Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: optoelectronic

55 Polarization Dependent Flexible GaN Film Nanogenerators and Electroluminescence Properties

Authors: Jeong Min Baik

Abstract:

We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties and electrical output power of flexible N-face p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by strain-induced piezo-potential generated across the metal-semiconductor-metal structures. Under different staining conditions (convex and concave bending modes), the transport properties of the GaN films can be changed due to the spontaneous polarization of the films. The I-V characteristics with the bending modes show that the convex bending can increase the current across the films by the decrease in the barrier height at the metal-semiconductor contact, increasing the EL intensity of the P-N junction. At convex bending, it is also shown that the flexible p-type GaN films can generate an output voltage of up to 1.0 V, while at concave bending, 0.4 V. The change of the band bending with the crystal polarity of GaN films was investigated using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices and nanogenerators under a working environment.

Keywords: flexible, gan, laser lift-off, nanogenerator

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54 Silicon Surface Treatment Effect on the Structural, Optical, and Optoelectronic Properties for Solar Cell Applications

Authors: Mounir Gaidi, N. Sboui, Lotfi Hedi Khezami, Mohamed Ben Rabha, B. Bessais

Abstract:

Metal-nano particle-assisted Chemical Etching is an extraordinary developed wet etching method of producing uniform semiconductor nano structure (nano wires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and opto electronic properties was investigated. Combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and opto electronic properties are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Solar Cells, Silicon Nanowires, porous silicon, stain etching, reflectivity, lifetime

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53 Thermoluminescence Investigations of Tl2Ga2Se3S Layered Single Crystals

Authors: Serdar Delice, Mehmet Isik, Nizami Hasanli, Kadir Goksen

Abstract:

Researchers have donated great interest to ternary and quaternary semiconductor compounds especially with the improvement of the optoelectronic technology. The quaternary compound Tl2Ga2Se3S which was grown by Bridgman method carries the properties of ternary thallium chalcogenides group of semiconductors with layered structure. This compound can be formed from TlGaSe2 crystals replacing the one quarter of selenium atom by sulfur atom. Although Tl2Ga2Se3S crystals are not intentionally doped, some unintended defect types such as point defects, dislocations and stacking faults can occur during growth processes of crystals. These defects can cause undesirable problems in semiconductor materials especially produced for optoelectronic technology. Defects of various types in the semiconductor devices like LEDs and field effect transistor may act as a non-radiative or scattering center in electron transport. Also, quick recombination of holes with electrons without any energy transfer between charge carriers can occur due to the existence of defects. Therefore, the characterization of defects may help the researchers working in this field to produce high quality devices. Thermoluminescence (TL) is an effective experimental method to determine the kinetic parameters of trap centers due to defects in crystals. In this method, the sample is illuminated at low temperature by a light whose energy is bigger than the band gap of studied sample. Thus, charge carriers in the valence band are excited to delocalized band. Then, the charge carriers excited into conduction band are trapped. The trapped charge carriers are released by heating the sample gradually and these carriers then recombine with the opposite carriers at the recombination center. By this way, some luminescence is emitted from the samples. The emitted luminescence is converted to pulses by using an experimental setup controlled by computer program and TL spectrum is obtained. Defect characterization of Tl2Ga2Se3S single crystals has been performed by TL measurements at low temperatures between 10 and 300 K with various heating rate ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 K/s. The TL signal due to the luminescence from trap centers revealed one glow peak having maximum temperature of 36 K. Curve fitting and various heating rate methods were used for the analysis of the glow curve. The activation energy of 13 meV was found by the application of curve fitting method. This practical method established also that the trap center exhibits the characteristics of mixed (general) kinetic order. In addition, various heating rate analysis gave a compatible result (13 meV) with curve fitting as the temperature lag effect was taken into consideration. Since the studied crystals were not intentionally doped, these centers are thought to originate from stacking faults, which are quite possible in Tl2Ga2Se3S due to the weakness of the van der Waals forces between the layers. Distribution of traps was also investigated using an experimental method. A quasi-continuous distribution was attributed to the determined trap centers.

