Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: P. Pradeep

58 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi

Abstract:

Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: CFD, sloshing, VOF, multiphase

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
57 Computer Server Virtualization

Authors: Pradeep M. C. Chand

Abstract:

Virtual infrastructure initiatives often spring from data center server consolidation projects, which focus on reducing existing infrastructure “box count”, retiring older hardware or life-extending legacy applications. Server consolidation benefits result from a reduction in the overall number of systems and related recurring costs (power, cooling, rack space, etc.) and also helps in the reduction of heat to the environment.

Keywords: server virtualization, data center, consolidation, project

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
56 Performance Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with Alternate Refrigerants

Authors: K. Parthiban, P. Pradeep, I. Pon Surya Prakash, S. Vinoth, A. Murugan

Abstract:

The main aim of this project is to analyze the performance of vapor compression refrigeration system with alternate refrigerants. Currently we are using R134a as refrigerant. It is used in both household and industrial appliances as refrigerant. It has an advantage that the ozone depletion potential is zero i.e. R134a does not affects ozone layer. But its Global warming potential is considerably high. Also the compressor failure occurs frequently. Hence this project deals with how the performance of R134a varies with blended refrigerants such as R416a and R407c. This analysis is based on how much the Co-efficient of Performance (COP) varies with different refrigerants.

Keywords: compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
55 Mentoring Writing Skills: A Classroom Friendly Approach

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

Facilitating writing skill among the young techies seems a bit challenging. Various factors may owe to this difficulty. Inappropriate syllabus, inadequate infrastructure, to some extent, untrained faculty members and above all the background of learners may be treated as the components that make the process challenging. In order to convert/create/prepare writing skill friendly, the focused items will have to be different from the classroom the present day traditional classroom situation. This paper focuses on the multiple contemporary strategies for approaching a wide range of typical problems that the writers face in a specific technical university of Odisha.

Keywords: background of learners, classroom friendly approach, inappropriate syllabus, traditional classroom situation

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
54 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

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53 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi

Abstract:

Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels 25%, 50%, and 75% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for three different liquid levels has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles. Maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: sloshing, CFD, VOF, baffles

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
52 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
51 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
50 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal

Abstract:

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: rice husk ash, compressive strength, sodium phosphate, curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
49 Propellant Less Propulsion System Using Microwave Thrusters

Authors: D. Pradeep Mitra, Prafulla

Abstract:

Looking to the word propellant-less system it makes us to believe that it is an impossible one, but this paper demonstrates the use of microwaves to create a system which makes impossible to be possible, it means a propellant-less propulsion system using microwaves. In these thrusters, microwaves are radiated into a sealed parabolic cavity through a waveguide, which act on the surface of the cavity and follow the axis of the thrusters to produce thrust. The advantages of these thrusters are: (1) Producing thrust without propellant; without erosion, wear, and thermal stress from the hot exhaust gas; and at the same time increasing quality. (2) If the microwave output power is stable, the performance of thrusters is not affected by its working environment. This paper is demonstrated from general maxwell equations. These equations are used to create the mathematical model of the thrusters. These mathematical model helps us to calculate the Q factor and calculate the approximate thrust which would be generated in the system.

Keywords: propellant less, microwaves, parabolic wave guide, propulsion system

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
48 Geared Turbofan with Water Alcohol Technology

Authors: Abhinav Purohit, Shruthi S. Pradeep

Abstract:

In today’s world, aviation industries are using turbofan engines (permutation of turboprop and turbojet) which meet the obligatory requirements to be fuel competent and to produce enough thrust to propel an aircraft. But one can imagine increasing the work output of this particular machine by reducing the input power. In striving to improve technologies, especially to augment the efficiency of the engine with some adaptations, which can be crooked to new concepts by introducing a step change in the turbofan engine development. One hopeful concept is, to de-couple the fan with the help of reduction gear box in a two spool shaft engine from the rest of the machinery to get more work output with maximum efficiency by reducing the load on the turbine shaft. By adapting this configuration we can get an additional degree of freedom to better optimize each component at different speeds. Since the components are running at different speeds we can get hold of preferable efficiency. Introducing water alcohol mixture to this concept would really help to get better results.

