Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5427

Search results for: crystal growth

5427 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto


Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: model predictive control, optimal control, process control, crystal growth

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5426 Shaped Crystal Growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al Alloy Plates by the Micro Pulling down Method

Authors: Kei Kamada, Rikito Murakami, Masahiko Ito, Mototaka Arakawa, Yasuhiro Shoji, Toshiyuki Ueno, Masao Yoshino, Akihiro Yamaji, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Yuui Yokota, Yuji Ohashi, Akira Yoshikawa


Techniques of energy harvesting y have been widely developed in recent years, due to high demand on the power supply for ‘Internet of things’ devices such as wireless sensor nodes. In these applications, conversion technique of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using magnetostrictive materials n have been brought to attention. Among the magnetostrictive materials, Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are attractive materials due to the figure of merits such price, mechanical strength, high magnetostrictive constant. Up to now, bulk crystals of these alloys are produced by the Bridgman–Stockbarger method or the Czochralski method. Using these method big bulk crystal up to 2~3 inch diameter can be grown. However, non-uniformity of chemical composition along to the crystal growth direction cannot be avoid, which results in non-uniformity of magnetostriction constant and reduction of the production yield. The micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method has been developed as a shaped crystal growth technique. Our group have reported shaped crystal growth of oxide, fluoride single crystals with different shape such rod, plate tube, thin fiber, etc. Advantages of this method is low segregation due to high growth rate and small diffusion of melt at the solid-liquid interface, and small kerf loss due to near net shape crystal. In this presentation, we report the shaped long plate crystal growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys using the μ-PD method. Alloy crystals were grown by the μ-PD method using calcium oxide crucible and induction heating system under the nitrogen atmosphere. The bottom hole of crucibles was 5 x 1mm² size. A <100> oriented iron-based alloy was used as a seed crystal. 5 x 1 x 320 mm³ alloy crystal plates were successfully grown. The results of crystal growth, chemical composition analysis, magnetostrictive properties and a prototype vibration energy harvester are reported. Furthermore, continuous crystal growth using powder supply system will be reported to minimize the chemical composition non-uniformity along the growth direction.

Keywords: crystal growth, micro-pulling-down method, Fe-Ga, Fe-Al

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5425 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik


Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

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5424 Gap Formation into Bulk InSb Crystals Grown by the VDS Technique Revealing Enhancement in the Transport Properties

Authors: Dattatray Gadkari, Dilip Maske, Manisha Joshi, Rashmi Choudhari, Brij Mohan Arora


The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been applied to the growth of bulk InSb crystals. The concept of practical stability is applied to the case of detached bulk crystal growth on earth in a simplified design. By optimization of the set up and growth parameters, 32 ingots of 65-75 mm in length and 10-22 mm in diameter have been grown. The results indicate that the wetting angle of the melt on the ampoule wall and the pressure difference across the interface are the crucial factors effecting the meniscus shape and stability. Taking into account both heat transfer and capillarity, it is demonstrated that the process is stable in case of convex menisci (seen from melt), provided that pressure fluctuations remain in a stable range. During the crystal growth process, it is necessary to keep a relationship between the rate of the difference pressure controls and the solidification to maintain the width of gas gap. It is concluded that practical stability gives valuable knowledge of the dynamics and could be usefully applied to other crystal growth processes, especially those involving capillary shaping. Optoelectronic properties were investigated in relation to the type of solidification attached and detached ingots growth. These samples, room temperature physical properties such as Hall mobility, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and microhardness achieved for antimonide samples grown by VDS technique have shown the highest values gained till at this time. These results reveal that these crystals can be used to produce InSb with high mobility for device applications.

Keywords: alloys, electronic materials, semiconductors, crystal growth, solidification, etching, optical microscopy, crystal structure, defects, Hall effect

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5423 Growth of Struvite Crystals in Synthetic Urine Using Magnesium Nitrate

Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Urine diversion toilets have become popular as a means of solving the challenges in sanitation. As a result, the source-separated urine must be adequately treated so that it can be disposed of safely and valuable struvite can be extracted for use as fertilizer. In this study, synthetic urine was prepared, and struvite crystallisation experiments carried out using magnesium nitrate. The effect of residence time on crystal growth was studied. At residence time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes, mean particle sizes were 17, 34 and 53 µm showing that with higher residence times, larger crystal sizes can be achieved. SEM analysis of the crystal showed that the resultant crystals had the typical morphology of struvite crystals.