Keywords: Defects, Thermoluminescence, chalcogenides, trap centers

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52 Improvement of Camera Calibration Based on the Relationship between Focal Length and Aberration Coefficient

Authors: Guorong Sui, Xingwei Jia, Xiumin Gao, Chenhui Yin

Abstract:

In the processing of camera-based high precision and non-contact measurement, the geometric-optical aberration is always inevitably disturbing the measuring system. Moreover, the aberration is different with the different focal length, which will increase the difficulties of the system’s calibration. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the focal length as a function of aberration properties is a very important issue to the calibration of the measuring systems. In this study, we propose a new mathematics model, which is based on the plane calibration method by Zhang Zhengyou, and establish a relationship between the focal length and aberration coefficient. By using the mathematics model and carefully modified compensation templates, the calibration precision of the system can be dramatically improved. The experiment results show that the relative error is less than 1%. It is important for optoelectronic imaging systems that apply to measure, track and position by changing the camera’s focal length.

Keywords: Camera Calibration, aberration coefficient, vision measurement, focal length, mathematics model

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51 High Efficiency Achievement by a New Heterojunction N-Zno:Al/P-Si Solar Cell

Authors: A. Bouloufa, F. Khaled, K. Djessas

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of solar cell based on p-type microcrystalline silicon as an absorber and n-type aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) transparent conductive oxide as an optical window. The ZnO:Al layer deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature yields a low resistivity about 7,64.10-2Ω.cm and more than 85% mean optical transmittance in the VIS–NIR range, with an optical band gap of 3.3 eV. These excellent optical properties of this layer in combination with an optimal contact at the front surface result in a superior light trapping yielding to efficiencies about 20%. In order to improve efficiency, we have used a p+-µc-Si thin layer highly doped as a back surface field which minimizes significantly the impact of rear surface recombination velocity on voltage and current leading to a high efficiency of 24%. Optoelectronic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve by means of a numerical simulation with Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) device simulator.

Keywords: Efficiency, Solar Cell, thin film, optical window

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50 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, electrodeposition, copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, optical band gap, optical conductivity

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49 First Principle Calculations of the Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Cubic Perovskite CsSrF3

Authors: Meriem Harmel, Houari Khachai

Abstract:

We have investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a compound perovskite CsSrF3 using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for exchange-correlation potential calculation. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and the results are compared whit experimental and theoretical data. Electronic and bonding properties are discussed from the calculations of band structure, density of states and electron charge density, where the fundamental energy gap is direct under ambient conditions. The contribution of the different bands was analyzed from the total and partial density of states curves. The optical properties (namely: the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function ε(ω), the refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω)) were calculated for radiation up to 35.0 eV. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the optical properties for the investigated compound and still awaits experimental confirmations.

Keywords: Electronic Structure, dft, Optical Properties, fluoroperovskite

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48 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang

Abstract:

For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: Graphene, Quantum Dot, Photoluminescence, size

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47 Investigation of the Morphology and Optical Properties of CuAlO₂ Thin Film

Authors: T. M. Aminu, A. Salisu, B. Abdu, H. U. Alhassan, T. H. Dharma

Abstract:

Thin films of CuAlO2 were deposited on clean glass substrate using the chemical solution deposition (sol-gel) method of deposition with CuCl and AlCl3 taken as the starting materials. CuCl was dissolved in HCl while AlCl₃ in distilled water, pH value of the mixture was controlled by addition of NaOH. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of the deposited CuAlO₂ thin film. The surface morphology reveals an improved crystalline as annealing temperature increases. The results of the UV-vis and FT-IR spectrophotometry indicate that the absorbance for all the samples decreases sharply from a common value of about 89% at about 329 nm to a range of values of 56.2%-35.2% and the absorption / extinction coefficients of the films decrease with increase in annealing temperature from 1.58 x 10⁻⁶ to1.08 x 10⁻⁶ at about 1.14eV in the infrared region to about 1.93 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.29 x 10⁻⁶ at about 3.62eV in the visible region, the transmittance, reflectance and band gaps vary directly with annealing temperature, the deposited films were found to be suitable in optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: reflectance, transmittance, absorbance, copper aluminium-oxide (CuAlO2), band gaps

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46 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

Abstract:

TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: Nanofibers, Photoluminescence, TiO2, irradiation

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45 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud

Abstract:

Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: scintillator, YPO4, Ce3+

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44 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Düzgün, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal

Abstract:

Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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43 Recovery of Iodide Ion from TFT-LCD Wastewater by Forward Osmosis

Authors: Yu-Ting Chen, Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray

Abstract:

Forward osmosis (FO) is a crucial technology with low operating pressure and cost for water reuse and reclamation. In Taiwan, with the advance of science and technology, thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD) based industries are growing exponentially. In the optoelectronic industry wastewater, the iodide is one of the valuable element; it is also used in the medical industry. In this study, it was intended to concentrate iodide by utilizing FO system and can be reused for TFT-LCD production. Cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were used for all these FO experiments, and potassium iodide solution was used as the feed solution. It has been found that EDTA-2Na as draw solution at pH 8 produced high water flux and minimized salt leakage. The result also demonstrated that EDTA-2Na of concentration 0.6M could achieve the highest water flux (6.69L/m2 h). Additionally, from the recovered iodide ion from pH 3-8, the I- species was found to be more than 99%, whereas I2 was measured to be less than 1%. When potassium iodide solution was used from low to high concentration (1000 ppm to 10000 ppm), the iodide rejection was found to be than more 90%. Since, CTA membrane is negatively charged and I- is anionic in nature, so it will from electrostatic repulsion and hence there will be higher rejection. The overall performance demonstrates that recovery of concentrated iodide using FO system is a promising technology.

Keywords: Forward osmosis, potassium iodide, draw solution, EDTA-2Na

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42 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal

Abstract:

Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films

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41 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (N-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylidene)Pyridin-2-Amine: Thermal and Conductivity Properties

Authors: Nuray Yılmaz Baran

Abstract:

The conjugated Schiff base polymers which are also called as polyazomethines are promising materials for various applications due to their good thermal resistance semiconductive, liquid crystal, fiber forming, nonlinear optical outstanding photo- and electroluminescence and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, polyazomethines have attracted intense attention of researchers especially due to optoelectronic properties which have made its usage possible in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells (SCs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and photorefractive holographic materials (PRHMs). In this study, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine Schiff base was synthesized from condensation reaction of 2-aminopyridine with 2-pyridine carbaldehyde. Polymerization of Schiff base was achieved by polycondensation reaction using NaOCl oxidant in methanol medium at various time and temperatures. The synthesized Schiff base monomer and polymer (Poly(N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine)) was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD techniques. Molecular weight distribution and the surface morphology of the polymer was determined by GPC and SEM-EDAX techniques. Thermal behaviour of the monomer and polymer was investigated by TG/DTG, DTA and DSC techniques.

Keywords: Thermal Stability, polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers

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40 1,8-Naphthalimide Substituted 4,4-Difluoroboradiaza-S-Indacene Dyads: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Live-Cell Imaging

Authors: VINAY SHARMA, Shaikh M. Mobin, Madhurima Poddar, Rajneesh Misra

Abstract:

Three 1,8-naphthalimide (NPI) substituted 4,4-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyads were synthesized via Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of ethynyl substituted NPI with the meso-, β- and α-halogenated BODIPYs, respectively. The photophysical and electrochemical data reveals considerable electronic communication between the BODIPY and NPI moieties. The electronic absorption spectrum reveals that the substitution of NPI at α position of BODIPY exhibit better electronic communication between the NPI and the BODIPY units. The electronic structures of all the dyads exhibit planar geometries which are in a good correlation with the structures obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of the dyads exhibit interesting supramolecular interactions. The dyads show good cytocompatibility with the potential of multicolor live-cell imaging; making them excellent candidates for biological applications. The work provides an important strategy of screening the substitution pattern at different position of BODIPYs which will be useful for the design of BODIPY based organic molecules for various optoelectronic applications as well as bio-imaging.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, bio-imaging studies, cross-coupling, density functional calculations, fluorescence spectra, single crystal XRD, UV/Vis spectroscopy

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39 Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2: Ti Thin Films Spray-Deposited on Optical Glass

Authors: Bahattin Düzgün, Demet Tatar

Abstract:

In this study, we have newly developed titanium-tin oxide (TiSnO) thin films as the transparent conducting oxides materials by the spray pyrolysis technique. Tin oxide thin films doped with different Ti content were successfully grown by spray pyrolysis and they were characterized as a function of Ti content. The effect of Ti contents on the crystalline structure and optical properties of the as-deposited SnO2:Ti films was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectrometer and photoluminecenc spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction patterns taken at room temperature showed that the films are polycrystalline. The preferred directions of crystal growth appeared in the difractogram of SnO2: Ti (TiTO) films were correspond to the reflections from the (110), (200), (211) and (301) planes. The grain size varies from 21.8 to 27.8 nm for (110) preferred plane. SEM and AFM study reveals the surface of TiTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The highest visible transmittance (570 nm) of the deposited films is 80 % for 20 wt % titanium doped tin oxide films. The obtained results revealed that the structures and optical properties of the films were greatly affected by doping levels. These films are useful as conducting layers in electro chromic and photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: Optoelectronic, Gas sensors, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, transparent conducting oxide

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38 Randomly Casted Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Films for High Performance Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices

Authors: My Ali El Khakani

Abstract:

Single-wall Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) possess an unprecedented combination of unique properties that make them highly promising for suitable for a new generation of photovoltaic (PV) devices. Prior to discussing the integration of SWCNTs films into effective PV devices, we will briefly highlight our work on the synthesis of SWCNTs by means of the KrF pulsed laser deposition technique, their purification and transfer onto n-silicon substrates to form p-n junctions. Some of the structural and optoelectronic properties of SWCNTs relevant to PV applications will be emphasized. By varying the SWCNTs film density (µg/cm2), we were able to point out the existence of an optimum value that yields the highest photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of ~10%. Further control of the doping of the p-SWCNTs films, through their exposure to nitric acid vapors, along with the insertion of an optimized hole-extraction-layer in the p-SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices permitted to achieve a PCE value as high as 14.2%. Such a high PCE value demonstrates the full potential of these p-SWCNTs/n-Si devices for sunlight photoconversion. On the other hand, by examining both the optical transmission and electrical conductance of the SWCNTs’ films, we established a figure of merit (FOM) that was shown to correlate well with the PCE performance. Such a direct relationship between the FOM and the PCE can be used as a guide for further PCE enhancement of these novel p-SWCNTs/n-Si PV devices.

Keywords: Photovoltaic devices, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), pulsed laser deposition, CNTs-silicon hybrid devices, photoconversion

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37 Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure

Authors: Juan Xia, Jiaxu Yan, Ze Xiang Shen

Abstract:

The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.

Keywords: high pressure, first-principles calculations, electronic property

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36 Photo Electrical Response in Graphene Based Resistive Sensor

Authors: F. Bouanis, H. C. Woo, C. S. Cojocaur

Abstract:

Graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, is an interesting potential optoelectronic material because of graphene’s high carrier mobility, zero bandgap, and electron–hole symmetry. Graphene can absorb light and convert it into a photocurrent over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet to visible and infrared regimes. Over the last several years, a variety of graphene-based photodetectors have been reported, such as graphene transistors, graphene-semiconductor heterojunction photodetectors, graphene based bolometers. It is also reported that there are several physical mechanisms enabling photodetection: photovoltaic effect, photo-thermoelectric effect, bolometric effect, photogating effect, and so on. In this work, we report a simple approach for the realization of graphene based resistive photo-detection devices and the measurements of their photoelectrical response. The graphene were synthesized directly on the glass substrate by novel growth method patented in our lab. Then, the metal electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on it, with an electrode length and width of 1.5 mm and 300 μm respectively, using Co to fabricate simple graphene based resistive photosensor. The measurements show that the graphene resistive devices exhibit a photoresponse to the illumination of visible light. The observed re-sistance response was reproducible and similar after many cycles of on and off operations. This photoelectrical response may be attributed not only to the direct photocurrent process but also to the desorption of oxygen. Our work shows that the simple graphene resistive devices have potential in photodetection applications.