Keywords: emissions, fuel consumption, more power, turbofan

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
47 Contemplating Preference Ratings of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices for Supply Chain Performance System Implementation

Authors: Mohit Tyagi, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to identify and analyze the significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices with an aim to improve the supply chain performance of automobile industry located at National Capital Region (NCR) of India. To achieve the objective, 6 CSR practices have been considered and analyzed using expert’s preference rating (EPR) approach. The considered CSR practices are namely, Top management and employee awareness about CSR (P1), Employee involvement in social and environmental problems (P2), Protection of human rights (P3), Waste reduction, energy saving and water conservation (P4), Proper visibility of CSR guidelines (P5) and Broad perception towards CSR initiatives (P6). The outcomes of this research may help mangers in decision making processes and framing polices for SCP implementation under CSR context.

Keywords: supply chain performance, corporate social responsibility, CSR practices, expert’s preference rating approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
46 Study the Effect of Sensitization on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 304 Stainless Steel Joints

Authors: Viranshu Kumar, Hitesh Arora, Pradeep Joshi

Abstract:

SS 304 is Austenitic stainless steel with Chromium and Nickel as basic constituents. It has excellent corrosion resistance properties and very good weldability. Austenitic stainless steels have superior mechanical properties at high temperatures and are used extensively in a range of applications. SS 304L has wide applications in various industries viz. Nuclear, Pharmaceutical, marine, chemical etc. due to its excellent applications and ease of joining this material has become very popular for fabrication as well as weld surfacing. Austenitic stainless steels have a tendency to form chromium depleted zones at the grain boundaries during welding and heat treatment, where chromium combines with available carbon in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, to produce an area depleted in chromium, and thus becomes susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This phenomenon is known as sensitization.

Keywords: sensitization, SS 304, GTAW, mechanical properties, carbideprecipitationHAZ, microstructure, micro hardness, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
45 Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Using Acetylene Gas in CI Engine

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ashwin Bala, S. Prithviraj, K. Panthala Rajakumaran, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar

Abstract:

Studies reveal that acetylene gas derived from hydrolysis of calcium carbide has similar properties to that of diesel. However, the self-ignition temperature of acetylene gas is higher than that of diesel. Early investigations reveal that acetylene gas could be used as alternative fuel mode. In the present work, acetylene gas of 31/min were inducted and diesel was injected into the combustion chamber of a single cylinder air cooled diesel engine. It was observed that the higher calorific value of acetylene gas improves the brake thermal efficiency at full load conditions. The CO and HC emissions were higher at part load conditions as compared to conventional diesel. The Nox emission level was higher and smoke emission was lower during dual fuel mode under all operating conditions. It is concluded that dual fuel mode of acetylene gas and diesel improves the brake thermal efficiency and reduces smoke in diesel engine.

Keywords: acetylene gas, diesel engine, Nox emission, CO emission, HC emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
44 Fuzzy Logic Driven PID Controller for PWM Based Buck Converter

Authors: Bandreddy Anand Babu, Mandadi Srinivasa Rao, Chintala Pradeep Reddy

Abstract:

The main theme of this paper is to design fuzzy logic Proportional Integral Derivative controller for controlling of Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) based DCDC buck converter in continuous conduction mode of operation and comparing the results of FPID and ANFIS. Simulation is done to fuzzy the given input variables and membership functions of input values, creating the interference rules linking the input and output variables and after then defuzzfies the output variables. Fuzzy logic is simple for nonlinear models like buck converter. Fuzzy logic based PID controller technique is to control, nonlinear plants like buck converters in switching variables of power electronics. The characteristics of FPID are in terms of rise time, settling time, rise time, steady state errors for different inputs and load disturbances.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, PID controller, DC-DC buck converter, pulse width modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
43 Study of ANFIS and ARIMA Model for Weather Forecasting

Authors: Bandreddy Anand Babu, Srinivasa Rao Mandadi, C. Pradeep Reddy, N. Ramesh Babu

Abstract:

In this paper quickly illustrate the correlation investigation of Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving and Average (ARIMA) and daptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models done by climate estimating. The climate determining is taken from University of Waterloo. The information is taken as Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature, Barometric Pressure and Wind Direction utilized within this paper. The paper is carried out by analyzing the exhibitions are seen by demonstrating of ARIMA and ANIFIS model like with Sum of average of errors. Versatile Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) demonstrating is carried out by Mat lab programming and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving and Average (ARIMA) displaying is produced by utilizing XLSTAT programming. ANFIS is carried out in Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in Mat Lab programming.