Keywords: struvite, magnesium nitrate, crystallisation, urine treatment

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5422 Numerical Design and Characterization of SiC Single Crystals Obtained with PVT Method

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in Physical Vapor Transport reactor during silicon carbide single crystal growth are addressed. Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap material with unique properties making it highly applicable for high power electronics applications. Because of high manufacturing costs improvements of SiC production process are required. In this study, numerical simulations were used as a tool of process optimization. Computer modeling allows for cost and time effective analysis of processes occurring during SiC single crystal growth and provides essential information needed for improvement of the process. Quantitative relationship between process conditions, such as temperature or pressure, and crystal growth rate and shape of crystallization front have been studied and verified using experimental data. Basing on modeling results, several process improvements were proposed and implemented.

Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, Physica Vapor Transport, silicon carbide

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5421 Modeling and Characterization of the SiC Single Crystal Growth Process

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study numerical simulations silicon carbide single crystal growth process in Physical Vapor Transport reactor are addressed. Silicon Carbide is a perspective material for many applications in modern electronics. One of the main challenges for wider applications of SiC is high price of high quality mono crystals. Improvement of silicon carbide manufacturing process has a significant influence on the product price. Better understanding of crystal growth allows for optimization of the process, and it can be achieved by numerical simulations. In this work Virtual Reactor software was used to simulate the process. Predicted geometrical properties of the final product and information about phenomena occurring inside process reactor were obtained. The latter is especially valuable because reactor chamber is inaccessible during the process due to high temperature inside the reactor (over 2000˚C). Obtained data was used for improvement of the process and reactor geometry. Resultant crystal quality was also predicted basing on crystallization front shape evolution and threading dislocation paths. Obtained results were confronted with experimental data and the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, Physical Vapor Transport, silicon carbide

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5420 Numerical Design and Characterization of MOVPE Grown Nitride Based Semiconductors

Authors: J. Skibinski, P. Caban, T. Wejrzanowski, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S are addressed. The aim of this study was to design the optimal fluid flow and thermal conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product. Since there are many agents influencing reactions on the crystal growth area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. Variations of process pressure and hydrogen mass flow rates have been considered. According to the fact that it’s impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, detailed 3D modeling has been used to get an insight of the process conditions. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in the numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate. The present approach has been applied to enhance the performance of AIX-200/4RF-S reactor.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, finite volume method, epitaxial growth, gallium nitride

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5419 Grain Selection in Spiral Grain Selectors during Casting Single-Crystal Turbine Blades

Authors: M. Javahar, H. B. Dong


Single crystal components manufactured using Ni-base Superalloys are routinely used in the hot sections of aero engines and industrial gas turbines due to their outstanding high temperature strength, toughness and resistance to degradation in corrosive and oxidative environments. To control the quality of the single crystal turbine blades, particular attention has been paid to grain selection, which is used to obtain the single crystal morphology from a plethora of columnar grains. For this purpose, different designs of grain selectors are employed and the most common type is the spiral grain selector. A typical spiral grain selector includes a starter block and a spiral (helix) located above. It has been found that the grains with orientation well aligned to the thermal gradient survive in the starter block by competitive grain growth while the selection of the single crystal grain occurs in the spiral part. In the present study, 2D spiral selectors with different geometries were designed and produced using a state-of-the-art Bridgeman Directional Solidification casting furnace to investigate the competitive growth during grain selection in 2d grain selectors. The principal advantage of using a 2-D selector is to facilitate the wax injection process in investment casting by enabling significant degree of automation. The automation within the process can be derived by producing 2D grain selector wax patterns parts using a split die (metal mold model) coupled with wax injection stage. This will not only produce the part with high accuracy but also at an acceptable production rate.

Keywords: grain selector, single crystal, directional solidification, CMSX-4 superalloys, investment casting

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5418 The Experimental Study on Reducing and Carbonizing Titanium-Containing Slag by Iron-Containing Coke

Authors: Yadong Liu


The experimental study on reduction carbonization of coke containing iron respectively with the particle size of <0.3mm, 0.3-0.6mm and 0.6-0.9mm and synthetic sea sand ore smelting reduction titanium-bearing slag as material were studied under the conditions of holding 6h at most at 1500℃. The effects of coke containing iron particle size and heat preservation time on the formation of TiC and the size of TiC crystal were studied by XRD, SEM and EDS. The results show that it is not good for the formation, concentration and growth of TiC crystal when the particle size of coke containing iron is too small or too large. The suitable particle size is 0.3~0.6mm. The heat preservation time of 2h basically ensures that all the component TiO2 in the slag are reduced and carbonized and converted to TiC. The size of TiC crystal will increase with the prolongation of heat preservation time. The thickness of the TiC layer can reach 20μm when the heat preservation time is 6h.