Keywords: Optoelectronics, Graphene, resistive sensor, photoresponse

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35 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Trachyspermum Ammi

Authors: RAJESH KUMAR MEENA, Goutam Chakraborty, Suman Jhajharia

Abstract:

Plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method using Trachyspermum Ammi (TA, Ajwain) seeds extract in aqueous medium and AgNO3 solution at different time interval. Reaction time, and concentration of AgNO3 and TA could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size and concentration of NPs. Surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm (88.78nm) was recognised as first exitonic peak of UV-Vis absorption spectra of AgNPs that used to calculate the particle size (10-30 nm). FTIR results TA supported AgNPs showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 with respect to the plain TA indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching in formation of TA-AgNPs aggregates. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the NPs. Impedance study reveals that at low concentration of TA the rate of charge transfer is in TA-AgNPs aggregates, found higher than the higher TA concentration condition that confirms the stability of AgNPs in water. Extract reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles (NPs) of size 6-50nm. Pronounce effect of the time on Ag NPs concentration and particle size, was exhibited by the system These biogenic Ag NPs are characterized using UV- Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Visible), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and XRD. These studies give us inside view of the most probable mechanism of biosynthesis and optoelectronic properties of the as synthesised Ag NPs.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Silver Nanoparticles, bioreduction, capping agent

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34 Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Study of Polybithiophene–MnO2 Composite Films

Authors: H. Zouaoui, D. Abdi, B. Nessark, F. Habelhames, A. Bahloul

Abstract:

Among the conjugated organic polymers, the polythiophenes constitute a particularly important class of conjugated polymers, which has been extensively studied for the relation between the geometrical structure and the optic and electronic properties, while the polythiophene is an intractable material. They are, furthermore, chemically and thermally stable materials, and are very attractive for exploitation of their physical properties. The polythiophenes are extensively studied due to the possibility of synthesizing low band gap materials by using substituted thiophenes as precursors. Low band gap polymers may convert visible light into electricity and some photoelectrochemical cells based on these materials have been prepared. Polythiophenes (PThs) are good candidates for polymer optoelectronic devices such as polymer solar cells (PSCs) polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) field-effect transistors (FETs) electrochromics and biosensors. In this work, MnO2 has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The polybithiophene+MnO2 composite films were electrochemically prepared by cyclic voltammetry technic on a conductor glass substrate ITO (indium–tin-oxide). The composite films are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical analyses. The results confirmed the presence of manganese dioxide nanoparticles in the polymer layer. An application has been made by using these deposits as an electrode in a photoelectrochemical cell for measuring photocurrent tests. The composite films show a significant photocurrent intensity 80 μA.cm-2.

Keywords: Photoelectrochemical Cells, MnO2, polybithiophene, composite films

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33 Ab Initio Calculations of Structure and Elastic Properties of BexZn1−xO Alloys

Authors: K. Almi, S. Lakel, M. Ibrir, F. Elhamra

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in Zn1-xBexO (ZBO)/ZnO hetero structures and quantum wells since the band gap energy of Zn1-xBexO solid solutions can be turned over a very large range (3.37–10.6 eV) as a function of the Be composition. ZBO/ZnO has been utilized in ultraviolet light emission diodes and lasers, and may find applications as active elements of various other electronic and optoelectronic devices. Band gap engineering by Be substitution enables the facile preparation of barrier layers and quantum wells in device structures. In addition, ZnO and its ternary alloys, as piezoelectric semiconductors, have been used for high-frequency surface acoustic wave devices in wireless communication systems due to their high acoustic velocities and large electromechanical coupling. However, many important parameters such as elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young’s modulus and band-gap bowing. First-principles calculations of the structural, electrical and elastic properties of Zn1-xBexO as a function of the Be concentration x have been performed within density functional theory using norm-conserving pseudopotentials and local density approximation (LDA) for the exchange and correlation energy. The alloys’ lattice constants may deviate from the Vegard law. As Be concentration increases, the elastic constants, the bulk modulus and Young’s modulus of the alloys increase, the band gap increases with increasing Be concentration and Zn1-xBexO alloys have direct band. Our calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data and other theoretical calculations.

