlos, Richard Paridaens, Farid Bakir


This article presents a study of the effect of a contra-rotating component on the efficiency of centrifugal compressors. A contra-rotating centrifugal compressor (CRCC) is constructed using two independent rotors, rotating in the opposite direction and replacing the single rotor of a conventional centrifugal compressor (REF). To respect the geometrical parameters of the REF one, two rotors of the CRCC are designed, based on a single rotor geometry, using the hub and shroud length ratio parameter of the meridional contour. Firstly, the first rotor is designed by choosing a value of length ratio. Then, the second rotor is calculated to be adapted to the fluid flow of the first rotor according aerodynamics principles. In this study, four values of length ratios 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 are used to create four configurations CF1, CF2, CF3, and CF4 respectively. For comparison purpose, the circumferential velocity at the outlet of the REF and the CRCC are preserved, which means that the single rotor of the REF and the second rotor of the CRCC rotate with the same speed of 16000rpm. The speed of the first rotor in this case is chosen to be equal to the speed of the second rotor. The CFD simulation is conducted to compare the performance of the CRCC and the REF with the same boundary conditions. The results show that the configuration with a higher length ratio gives higher pressure rise. However, its efficiency is lower. An investigation over the entire operating range shows that the CF1 is the best configuration in this case. In addition, the CRCC can improve the pressure rise as well as the efficiency by changing the speed of each rotor independently. The results of changing the first rotor speed show with a 130% speed increase, the pressure ratio rises of 8.7% while the efficiency remains stable at the flow rate of the design operating point.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, contra-rotating, interaction rotor, vacuum

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81 Vibration Control of Hermetic Compressors Using Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics Theory

Authors: Armin Amindari


Hermetic compressors are used widely for refrigeration, heat pump, and air conditioning applications. With the improvement of energy conservation and environmental protection requirements, inverter compressors that operates at different speeds have become increasingly attractive in the industry. Although speed change capability is more efficient, passing through resonant frequencies may lead to excessive vibrations. In this work, an integrated vibration control approach based on flexible multi-body dynamics theory is used for optimizing the vibration amplitudes of the compressor at different operating speeds. To examine the compressor vibrations, all the forces and moments exerted on the cylinder block were clarified and minimized using balancers attached to the upper and lower ends of the motor rotor and crankshaft. The vibration response of the system was simulated using Motionview™ software. In addition, mass-spring optimization was adopted to shift the resonant frequencies out of the operating speeds. The modal shapes of the system were studied using Optistruct™ solver. Using this approach, the vibrations were reduced up to 56% through dynamic simulations. The results were in high agreement with various experimental test data. In addition, the vibration resonance problem observed at low speeds was solved by shifting the resonant frequencies through optimization studies.

Keywords: vibration, MBD, compressor, hermetic

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80 Design Optimisation of a Novel Cross Vane Expander-Compressor Unit for Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi


In recent years, environmental issue has been a hot topic in the world, especially the global warming effect caused by conventional non-environmentally friendly refrigerants has increased. Several studies of a more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigeration system have been conducted in order to tackle the issue. In search of a better refrigeration system, CO2 refrigeration system has been proposed as a better option. However, the high throttling loss involved during the expansion process of the refrigeration cycle leads to a relatively low efficiency and thus the system is impractical. In order to improve the efficiency of the refrigeration system, it is suggested by replacing the conventional expansion valve in the refrigeration system with an expander. Based on this issue, a new type of expander-compressor combined unit, named Cross Vane Expander-Compressor (CVEC) was introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve of a conventional refrigeration system. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the performance of CVEC, and it was found that the machine is capable of saving the energy consumption of a refrigeration system by as much as 18%. Apart from energy saving, CVEC is also geometrically simpler and more compact. To further improve its efficiency, optimization study of the device is carried out. In this report, several design parameters of CVEC were chosen to be the variables of optimization study. This optimization study was done in a simulation program by using complex optimization method, which is a direct search, multi-variables and constrained optimization method. It was found that the main design parameters, which was shaft radius was reduced around 8% while the inner cylinder radius was remained unchanged at its lower limit after optimization. Furthermore, the port sizes were increased to their upper limit after optimization. The changes of these design parameters have resulted in reduction of around 12% in the total frictional loss and reduction of 4% in power consumption. Eventually, the optimization study has resulted in an improvement in the mechanical efficiency CVEC by 4% and improvement in COP by 6%.

Keywords: complex optimization method, COP, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, design optimization, direct search, energy saving, improvement, mechanical efficiency, multi variables

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79 Influence of Kinematic, Physical and Mechanical Structure Parameters on Aeroelastic GTU Shaft Vibrations in Magnetic Bearings

Authors: Evgeniia V. Mekhonoshina, Vladimir Ya. Modorskii, Vasilii Yu. Petrov


At present, vibrations of rotors of gas transmittal unit evade sustainable forecasting. This paper describes elastic oscillation modes in resilient supports and rotor impellers modeled during computational experiments with regard to interference in the system of gas-dynamic flow and compressor rotor. Verification of aeroelastic approach was done on model problem of interaction between supersonic jet in shock tube with deformed plate. ANSYS 15.0 engineering analysis system was used as a modeling tool of numerical simulation in this paper. Finite volume method for gas dynamics and finite elements method for assessment of the strain stress state (SSS) components were used as research methods. Rotation speed and material’s elasticity modulus varied during calculations, and SSS components and gas-dynamic parameters in the dynamic system of gas-dynamic flow and compressor rotor were evaluated. The analysis of time dependence demonstrated that gas-dynamic parameters near the rotor blades oscillate at 200 Hz, and SSS parameters at the upper blade edge oscillate four times higher, i.e. with blade frequency. It has been detected that vibration amplitudes correction in the test points at magnetic bearings by aeroelasticity may correspond up to 50%, and about -π/4 for phases.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor, aeroelasticity, interdisciplinary calculation, oscillation phase displacement, vibration, nonstationarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 189