Keywords: coke containing iron, formation and concentration and growth of TiC, reduction and carbonization, titanium-bearing slag

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5417 Performances of the Double-Crystal Setup at CERN SPS Accelerator for Physics beyond Colliders Experiments

Authors: Andrii Natochii


We are currently presenting the recent results from the CERN accelerator facilities obtained in the frame of the UA9 Collaboration. The UA9 experiment investigates how a tiny silicon bent crystal (few millimeters long) can be used for various high-energy physics applications. Due to the huge electrostatic field (tens of GV/cm) between crystalline planes, there is a probability for charged particles, impinging the crystal, to be trapped in the channeling regime. It gives a possibility to steer a high intensity and momentum beam by bending the crystal: channeled particles will follow the crystal curvature and deflect on the certain angle (from tens microradians for LHC to few milliradians for SPS energy ranges). The measurements at SPS, performed in 2017 and 2018, confirmed that the protons deflected by the first crystal, inserted in the primary beam halo, can be caught and channeled by the second crystal. In this configuration, we measure the single pass deflection efficiency of the second crystal and prove our opportunity to perform the fixed target experiment at SPS accelerator (LHC in the future).

Keywords: channeling, double-crystal setup, fixed target experiment, Timepix detector

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5416 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: S. Abd Rahim, F. A. Rahman, E. M. Nasir, N. A. Ramle


Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: co-crystal, dicarboxylic acid, carbamazepine, industry

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5415 A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate

Authors: Arpit Bhardwaj, Koushik Roy


The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.

Keywords: free vibration, multilayered plates, surface loading, quasicrystals

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5414 Modeling and Experimental Verification of Crystal Growth Kinetics in Glass Forming Alloys

Authors: Peter K. Galenko, Stefanie Koch, Markus Rettenmayr, Robert Wonneberger, Evgeny V. Kharanzhevskiy, Maria Zamoryanskaya, Vladimir Ankudinov


We analyze the structure of undercooled melts, crystal growth kinetics and amorphous/crystalline microstructure of rapidly solidifying glass-forming Pd-based and CuZr-based alloys. A dendrite growth model is developed using a combination of the kinetic phase-field model and mesoscopic sharp interface model. The model predicts features of crystallization kinetics in alloys from thermodynamically controlled growth (governed by the Gibbs free energy change on solidification) to the kinetically limited regime (governed by atomic attachment-detachment processes at the solid/liquid interface). Comparing critical undercoolings observed in the crystallization kinetics with experimental data on melt viscosity, atomistic simulation's data on liquid microstructure and theoretically predicted dendrite growth velocity allows us to conclude that the dendrite growth kinetics strongly depends on the cluster structure changes of the melt. The obtained data of theoretical and experimental investigations are used for interpretation of microstructure of samples processed in electro-magnetic levitator on board International Space Station in the frame of the project "MULTIPHAS" (European Space Agency and German Aerospace Center, 50WM1941) and "KINETIKA" (ROSKOSMOS).

Keywords: dendrite, kinetics, model, solidification

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5413 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura


The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function

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5412 Thiourea: Single Crystal with Non Linear Optical Characteristics

Authors: Kishor C. Poria, Deepak Adroja, Arvind Bajaj


During the last few decades, the growth of single crystals has attained enormous importance for both academic research and technology. Single crystals are pillars of modern technology. In recent emerging trends of photonics and optoelectronics technology, there has been increased need for organic and semi organic materials for Non-Linear Optical (NLO) applications. The paper dealt with the initiation of good single crystals of thiourea and metal doped thiourea. The authors have successfully grown thiourea (pure) and metal doped thiourea crystals using relatively simple and inexpensive slow evaporation of aqueous solution technique. Pure thiourea crystals were grown with different light intensities and frequencies as there growth conditions. Metals (Cu, Co, Ni, Fe) doped crystals were grown using a simple evaporation technique. The paper explains growth methods and associated grown parameters in detail. The average size of the crystal is varied in size from 40 mm x 1mm to 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm to 0.5 mm. Crystals obtained are hexagonal, tetragonal, and rectangular in shape with different optical qualities. All grown crystals are characterized using X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry. Their non-linear optical characteristics were determined by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and their Laser Dispersive analysis. The grown crystals are characterized using Nd:YAG laser and the highest conversion efficiency of the signal pass light are calculated. It shows 58 % of standard values for KDP crystals. All results are summarized in this work.