Keywords: ZnO, DFT calculation, norm-conserving pseudopotentials, ZnBeO alloys

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32 Optimization the Conditions of Electrophoretic Deposition Fabrication of Graphene-Based Electrode to Consider Applications in Electro-Optical Sensors

Authors: Sepehr Lajevardi Esfahani, Shohre Rouhani, Zahra Ranjbar

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Graphene has gained much attention owing to its unique optical and electrical properties. Charge carriers in graphene sheets (GS) carry out a linear dispersion relation near the Fermi energy and behave as massless Dirac fermions resulting in unusual attributes such as the quantum Hall effect and ambipolar electric field effect. It also exhibits nondispersive transport characteristics with an extremely high electron mobility (15000 cm2/(Vs)) at room temperature. Recently, several progresses have been achieved in the fabrication of single- or multilayer GS for functional device applications in the fields of optoelectronic such as field-effect transistors ultrasensitive sensors and organic photovoltaic cells. In addition to device applications, graphene also can serve as reinforcement to enhance mechanical, thermal, or electrical properties of composite materials. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for development of various coatings and films. It readily applied to any powdered solid that forms a stable suspension. The deposition parameters were controlled in various thicknesses. In this study, the graphene electrodeposition conditions were optimized. The results were obtained from SEM, Ohm resistance measuring technique and AFM characteristic tests. The minimum sheet resistance of electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide layers is achieved at conditions of 2 V in 10 s and it is annealed at 200 °C for 1 minute.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, electrophoretic deposition (EPD), graphene oxide (GO), electro-optical devices

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31 Dielectric Properties of Thalium Selenide Thin Films at Radio Wave Frequencies

Authors: Sahin Yakut, Deniz Deger, Deniz Bozoglu, Kemal Ulutas, Onur Potok

Abstract:

Thalium Selenide (TlSe) is used for optoelectronic devices, pressure sensitive detectors, and gamma-ray detectors. The TlSe samples were grown as large single crystals using the Stockbarger-Bridgman method. The thin films, in the form of Al/TlSe/Al, were deposited on the microscope slide in different thicknesses (300-3000 Å) using thermal evaporation technique at 10-5 Torr. The dielectric properties of (TlSe) thin films, capacitance (C) and dielectric loss factor (tanδ), were measured in a frequency range of 10-105 Hz, and temperatures between 213K and 393K via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy analyzer. The dielectric constant (ε’) and the dielectric loss (ε’’) of the thin films were derived from measured parameters (C and tanδ). These results showed that the dielectric properties of TlSe thin films are frequency and temperature dependent. The capacitance and the dielectric constant decrease with increasing frequency and decreasing temperature. The dielectric loss of TlSe thin films decreases with increasing frequency, on the other hand, they increase with increasing temperature and increasing thicknesses. There is two relaxation region in the investigated frequency and temperature interval. These regions can be called as low and high-frequency dispersion regions. Low-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of the main part of the chain structure of TlSe while high-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of side parts of the structure.

Keywords: Thin Films, dielectric spectroscopy, thallium selenide, binary compounds

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30 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri

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In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: Nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

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29 In-situ Monitoring of Residual Stress Behavior-Temperature Profiles in Transparent Polyimide/Tetrapod Zinc Oxide Whisker Composites

Authors: Haksoo Han, Ki-Ho Nam

Abstract:

Tetrapod zinc oxide whiskers (TZnO-Ws) were successfully synthesized by a thermal oxidation method. A series of transparent polyimide (PI)/TZnO-W composites were successfully synthesized via a solution-blending method. The structural and morphological features of TZnO-Ws and PI/TZnO-W composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), wide-angle X-Ray diffraction (WAXD), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Dynamic stress behaviors were investigated in-situ during thermal imidization of the soft-baked PI/TZnO-W composite precursor and thermally cured composite films using a thin film stress analyzer (TFSA) by wafer bending technique. The PI/TZnO-W composite films exhibited an optical transparency greater than 80% at 550 nm (≤ 0.5 wt% TZnO-W content), a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and enhanced glass transition temperature. However, the thermal decomposition temperature decreased as the TZnO-W content increased. The water diffusion coefficient and water uptake of the PI/TZNO-W composite films were obtained by best fits to a Fickian diffusion model. The water resistance capacity of PI was greatly enhanced and moisture diffusion in the pure PI was retarded by incorporating the TZnO-W. The PI composite films based on TZNO-W resultantly may have potential applications in optoelectronic manufacturing processes as a flexible transparent substrate.