Keywords: ARIMA, ANFIS, fuzzy surmising tool stash, weather forecasting, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
42 Study of Ground Level Electric Field under 800 kV HVDC Unipolar Laboratory level Transmission line

Authors: K. Urukundu, K. A. Aravind, Pradeep M. Nirgude, K. Sandhya

Abstract:

Transmission of bulk power over a long distance through HVDC transmission lines is gaining importance. This is because the transfer of bulk power through HVDC, from generating stations to load centers over long distances is more economical. However, these HVDC transmission lines create environmental and interference effects under the right of way of the line due to the ionization of the surrounding atmosphere in the vicinity of HVDC lines. The measurement of ground-level electric field and ionic current density is essential for the evaluation of human effects due to electromagnetic interference of the HVDC transmission line. In this paper, experimental laboratory results of the ground-level electric field under the miniature model of 800 kV monopole HVDC line of length 8 meters are presented in lateral configuration with different heights of the conductor from the ground plane. The results are compared with the simulated test results obtained through Finite Element based software.

Keywords: bundle, conductor, hexagonal, transmission line, ground-level electric field

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
41 Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanostructures and Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes on the Piezoelectric Property of Polyvinylidene Fluoride

Authors: Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Erturk Alper, Pradeep Sharma, Mariam Al Ali AlMaadeed

Abstract:

Integrating efficient energy harvesting materials into soft, flexible and eco-friendly substrates could yield significant breakthroughs in wearable and flexible electronics. Here we present a hybrid filler combination of titanium dioxide nanotubes and the carbon nanostructures-carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide- synthesized by hydrothermal method and then introduced into a semi crystalline polymer, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Simple mixing method is adopted for the PVDF nanocomposite fabrication after ensuring a high interaction among the fillers. The films prepared were mainly tested for the piezoelectric responses and for the mechanical stretchability. The results show that the piezoelectric constant has increased while changing the total filler concentration. We propose integration of these materials in fabricating energy conversion devices useful in flexible and wearable electronics.

Keywords: dielectric property, hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, polymer nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
40 Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Five Different Generic Brands of Prednisolone

Authors: Asma A. Ben Ahmed, Hajer M. Alborawy, Alaa A. Mashina, Pradeep K. Velautham, Abdulmonem Gobassa, Emhemmed Elgallal, Mohamed N. El Attug

Abstract:

Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost saving measure in healthcare provision. Generic medicines are typically 20 – 90 % cheaper than originator equivalents. Physicians often continue to prescribe brand-name drugs to their patients even when less expensive pharmacologically equivalent generic drugs are available. Because generics are less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, the cost-savings to the patient is not the only factor that physicians consider when choosing between generic and brand-name drugs. Unfortunately Physicians in general and Libyan Physicians in particular tend to prescribe brand-name drugs, even without evidence of their therapeutic superiority, because neither they nor their insured patients bear these drugs’ increased cost with respect to generic substitutes. This study is to compare the quality of five different prednisolone tablets of the same strength from different companies under different trade names: Julphar, October pharma, Akums, Actavis, Pfizer compared them with pure prednisolone reference (BPCRS).

Keywords: quality control, pharmaceutical analysis, generic medicines, prednisolone

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
39 Production and Characterisation of Lipase from a Novel Streptomyces.sp - Its Molecular Identification

Authors: C. Asha Poorna, N. S. Pradeep

Abstract:

The biological function of lipase is to catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to give free fatty acid, diacylglycerols, mono-acylglycerols and glycerol. They constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. The aim of the present study was to identify the lipolytic activity of Streptomyces sp. From soil sample collected from the sacred groves of southern Kerala. The culture conditions of the isolate were optimised and the enzyme was purified and characterised. The purification was attempted with acetone precipitation. The isolate observed to have high lipolytic activity and identified to be of Streptomyces strain. The purification was attempted with acetone precipitation. The purified enzyme observed to have an apparent molecular mass of ~60kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme showed maximum activity at 60oC and pH-8. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents like ethanol and methanol that are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel.