Keywords: crystal, metal-doped thiourea, non-linear optical, NLO, thiourea

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5411 The Catalytic Activity of CU2O Microparticles

Authors: Kanda Wongwailikhit


Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of a surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to a study of the catalytic activity and the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction was observed. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and the decrease of reactant with respect to time was measured using a spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of the crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for the crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.

Keywords: copper (I) oxide, catalytic activity, crystal violet

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5410 Applying the Crystal Model Approach on Light Nuclei for Calculating Radii and Density Distribution

Authors: A. Amar


A new model, namely the crystal model, has been modified to calculate the radius and density distribution of light nuclei up to ⁸Be. The crystal model has been modified according to solid-state physics, which uses the analogy between nucleon distribution and atoms distribution in the crystal. The model has analytical analysis to calculate the radius where the density distribution of light nuclei has obtained from analogy of crystal lattice. The distribution of nucleons over crystal has been discussed in a general form. The equation that has been used to calculate binding energy was taken from the solid-state model of repulsive and attractive force. The numbers of the protons were taken to control repulsive force, where the atomic number was responsible for the attractive force. The parameter has been calculated from the crystal model was found to be proportional to the radius of the nucleus. The density distribution of light nuclei was taken as a summation of two clusters distribution as in ⁶Li=alpha+deuteron configuration. A test has been done on the data obtained for radius and density distribution using double folding for d+⁶,⁷Li with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction. Good agreement has been obtained for both the radius and density distribution of light nuclei. The model failed to calculate the radius of ⁹Be, so modifications should be done to overcome discrepancy.

Keywords: nuclear physics, nuclear lattice, study nucleus as crystal, light nuclei till to ⁸Be

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5409 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada


Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) – nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure, phase transitions

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5408 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri


We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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5407 Growth Patterns of Pyrite Crystals Studied by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD)

Authors: Kirsten Techmer, Jan-Erik Rybak, Simon Rudolph


Natural formed pyrites (FeS2) are frequent sulfides in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Growth textures of idiomorphic pyrite assemblages reflect the conditions during their formation in the geologic sequence, furtheron the local texture analyses of the growth patterns of pyrite assemblages by EBSD reveal the possibility to resolve the growth conditions during the formation of pyrite at the micron scale. The spatial resolution of local texture measurements in the Scanning Electron Microscope used can be in the nanomete scale. Orientation contrasts resulting from domains of smaller misorientations within larger pyrite crystals can be resolved as well. The electron optical studies have been carried out in a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FEI Quanta 200) equipped with a CCD camera to study the orientation contrasts along the surfaces of pyrite. Idiomorphic cubic single crystals of pyrite, polycrystalline assemblages of pyrite, spherically grown spheres of pyrite as well as pyrite-bearing ammonites have been studied by EBSD in the Scanning Electron Microscope. Samples were chosen to show no or minor secondary deformation and an idiomorphic 3D crystal habit, so the local textures of pyrite result mainly from growth and minor from deformation. The samples studied derived from Navajun (Spain), Chalchidiki (Greece), Thüringen (Germany) and Unterkliem (Austria). Chemical analyses by EDAX show pyrite with minor inhomogeneities e.g., single crystals of galena and chalcopyrite along the grain boundaries of larger pyrite crystals. Intergrowth between marcasite and pyrite can be detected in one sample. Pyrite may form intense growth twinning lamellae on {011}. Twinning, e.g., contact twinning is abundant within the crystals studied and the individual twinning lamellaes can be resolved by EBSD. The ammonites studied show a replacement of the shale by newly formed pyrite resulting in an intense intergrowth of calcite and pyrite. EBSD measurements indicate a polycrystalline microfabric of both minerals, still reflecting primary surface structures of the ammonites e.g, the Septen. Discs of pyrite (“pyrite dollar”) as well as pyrite framboids show growth patterns comprising a typical microfabric. EBSD studies reveal an equigranular matrix in the inner part of the discs of pyrite and a fiber growth with larger misorientations in the outer regions between the individual segments. This typical microfabric derived from a formation of pyrite crystals starting at a higher nucleation rate and followed by directional crystal growth. EBSD studies show, that the growth texture of pyrite in the samples studied reveals a correlation between nucleation rate and following growth rate of the pyrites, thus leading to the characteristic crystal habits. Preferential directional growth at lower nucleation rates may lead to the formation of 3D framboids of pyrite. Crystallographic misorientations between the individual fibers are similar. In ammonites studied, primary anisotropies of the substrates like e.g., ammonitic sutures, influence the nucleation, crystal growth and habit of the newly formed pyrites along the surfaces.