Keywords: polyimide (PI), tetrapod ZnO whisker (TZnO-W), transparent, dynamic stress behavior, water resistance

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28 Mechanical and Optical Properties of Doped Aluminum Nitride Thin Films

Authors: Padmalochan Panda, R. Ramaseshan

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Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a potential candidate for semiconductor industry due to its wide band gap (6.2 eV), high thermal conductivity and low thermal coefficient of expansion. A-plane oriented AlN film finds an important role in deep UV-LED with higher isotropic light extraction efficiency. Also, Cr-doped AlN films exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor property with high Curie temperature (300 K), and thus compatible with modern day microelectronics. In this work, highly a-axis oriented wurtzite AlN and Al1-xMxN (M = Cr, Ti) films have synthesized by reactive co-sputtering technique at different concentration. Crystal structure of these films is studied by Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Identification of binding energy and concentration (x) in these films is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Local crystal structure around the Cr and Ti atom of these films are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is found that Cr and Ti replace the Al atom in AlN lattice and the bond lengths in first and second coordination sphere with N and Al, respectively, decrease concerning doping concentration due to strong p-d hybridization. The nano-indentation hardness of Cr and Ti-doped AlN films seems to increase from 17.5 GPa (AlN) to around 23 and 27.5 GPa, respectively. An-isotropic optical properties of these films are studied by the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry technique. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of these films are enhanced in normal dispersion region as compared to the parent AlN film. The optical band gap energies also seem to vary between deep UV to UV regions with the addition of Cr, thus by bringing out the usefulness of these films in the area of optoelectronic device applications.

Keywords: Hardness, Ellipsometry, XAS, GIXRD

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27 A Comparative Study of Single- and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Incorporation to Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for Solar Cells

Authors: G. Gokceli, O. Eksik, E. Ozkan Zayim, N. Karatepe

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Alternative electrode materials for optoelectronic devices have been widely investigated in recent years. Since indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most preferred transparent conductive electrode, producing ITO films by simple and cost-effective solution-based techniques with enhanced optical and electrical properties has great importance. In this study, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT and MWCNT) incorporated into the ITO structure to increase electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and chemical stability. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were firstly functionalized by acid treatment (HNO3:H2SO4), and the thermal resistance of CNTs after functionalization was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thin films were then prepared by spin coating technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point probe measurement system and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effects of process parameters were compared for ITO, MWCNT-ITO, and SWCNT-ITO films. Two factors including CNT concentration and annealing temperature were considered. The UV-Vis measurements demonstrated that the transmittance of ITO films was 83.58% at 550 nm, which was decreased depending on the concentration of CNT dopant. On the other hand, both CNT dopants provided an enhancement in the crystalline structure and electrical conductivity. Due to compatible diameter and better dispersibility of SWCNTs in the ITO solution, the best result in terms of electrical conductivity was obtained by SWCNT-ITO films with the 0.1 g/L SWCNT dopant concentration and heat-treatment at 550 °C for 1 hour.

Keywords: thin film, spin coating, CNT incorporation, ITO electrode

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26 Surface Modified Quantum Dots for Nanophotonics, Stereolithography and Hybrid Systems for Biomedical Studies

Authors: Redouane Krini, Lutz Nuhn, Hicham El Mard Cheol Woo Ha, Yoondeok Han, Kwang-Sup Lee, Dong-Yol Yang, Jinsoo Joo, Rudolf Zentel

Abstract:

To use Quantum Dots (QDs) in the two photon initiated polymerization technique (TPIP) for 3D patternings, QDs were modified on the surface with photosensitive end groups which are able to undergo a photopolymerization. We were able to fabricate fluorescent 3D lattice structures using photopatternable QDs by TPIP for photonic devices such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. The QDs in different diameter have different emission colors and through mixing of RGB QDs white light fluorescent from the polymeric structures has been created. Metamaterials are capable for unique interaction with the electrical and magnetic components of the electromagnetic radiation and for manipulating light it is crucial to have a negative refractive index. In combination with QDs via TPIP technique polymeric structures can be designed with properties which cannot be found in nature. This makes these artificial materials gaining a huge importance for real-life applications in photonic and optoelectronic. Understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is of a huge interest in the biomedical research field. We developed a synthetic strategy of polymer functionalized nanoparticles for biomedical studies to obtain hybrid systems of QDs and copolymers with a strong binding network in an inner shell and which can be modified in the end through their poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized outer shell. These hybrid systems can be used as models for investigation of cell penetration and drug delivery by using measurements combination between CryoTEM and fluorescence studies.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Lithography, biomedical study models, photo induced polymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 391