Keywords: lipase, Streptomyces, biodiesel, fatty acid, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
38 Cross Project Software Fault Prediction at Design Phase

Authors: Pradeep Singh, Shrish Verma

Abstract:

Software fault prediction models are created by using the source code, processed metrics from the same or previous version of code and related fault data. Some company do not store and keep track of all artifacts which are required for software fault prediction. To construct fault prediction model for such company, the training data from the other projects can be one potential solution. The earlier we predict the fault the less cost it requires to correct. The training data consists of metrics data and related fault data at function/module level. This paper investigates fault predictions at early stage using the cross-project data focusing on the design metrics. In this study, empirical analysis is carried out to validate design metrics for cross project fault prediction. The machine learning techniques used for evaluation is Naïve Bayes. The design phase metrics of other projects can be used as initial guideline for the projects where no previous fault data is available. We analyze seven data sets from NASA Metrics Data Program which offer design as well as code metrics. Overall, the results of cross project is comparable to the within company data learning.

Keywords: software metrics, fault prediction, cross project, within project.

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
37 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Various Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Different Material: A Review

Authors: Prashant Dhiman, Viranshu Kumar, Pradeep Joshi

Abstract:

Lot of research is going on to study the effect of cryogenic treatment on materials. Cryogenic treatment is a heat treatment process which is used widely to enhance the mechanical and metallurgical properties of various materials whether the material is ferrous or non ferrous. In almost all ferrous metals, it is found that retained austenite is converted into martensite. Generally deep cryogenic treatment is done using liquid nitrogen having temperature of -195 ℃. The austenite is unstable at this stage and converts into martensite. In non ferrous materials there presents a microcavity and under the action of stress it becomes crack. When this crack propagates, fracture takes place. As the metal contract under low temperature, by doing cryogenic treatment these microcavities will be filled hence increases the soundness of the material. Properties which are enhanced by cryogenic treatment of both ferrous and non ferrous materials are hardness, tensile strength, wear rate, electrical and thermal conductivity, and others. Also there is decrease in residual stress. A large number of manufacturing process (EDM, CNC etc.) are using cryogenic treatment on different tools or workpiece to reduce their wear. In this Review paper the use of cryogenic heat treatment in different manufacturing has been shown along with their advantages.

Keywords: cyrogenic treatment, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), CNC (Computer Numeric Control), Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
36 A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery from Echocardiographic and Natural Images

Authors: S. Nandagopalan, N. Pradeep

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images, non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level. Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were employed. Using the feature vector database that have been efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data and Coral image database and the results show that their performance is better than the results reported already.

Keywords: active contour, Bayesian, echocardiographic image, feature vector

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35 A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery Using High Performance Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: S. Nandagopalan, N. Pradeep

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images, non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level. Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were employed. Using the feature vector database that have been efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data and Coral image database and the results show that their performance is better than the results reported already.

Keywords: active contour, bayesian, echocardiographic image, feature vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
34 Reclaiming Properties of Bituminous Concrete Using Cold Mix Design Technology

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shalinee Shukla

Abstract:

Pavement plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of a country. Bituminous roads construction with conventional paving grade bitumen obtained from hot mix plant creates pollution and involves emission of greenhouse gases, also the construction of pavements at very high temperature is not feasible or desirable for high rainfall and snowfall areas. This problem of overheating can be eliminated by the construction of pavements with the usage of emulsified cold mixes which will eliminate emissions and help in the reduction of fuel requirement at mixing plant, which leads to energy conservation. Cold mix is a mixture of unheated aggregate and emulsion or cutback and filler. The primary objective of this research is to assess the volumetric mix design parameters of recycled aggregates with cold mixing technology and also to assess the impact of additives on volumetric mix characteristics. In this present study, bituminous pavement materials are reclaimed using cold mix technology, and Marshall specimens are prepared with the help of slow setting type 2 (SS-2) cationic bitumen emulsion as a binder for recycled aggregates. This technique of road construction is more environmentally friendly and can be done in adverse weather conditions.