Keywords: Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD), growth pattern, Fe-sulfides (pyrite), texture analyses

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5406 Synthesis, Growth, Characterization and Quantum Chemical Investigations of an Organic Single Crystal: 2-Amino- 4-Methylpyridinium Quinoline- 2-Carboxylate

Authors: Anitha Kandasamy, Thirumurugan Ramaiah


Interestingly, organic materials exhibit large optical nonlinearity with quick responses and having the flexibility of molecular tailoring using computational modelling and favourable synthetic methodologies. Pyridine based organic compounds and carboxylic acid contained aromatic compounds play a crucial role in crystal engineering of NCS complexes that displays admirable optical nonlinearity with fast response and favourable physicochemical properties such as low dielectric constant, wide optical transparency and large laser damage threshold value requires for optoelectronics device applications. Based on these facts, it was projected to form an acentric molecule of π-conjugated system interaction with appropriately replaced electron donor and acceptor groups for achieving higher SHG activity in which quinoline-2-carboyxlic acid is chosen as an electron acceptor and capable of acting as an acid as well as a base molecule, while 2-amino-4-methylpyridine is used as an electron donor and previously employed in numerous proton transfer complexes for synthesis of NLO materials for optoelectronic applications. 2-amino-4-mehtylpyridinium quinoline-2-carboxylate molecular complex (2AQ) is having π-donor-acceptor groups in which 2-amino-4-methylpyridine donates one of its electron to quinoline -2-carboxylic acid thereby forming a protonated 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium moiety and mono ionized quinoline-2-carboxylate moiety which are connected via N-H…O intermolecular interactions with non-centrosymmetric crystal packing arrangement at microscopic scale is accountable to the enhancement of macroscopic second order NLO activity. The 2AQ crystal was successfully grown by a slow evaporation solution growth technique and its structure was determined in orthorhombic crystal system with acentric, P212121, space group. Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that O…H intermolecular interactions primarily contributed with 31.0 % to the structural stabilization of 2AQ. The molecular structure of title compound has been confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. The vibrational modes of functional groups present in 2AQ have been assigned by using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The grown 2AQ crystal exhibits high optical transparency with lower cut-off wavelength (275 nm) within the region of 275-1500 nm. The laser study confirmed that 2AQ exhibits high SHG efficiency of 12.6 times greater than that of KDP. TGA-DTA analysis revealed that 2AQ crystal had a thermal stability of 223 °C. The low dielectric constant and low dielectric loss at higher frequencies confirmed good crystalline nature with fewer defects of grown 2AQ crystal. The grown crystal exhibits soft material and positive photoconduction behaviour. Mulliken atomic distribution and FMOs analysis suggested that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding which lead to the enhancement of NLO activity. These properties suggest that 2AQ crystal is a suitable material for optoelectronic and laser frequency conversion applications.

Keywords: crystal growth, NLO activity, proton transfer complex, quantum chemical investigation

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5405 Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-Water Based Slurry

Authors: Jun Li, Wenze Wang, Zhanggui Hu, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo


Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide were add in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.

Keywords: non-water based slurry, LBO crystal, fixed abrasive polishing, surface roughness

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5404 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Grown by Modified Chemical Surface Deposition Method

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali


We report on deposition of smooth, pinhole-free, low-surface roughness ( < 4nm) and high optical quality cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates using our new method based on chemical surface deposition principle. In this method, cadmium acetate and thiourea are used as reactants under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-vis transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. Interestingly, we found that XRD pattern of the deposited films has dramatically changed when the growth temperature was raised during the reaction. Namely, the XRD measurements reveal a structural change of CdS film from Cubic to Hexagonal phase upon increase in the growth temperature from 75 °C to 200 °C. Furthermore, the deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed from observation of both sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Also, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap and crystal structure of the deposited CdS films; can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands alignments between CdS and other light harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of all-solution processed solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: thin film, CdS, new method, optical properties

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5403 The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixedspin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferromagnetic System

Authors: Fathi Abubrig, Mohamed Delfag, Suad Abuzariba


The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferromagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.