Keywords: cold mixes, bitumen emulsion, recycled aggregates, volumetric properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
33 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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32 Recovery of Copper from Edge Trims of Printed Circuit Boards Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans: Bioleaching

Authors: Shashi Arya, Nand L. Singh, Samiksha Singh, Pradeep K. Mishra, Siddh N. Upadhyay

Abstract:

The enormous generation of E- waste and its recycling have greater environmental concern especially in developing countries like India. A major part of this waste comprises printed circuit boards (PCBs). Edge trims of PCBs have high copper content ranging between 25-60%. The extraction of various metals out of these PCBs is more or less a proven technology, wherein various hazardous chemicals are being used in the resource recovery, resulting into secondary pollution. The current trend of extracting of valuable metals is the utilization of microbial strains to eliminate the problem of a secondary pollutant. Keeping the above context in mind, this work aims at the enhanced recovery of copper from edge trims, through bioleaching using bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The raw material such as motherboards, hard drives, floppy drives and DVD drives were obtained from the warehouse of the University. More than 90% copper could be extracted through bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Inoculate concentration has merely insignificant effect over copper recovery above 20% inoculate concentration. Higher concentration of inoculation has the only initial advantage up to 2-4 days. The complete recovery has been obtained between 14- 24 days.

Keywords: acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, bioleaching, e-waste, printed circuit boards

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31 Improving the Flow Capacity (CV) of the Valves

Authors: Pradeep A. G, Gorantla Giridhar, Vijay Turaga, Vinod Srinivasa

Abstract:

The major problem in the flow control valve is of lower Cv, which will reduce the overall efficiency of the flow circuit. Designers are continuously working to improve the Cv of the valve, but they need to validate the design ideas they have regarding the improvement of Cv. The traditional method of prototyping and testing takes a lot of time. That is where CFD comes into the picture with very quick and accurate validation along with visualization, which is not possible with the traditional testing method. We have developed a method to predict Cv value using CFD analysis by iterating on various Boundary conditions, solver settings and by carrying out grid convergence studies to establish the correlation between the CFD model and Test data. The present study investigates 3 different ideas put forward by the designers for improving the flow capacity of the valves, like reducing the cage thickness, changing the port position, and using the parabolic plug to guide the flow. Using CFD, we analyzed all design changes using the established methodology that we developed. We were able to evaluate the effect of these design changes on the Valve Cv. We optimized the wetted surface of the valve further by suggesting the design modification to the lower part of the valve to make the flow more streamlined. We could find that changing cage thickness and port position has little impact on the valve Cv. The combination of optimized wetted surface and introduction of parabolic plug improved the Flow capacity (Cv) of the valve significantly.

Keywords: flow control valves, flow capacity (Cv), CFD simulations, design validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
30 Impact of Flexibility on Patient Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: A Critical Reassessment and Model Development

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shibashish Chakraborty, Sasadhar Bera

Abstract:

In the anticipation of demand fluctuations, services cannot be inventoried and hence it creates a difficult problem in marketing of services. The inability to meet customers (patients) requirements in healthcare context has more serious consequences than other service sectors. In order to meet patient requirements in the current uncertain environment, healthcare organizations are seeking ways for improved service delivery. Flexibility provides a mechanism for reducing variability in service encounters and improved performance. Flexibility is defined as the ability of the organization to cope with changing circumstances or instability caused by the environment. Patient satisfaction is an important performance outcome of healthcare organizations. However, the paucity of information exists in healthcare delivery context to examine the impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. The present study is an attempt to develop a conceptual foundation for investigating overall impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Several dimensions of flexibility in healthcare context are examined and proposed to have a significant impact on patient satisfaction and intention. Furthermore, the study involves a critical examination of determinants of patient satisfaction and development of a comprehensive view the relationship between flexibility, patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Finally, theoretical contributions and implications for healthcare professionals are suggested from flexibility perspective.

Keywords: healthcare, flexibility, patient satisfaction, behavioral intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
29 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

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