Keywords: crystal field, Ising system, ferromagnetic, magnetization, phase diagrams

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5402 Sorption of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan−Charcoal Composite

Authors: Kingsley Izuagbe Ikeke, Abayomi O. Adetuyi


The study investigated the removal efficiency of crystal violet from aqueous solution using chitosan-charcoal composite as adsorbent. Deproteination was carried out by placing 200g of powdered snail shell in 4% w/v NaOH for 2hours. The sample was then placed in 1% HCl for 24 hours to remove CaCO3. Deacetylation was done by boiling in 50% NaOH for 2hours. 10% Oxalic acid was used to dissolve the chitosan before mixing with charcoal at 55°C to form the composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying pH of the solution, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal of crystal violet by composite and activated charcoal was attained at pH10 while maximum removal of crystal violet by chitosan was achieved at pH 8. The results showed that adsorption of both dyes followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data showed that composite was best suited for crystal violet removal and also did relatively well in the removal of alizarin red. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔHº), free energy change (ΔGº) and entropy change (ΔSº) indicate that adsorption process of Crystal Violet was endothermic, spontaneous and feasible respectively.

Keywords: crystal violet, chitosan−charcoal composite, extraction process, sorption

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5401 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz


A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

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5400 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Nucleating Agents

Authors: Rabindranath Jana, Plabani Basu, Keka Rana


Nucleating agents are widely used to modify the properties of various polymers. The rate of crystallization and the size of the crystals have a strong impact on mechanical and optical properties of a polymer. The addition of nucleating agents to the semi-crystalline polymers provides a surface on which the crystal growth can start easily. As a consequence, fast crystal formation will result in many small crystal domains so that the cycle times for injection molding may be reduced. Moreover, the mechanical properties e.g., modulus, tensile strength, heat distortion temperature and hardness may increase. In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as nucleating agents for the crystallization of poly (e-caprolactone)diol (PCL). Thus nanocomposites of PCL filled with MWNTs were prepared by solution blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were carried out to study the effect of CNTs on on-isothermal crystallization of PCL. The polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to study the morphology and crystal structure of PCL and its nanocomposites. It is found that MWNTs act as effective nucleating agents that significantly shorten the induction period of crystallization and however, decrease the crystallization rate of PCL, exhibiting a remarkable decrease in the Avrami exponent n, surface folding energy σe and crystallization activation energy ΔE. The carbon-based fillers act as templates for hard block chains of PCL to form an ordered structure on the surface of nanoparticles during the induction period, bringing about some increase in equilibrium temperature. The melting process of PCL and its nanocomposites are also studied; the nanocomposites exhibit two melting peaks at higher crystallization temperature which mainly refer to the melting of the crystals with different crystal sizes however, PCL shows only one melting temperature.

Keywords: poly(e-caprolactone)diol, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, composite materials, nonisothermal crystallization, crystal structure, nucleation

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5399 Cell Response on the Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface after Nanotubes Growth

Authors: Ana Paula Rosifini Alves Claro, André Luiz Reis Rangel, Nathan Trujillo, Ketul C. Popat


In the present work, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated after nanotubes growth on Ti15Mo alloy surface. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodizing technique at room temperature in an electrolyte with 0.25 %NH4F and glycerol at a constant anodic potential of 20 V for 24 hours. The morphology of nanotubes was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM; XL 30 FEG, Philips). Crystal structure was analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction. A cell culture model using human fibroblast-like cells was used to study the effect of TiO2 nanotubes growth on the cytotoxicity of the Ti15Mo alloy for 1, 4 and 7 days culture period. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and cell adhesion was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Ti15Mo alloy with TiO2 nanotubes on surface is nontoxic and exhibit good interaction with surface.

Keywords: titanium alloys, TiO2 nanotubes, cell growth, Ti-15Mo alloy

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5398 Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate

Authors: B. Donkova, M. Nedyalkova, D. Mehandjiev


Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).

Keywords: crystal structure, magnetic properties, manganese oxalate, thermal behavior

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